Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

biosurfactants Related Abstracts

6 LIFirr with an Indicator of Microbial Activity in Paraffinic Oil

Authors: M. P. Casiraghi, C. M. Quintella, P. Almeida

Abstract:

Paraffinic oils were submitted to microbial action. The microorganisms consisted of bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas sp and Bacillus lincheniforms. The alterations in interfacial tension were determined using a tensometer and applying the hanging drop technique at room temperature (299 K ±275 K). The alteration in the constitution of the paraffins was evaluated by means of gas chromatography. The microbial activity was observed to reduce interfacial tension by 54 to 78%, as well as consuming the paraffins C19 to C29 and producing paraffins C36 to C44. The LIFirr technique made it possible to determine the microbial action quickly.

Keywords: microbial activity, paraffins, biosurfactants, LIFirr

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5 Biosurfactants Production by Bacillus Strain from an Environmental Sample in Egypt

Authors: Mervat Kassem, Nourhan Fanaki, F. Dabbous, Hamida Abou-Shleib, Y. R. Abdel-Fattah

Abstract:

With increasing environmental awareness and emphasis on a sustainable society in harmony with the global environment, biosurfactants are gaining prominence and have already taken over for a number of important industrial uses. They are produced by living organisms, for examples Pseudomonas aeruginosa which produces rhamnolipids, Candida (formerly Torulopsis) bombicola, which produces high yields of sophorolipids from vegetable oils and sugars and Bacillus subtilis which produces a lipopeptide called surfactin. The main goal of this work was to optimize biosurfactants production by an environmental Gram positive isolate for large scale production with maximum yield and low cost. After molecular characterization, phylogenetic tree was constructed where it was found to be B. subtilis, which close matches to B. subtilis subsp. subtilis strain CICC 10260. For optimizing its biosurfactants production, sequential statistical design using Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology, was applied where 11 variables were screened. When analyzing the regression coefficients for the 11 variables, pH, glucose, glycerol, yeast extract, ammonium chloride and ammonium nitrate were found to have a positive effect on the biosurfactants production. Ammonium nitrate, pH and glucose were further studied as significant independent variables for Box-Behnken design and their optimal levels were estimated and were found to be 7.328 pH value, 3 g% glucose and 0.21g % ammonium nitrate yielding high biosurfactants concentration that reduced the surface tension of the culture medium from 72 to 18.16 mN/m. Next, kinetics of cell growth and biosurfactants production by the tested B. subtilis isolate, in bioreactor was compared with that of shake flask where the maximum growth and specific growth (µ) in the bioreactor was higher by about 25 and 53%, respectively, than in shake flask experiment, while the biosurfactants production kinetics was almost the same in both shake flask and bioreactor experiments.

Keywords: Plackett-Burman design, Box-Behnken design, biosurfactants, B. subtilis, molecular identification, phylogenetic trees

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4 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

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3 Potential Applications of Biosurfactants from Corn Steep Liquor in Cosmetic

Authors: J. M. Cruz, A. B. Moldes, J. M. Domínguez, X. Vecıno, L. Rodrıguez-López

Abstract:

The cosmetic and personal care industry are the fields where biosurfactants could have more possibilities of success because in this kind of products the replacement of synthetic detergents by natural surfactants will provide an additional added value to the product, at the same time that the harmful effects produced by some synthetic surfactants could be avoided or reduced. Therefore, nowadays, consumers are disposed to pay and additional cost if they obtain more natural products. In this work we provide data about the potential of biosurfactants in the cosmetic and personal care industry. Biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, that is a fermented and condensed stream, have showed good surface-active properties, reducing substantially the surface tension of water. The bacteria that usually growth in corn steep liquor comprises Lactobacillus species, generally recognize as safe. The biosurfactant extracted from CSL consists of a lipopeptide, composed by fatty acids, which can reduce the surface tension of water in more than 30 units. It is a yellow and viscous liquid with a density of 1.053 mg/mL and pH=4. By these properties, they could be introduced in the formulation of cosmetic creams, hair conditioners or shampoos. Moreover this biosurfactant extracted from corn steep liquor, have showed a potent antimicrobial effect on different strains of Streptococcus. Some species of Streptococcus are commonly found weakly living in the human respiratory and genitourinary systems, producing several diseases in humans, including skin diseases. For instance, Streptococcus pyogenes produces many toxins and enzymes that help to stabilize skin infections; probably biosurfactants from corn steep liquor can inhibit the mechanisms of the S. pyogenes enzymes. S. pyogenes is an important cause of pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis and necrotizing fasciitis. In this work it was observed that 50 mg/L of biosurfactant extract obtained from corn steep liquor is able to inhibit more than 50% the growth of S. pyogenes. Thus, cosmetic and personal care products, formulated with biosurfactants from corn steep liquor, could have prebiotic properties. The natural biosurfactant presented in this work and obtained from corn milling industry streams, have showed a high potential to provide an interesting and sustainable alternative to those, antibacterial and surfactant ingredients used in cosmetic and personal care manufacture, obtained by chemical synthesis, which can cause irritation, and often only show short time effects.

Keywords: Cosmetic, Personal Care, Antimicrobial activity, biosurfactants

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2 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biodegradation, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, lagoon Marchika, emulsification index

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1 Biosurfactants Produced by Antarctic Bacteria with Hydrocarbon Cleaning Activity

Authors: Claudio Lamilla, Leticia Barrientos, Misael Riquelme, Victoria Saez, Fernanda Sepulveda, Monica Pavez

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are compounds synthesized by microorganisms that show various chemical structures, including glycolipids, lipopeptides, polysaccharide-protein complex, phospholipids, and fatty acids. These molecules have attracted attention in recent years due to the amphipathic nature of these compounds, which allows their application in various activities related to emulsification, foaming, detergency, wetting, dispersion and solubilization of hydrophobic compounds. Microorganisms that produce biosurfactants are ubiquitous, not only present in water, soil, and sediments but in extreme conditions of pH, salinity or temperature such as those present in Antarctic ecosystems. Due to this, it is of interest to study biosurfactants producing bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with the potential to be used in various biotechnological processes. The objective of this research was to characterize biosurfactants produced by bacterial strains isolated from Antarctic environments, with potential use in biotechnological processes for the cleaning of sites contaminated with hydrocarbons. The samples were collected from soils and sediments in the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula, during the Antarctic Research Expedition INACH 2016, from both pristine and human occupied areas (influenced). The bacteria isolation was performed from solid R2A, M1 and LB media. The selection of strains producing biosurfactants was done by hemolysis test on blood agar plates (5%) and blue agar (CTAB). From 280 isolates, it was determined that 10 bacterial strains produced biosurfactants after stimulation with different carbon sources. 16S rDNA taxonomic markers, using the universal primers 27F-1492R, were used to identify these bacterias. Biosurfactants production was carried out in 250 ml flasks using Bushnell Hass liquid culture medium enriched with different carbon sources (olive oil, glucose, glycerol, and hexadecane) during seven days under constant stirring at 20°C. Each cell-free supernatant was characterized by physicochemical parameters including drop collapse, emulsification and oil displacement, as well as stability at different temperatures, salinity, and pH. In addition, the surface tension of each supernatant was quantified using a tensiometer. The strains with the highest activity were selected, and the production of biosurfactants was stimulated in six liters of culture medium. Biosurfactants were extracted from the supernatants with chloroform methanol (2:1). These biosurfactants were tested against crude oil and motor oil, to evaluate their displacement activity (detergency). The characterization by physicochemical properties of 10 supernatants showed that 80% of them produced the drop collapse, 60% had stability at different temperatures, and 90% had detergency activity in motor and olive oil. The biosurfactants obtained from two bacterial strains showed a high activity of dispersion of crude oil and motor oil with halos superior to 10 cm. We can conclude that bacteria isolated from Antarctic soils and sediments provide biological material of high quality for the production of biosurfactants, with potential applications in the biotechnological industry, especially in hydrocarbons -contaminated areas such as petroleum.

Keywords: Hydrocarbons, Bacteria, antarctic, biosurfactants

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