Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

biosurfactant Related Abstracts

15 Screening of Minimal Salt Media for Biosurfactant Production by Bacillus spp.

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, A. E. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bemani, S. J. Joshi, A. K. Al-Bahri

Abstract:

Crude oil is a major source of global energy. The major problem is its widespread use and demand resulted is in increasing environmental pollution. One associated pollution problem is ‘oil spills’. Oil spills can be remediated with the use of chemical dispersants, microbial biodegradation and microbial metabolites such as biosurfactants. Four different minimal salt media for biosurfactant production by Bacillus isolated from oil contaminated sites from Oman were screened. These minimal salt media were supplemented with either glucose or sucrose as a carbon source. Among the isolates, W16 and B30 produced the most active biosurfactants. Isolate W16 produced better biosurfactant than the rest, and reduced surface tension (ST) and interfacial tension (IFT) to 25.26mN/m and 2.29mN/m respectively within 48h which are characteristics for removal of oil in contaminated sites. Biosurfactant was produced in bulk and extracted using acid precipitation method. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of acid precipitate biosurfactant revealed two concentrated bands. Further studies of W16 biosurfactant in bioremediation of oil spills are recommended.

Keywords: Remediation, Interfacial tension, surface tension, oil contamination, Bacillus spp, biosurfactant

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14 Isolation and Identification of Biosurfactant Producing Microorganism for Bioaugmentation

Authors: Karthick Gopalan, Selvamohan Thankiah

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are lipid compounds produced by microbes, which are amphipathic molecules consisting of hydrophophic and hydrophilic domains. In the present investigation, ten bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites near petrol bunk. Oil collapsing test, haemolytic activity were used as a criteria for primary isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria. In this study, all the bacterial strains gave positive results. Among the ten strains, two were observed as good biosurfactant producers, they utilize the diesel as a sole carbon source. Optimization of biosurfactant producing bacteria isolated from petroleum oil contaminated sites was carried out using different parameters such as, temperature (20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC, 37ºC and 45ºC), pH (5,6,7,8 & 9) and nitrogen sources (ammonium chloride, ammonium carbonate and sodium nitrate). Biosurfactants produced by bacteria were extracted, dried and quantified. As a result of optimization of parameters the suitable values for the production of more amount of biosurfactant by the isolated bacterial species was observed as 30ºC (0.543 gm/lt) in the pH 7 (0.537 gm/lt) with ammonium nitrate (0.431 gm/lt) as sole carbon source.

Keywords: Microorganism, Bioaugmentation, biosurfactant, isolation and identification

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13 Removal of Heavy Metals Pb, Zn and Cu from Sludge Waste of Paper Industries Using Biosurfactant

Authors: Nurul Hidayati

Abstract:

Increasing public awareness of environmental pollution influences the search and development of technologies that help in clean up of organic and inorganic contaminants such as metals. Sludge waste of paper industries as toxic and hazardous material from specific source contains Pb, Zn, and Cu metal from waste soluble ink. An alternative and eco-friendly method of remediation technology is the use of biosurfactants and biosurfactant-producing microorganisms. Soil washing is among the methods available to remove heavy metal from sediments. The purpose of this research is to study effectiveness of biosurfactant with concentration = CMC for the removal of heavy metals, lead, zinc and copper in batch washing test under four different biosurfactant production by microbial origin. Pseudomonas putida T1(8), Bacillus subtilis 3K, Acinetobacter sp, and Actinobacillus sp was grown on mineral salt medium that had been already added with 2% concentration of molasses that it is a low cost application. The samples were kept in a shaker 120 rpm at room temperature for 3 days. Supernatants and sediments of sludge were separated by using a centrifuge and samples from supernatants were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The highest removal of Pb was up to 14,04% by Acinetobacter sp. Biosurfactant of Pseudomonas putida T1(8) have the highest removal for Zn and Cu up to 6,5% and 2,01% respectively. Biosurfactants have a role for removal process of the metals, including wetting, contact of biosurfactant to the surface of the sediments and detachment of the metals from the sediment. Biosurfactant has proven its ability as a washing agent in heavy metals removal from sediments, but more research is needed to optimize the process of removal heavy metals.

Keywords: biosurfactant, sludge waste, removal of heavy metals, paper industries

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12 Efficacy Enhancement of Hydrophobic Antibiotics Employing Rhamnolipid as Biosurfactant

Authors: Abdurrahim A. Elouzi, Abdurrauf M. Gusbi, Ali M. Elgerbi

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance has become a global public-health problem, thus it is imperative that new antibiotics continue to be developed. Major problems are being experienced in human medicine from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Moreover, no new chemical class of antibiotics has been introduced into medicine in the past two decades. The aim of the current study presents experimental results that evaluate the capability of bio surfactant rhamnolipid on enhancing the efficacy of hydrophobic antibiotics. Serial dilutions of azithromycin and clarithromycin were prepared. A bacterial suspension (approximately 5 X 105 CFU) from an overnight culture in MSM was inoculated into 20 ml sterile test tube each containing a serial 10-fold dilution of the test antibiotic(s) in broth with or without 200 mgL-1 rhamnolipid. The tubes were incubated for 24 h with vigorous shaking at 37°C. Antimicrobial activity in multiple antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria pathogens and gram-positive bacteria were assessed using optical density technique. The results clearly demonstrated that the presence of rhamnolipid significantly improved the efficiency of both antibiotics. We hypothesized that the addition of rhamnolipid at low concentration, causes release of LPS which results in an increase in cell surface hydrophobicity. This allows increased association of cells with hydrophobic antibiotics resulting in increased cytotoxicity rates.

Keywords: biosurfactant, hydrophobic antibiotics, rhamnolipid, azithromycin, clarithromycin

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11 Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibria at an Air-Liquid Interface of Biosurfactant and Synthetic Surfactant

Authors: Sagheer A. Onaizi

Abstract:

The adsorption of anionic biosurfactant (surfactin) and anionic synthetic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonate, abbreviated as SDOBS) from phosphate buffer containing high concentrations of co- and counter-ions to the air-buffer interface has been investigated. The self-assembly of the two surfactants at the interface has been monitored through dynamic surface tension measurements. The equilibrium surface pressure-surfactant concentration data in the premicellar region were regressed using Gibbs adsorption equation. The predicted surface saturations for SDOBS and surfactin are and, respectively. The occupied area per an SDOBS molecule at the interface saturation condition is while that occupied by a surfactin molecule is. The surface saturations reported in this work for both surfactants are in a very good agreement with those obtained using expensive techniques such as neutron reflectometry, suggesting that the surface tension measurements coupled with appropriate theoretical analysis could provide useful information comparable to those obtained using highly sophisticated techniques.

Keywords: Adsorption, surface tension, biosurfactant, air-liquid interface

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10 High Productivity Fed-Batch Process for Biosurfactant Production for Enhanced Oil Recovery Applications

Authors: G. A. Amin, A. D. Al-Talhi

Abstract:

The bacterium B. subtilis produced surfactin in conventional batch culture as a growth associated product and a growth rate (0.4 h-1). A fed-batch process was developed and the fermentative substrate and other nutrients were fed on hourly basis and according to the growth rate of the bacterium. Conversion of different quantities of Maldex-15 into surfactin was investigated in five different fermentation runs. In all runs, most of Maldex-15 was consumed and converted into surfactin and cell biomass with appreciable efficiencies. The best results were obtained with fermentation run supplied with 200 g Maldex-15. Up to 35.4 g.l-1 of surfactin and cell biomass of 30.2 g.l-1 were achieved in 12 hrs. Also, markedly substrate yield of 0.269 g/g and volumetric reactor productivity of 2.61 g.1-1.h-1 were obtained confirming the establishment of a cost effective commercial surfactin production.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, exponentially fed-batch fermentation, surfactin

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9 Enhanced PAHs' Biodegradation by Consortia Developed with Biofilm – Biosurfactant - Producing Microorganisms

Authors: Swapna Guntupalli, Leela Madhuri Chalasani, Kshatri Jyothi, C. V. Rao, Bondili J. S.

Abstract:

The study hypothesizes that enhanced biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) is achievable with an assemblage of microorganisms that are capable of producing biofilm and biosurfactants. Accordingly, PAHs degrading microorganism’s (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes and yeast) were screened and grouped into different consortia based on their capabilities to produce biofilm and biosurfactants. Among these, Consortium BTSN09 consisting of bacterial fungal cocultures showed highest degradation due to the synergistic action between them. Degradation effiencies were evaluated using HPLC and GC-MS. Within 7days, BTSN09 showed 51% and 50.7% degradation of Phenanthrene (PHE) and Pyrene (PYR) with 200mg/L and 100 mg/L concentrations respectively in a liquid medium. In addition, several degradative enzymes like laccases, 1hydroxy-2-naphthoicacid dioxygenase, 2-carboxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase, catechol1,2 dioxygenase and catechol2,3 dioxygenase activity was observed during degradation. Degradation metabolites were identified using GC-MS analysis and from the results it was confirmed that the metabolism of degradation proceeds via pthalic acid pathway for both PAHs. Besides, Microbial consortia also demonstrated good biosurfactant production capacity, achieving maximum oil displacement area and emulsification activity of 19.62 cm2, 65.5% in presence of PAHs as sole carbon source. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis revealed exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, micro and macrocolonies formation with different stages of biofim development in presence of PAHs during degradation.

Keywords: biodegradation, Biofilm, PAHs, biosurfactant

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8 Potential Use of Spore-Forming Biosurfactant Producing Bacteria in Oil-Pollution Bioremediation

Authors: Y. M. Al-Wahaibi, S. N. Al-Bahry, S. J. Joshi, E. A. Elshafie, A. S. Al-Bimani

Abstract:

Oman is one of the oil producing countries in the Arabian Peninsula and the Gulf region. About 30-40 % of oil produced from the Gulf is transported globally along the seacoast of Oman. Oil pollution from normal tanker operations, ballast water, illegal discharges and accidental spills are always serious threats to terrestrial and marine habitats. Due to Oman’s geographical location at arid region where the temperature ranges between high 40s and low 50s Celsius in summers with low annual rainfall, the main source of fresh water is desalinated sea and brackish water. Oil pollution, therefore, pose a major threat to drinking water. Biosurfactants are secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms in hydrophobic environments to release nutrients from solid surfaces, such as oil. In this study, indigenous oil degrading thermophilic spore forming bacteria were isolated from oil fields contaminated soil. The isolates were identified using MALDI-TOF biotyper and 16s RNA. Their growth conditions were optimized for the production of biosurfactant. Surface tension, interfacial tensions and microbial oil biodegradation capabilities were tested. Some thermophilic bacteria degraded either completely or partially heavy crude oil (API 10-15) within 48h suggesting their high potential in oil spill bioremediation and avoiding the commonly used physical and chemical methods which usually lead to other environmental pollution.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bacteria, biosurfactant, crude-oil-pollution

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7 Characterization of Biosurfactant during Crude Oil Biodegradation Employing Pseudomonas sp. PG1: A Strain Isolated from Garage Soil

Authors: Kaustuvmani Patowary, Suresh Deka

Abstract:

Oil pollution accidents, nowadays, have become a common phenomenon and have caused ecological and social disasters. Microorganisms with high oil-degrading performance are essential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon. In this investigation, an effective biosurfactant producer and hydrocarbon degrading bacterial strain, Pseudomonas sp.PG1 (identified by 16s rDNA sequencing) was isolated from hydrocarbon contaminated garage soil of Pathsala, Assam, India, using crude oil enrichment technique. The growth parameters such as pH and temperature were optimized for the strain and upto 81.8% degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) has been achieved after 5 weeks when grown in mineral salt media (MSM) containing 2% (w/v) crude oil as the carbon source. The biosurfactant production during the course of hydrocarbon degradation was monitored by surface tension measurement and emulsification activity. The produced biosurfactant had the ability to decrease the surface tension of MSM from 72 mN/m to 29.6 mN/m, with the critical micelle concentration (CMC)of 56 mg/L. The biosurfactant exhibited 100% emulsification activity on crude oil. FTIR spectroscopy and LCMS-MS analysis of the purified biosurfactant revealed that the biosurfactant is Rhamnolipidic in nature with several rhamnolipid congeners. Gas Chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis clearly demonstrated that the strain PG1 efficiently degrade different hydrocarbon fractions of the crude oil. The study suggeststhat application of the biosurfactant producing strain PG1 as an appropriate candidate for bioremediation of crude oil contaminants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Petroleum Hydrocarbon, biosurfactant, rhamnolipid, hydrocarbon contamination

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6 Alternative Energy and Carbon Source for Biosurfactant Production

Authors: Akram Abi, Mohammad Hossein Sarrafzadeh

Abstract:

Because of their several advantages over chemical surfactants, biosurfactants have given rise to a growing interest in the past decades. Advantages such as lower toxicity, higher biodegradability, higher selectivity and applicable at extreme temperature and pH which enables them to be used in a variety of applications such as: enhanced oil recovery, environmental and pharmaceutical applications, etc. Bacillus subtilis produces a cyclic lipopeptide, called surfactin, which is one of the most powerful biosurfactants with ability to decrease surface tension of water from 72 mN/m to 27 mN/m. In addition to its biosurfactant character, surfactin exhibits interesting biological activities such as: inhibition of fibrin clot formation, lyses of erythrocytes and several bacterial spheroplasts, antiviral, anti-tumoral and antibacterial properties. Surfactin is an antibiotic substance and has been shown recently to possess anti-HIV activity. However, application of biosurfactants is limited by their high production cost. The cost can be reduced by optimizing biosurfactant production using cheap feed stock. Utilization of inexpensive substrates and unconventional carbon sources like urban or agro-industrial wastes is a promising strategy to decrease the production cost of biosurfactants. With suitable engineering optimization and microbiological modifications, these wastes can be used as substrates for large-scale production of biosurfactants. As an effort to fulfill this purpose, in this work we have tried to utilize olive oil as second carbon source and also yeast extract as second nitrogen source to investigate the effect on both biomass and biosurfactant production improvement in Bacillus subtilis cultures. Since the turbidity of the culture was affected by presence of the oil, optical density was compromised and no longer could be used as an index of growth and biomass concentration. Therefore, cell Dry Weight measurements with applying necessary tactics for removing oil drops to prevent interference with biomass weight were carried out to monitor biomass concentration during the growth of the bacterium. The surface tension and critical micelle dilutions (CMD-1, CMD-2) were considered as an indirect measurement of biosurfactant production. Distinctive and promising results were obtained in the cultures containing olive oil compared to cultures without it: more than two fold increase in biomass production (from 2 g/l to 5 g/l) and considerable reduction in surface tension, down to 40 mN/m at surprisingly early hours of culture time (only 5hr after inoculation). This early onset of biosurfactant production in this culture is specially interesting when compared to the conventional cultures at which this reduction in surface tension is not obtained until 30 hour of culture time. Reducing the production time is a very prominent result to be considered for large scale process development. Furthermore, these results can be used to develop strategies for utilization of agro-industrial wastes (such as olive oil mill residue, molasses, etc.) as cheap and easily accessible feed stocks to decrease the high costs of biosurfactant production.

Keywords: Fermentation, biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, surfactin, agro-industrial waste, second carbon and nitrogen source

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5 Degradation of Hydrocarbons by Surfactants and Biosurfactants

Authors: Samira Ferhat, Redha Alouaoui, Leila Trifi, Abdelmalek Badis

Abstract:

The objective of this work is the use of natural surfactant (biosurfactant) and synthetic (sodium dodecyl sulfate and tween 80) for environmental application. In fact the solubility of the polycyclic hydrocarbon (naphthalene) and the desorption of the heavy metals in the presence of surfactants. The microorganisms selected in this work are bacterial strain (Bacillus licheniformis) for the production of biosurfactant for use in this study. In the first part of this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of surfactants solubilization certain hydrocarbons few soluble in water such as polyaromatic (case naphthalene). Tests have shown that from the critical micelle concentration, decontamination is performed. The second part presents the results on the desorption of heavy metals (for copper) by the three surfactants, using concentrations above the critical micelle concentration. The comparison between the desorption of copper by the three surfactants, it is shown that the biosurfactant is more effective than tween 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate.

Keywords: Surfactants, Copper, Desorption, biosurfactant, naphthalene, critical micelle concentration, solubilization

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4 Different Methods of Producing Bioemulsifier by Bacillus licheniformis Strains

Authors: Afshin Farahbakhsh, Saba Pajuhan, S. M. M. Dastgheib

Abstract:

Biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers are a structurally diverse group of surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms, they are amphipathic molecules which reduce surface and interfacial tensions and widely used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and petroleum industries. In this paper, several methods of bioemulsifer synthesis and purification by Bacillus licheniformis strains (namely ACO1, PTCC 1595 and ACO4) were investigated. Strains were grown in nutrient broth with different conditions in order to get maximum production of bioemulsifer. The purification of bio emulsifier and the quality evaluation of the product was done by adding sulfuric acid (H₂SO₄) (98%), Ethanol or HCl to the solution followed by centrifuging. To determine the optimal conditions yielding the highest bioemulsifier production, the effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, NaCl concentration, pH, O₂ levels, incubation time are indispensable and all of them were highly effective in bioemulsifiers production.

Keywords: Purification, Interfacial tension, surface tension, biosurfactant, bioemulsifier

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3 Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Biosurfactants on Residual-Oil Recovery

Authors: G. G. Nasr, S. V. Ukwungwu, A. J. Abbas

Abstract:

The increasing high price of natural gas and oil with attendant increase in energy demand on world markets in recent years has stimulated interest in recovering residual oil saturation across the globe. In order to meet the energy security, efforts have been made in developing new technologies of enhancing the recovery of oil and gas, utilizing techniques like CO2 flooding, water injection, hydraulic fracturing, surfactant flooding etc. Surfactant flooding however optimizes production but poses risk to the environment due to their toxic nature. Amongst proven records that have utilized other type of bacterial in producing biosurfactants for enhancing oil recovery, this research uses a technique to combine biosurfactants that will achieve a scale of EOR through lowering interfacial tension/contact angle. In this study, three biosurfactants were produced from three Bacillus species from freeze dried cultures using sucrose 3 % (w/v) as their carbon source. Two of these produced biosurfactants were screened with the TEMCO Pendant Drop Image Analysis for reduction in IFT and contact angle. Interfacial tension was greatly reduced from 56.95 mN.m-1 to 1.41 mN.m-1 when biosurfactants in cell-free culture (Bacillus licheniformis) were used compared to 4. 83mN.m-1 cell-free culture of Bacillus subtilis. As a result, cell-free culture of (Bacillus licheniformis) changes the wettability of the biosurfactant treatment for contact angle measurement to more water-wet as the angle decreased from 130.75o to 65.17o. The influence of microbial treatment on crushed rock samples was also observed by qualitative wettability experiments. Treated samples with biosurfactants remained in the aqueous phase, indicating a water-wet system. These results could prove that biosurfactants can effectively change the chemistry of the wetting conditions against diverse surfaces, providing a desirable condition for efficient oil transport in this way serving as a mechanism for EOR. The environmental friendly effect of biosurfactants applications for industrial purposes play important advantages over chemically synthesized surfactants, with various possible structures, low toxicity, eco-friendly and biodegradability.

Keywords: Wettability, Enhanced Oil Recovery, bacillus, biosurfactant, residual oil

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2 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

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1 Biosurfactant-Mediated Nanoparticle Synthesis by Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Satya Eswari Jujjavarapu, Swasti Dhagat, Lata Upadhyay, Reecha Sahu

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles have a broad range of antimicrobial and antifungal properties ranging from soaps, pastes to sterilization and drug delivery systems. These can be synthesized by physical, chemical and biological methods; biological methods being the most popular owing to their non-toxic nature and reduced energy requirements. Microbial surfactants, produced on the microbial cell surface or excreted extracellularly are an alternative to synthetic surfactants for the production of silver nanoparticles. Hence, they are also called as green molecules. Microbial lipopeptide surfactants (biosurfactant) exhibit anti-tumor and anti-microbial properties and can be used as drug delivery agents. In this study, biosurfactant was synthesized by using a strain of acillus subtilis. The biosurfactant thus produced was analysed by emulsification assay, oil spilling test, and haemolytic test. Biosurfactant-mediated silver nanoparticles were synthesised by microwave irradiation of the culture supernatant and further characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy for a range of 400-600 nm. The UV–vis spectra showed a surface plasmon resonance vibration band at 410 nm corresponding to the peak of silver nanoparticles.

Keywords: biosurfactant, Bacillus subtilis, silver nano particle, lipopeptide

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