Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

biosorption Related Abstracts

37 Biosorption Kinetics, Isotherms, and Thermodynamic Studies of Copper (II) on Spirogyra sp.

Authors: Diwan Singh


The ability of non-living Spirogyra sp. biomass for biosorption of copper(II) ions from aqueous solutions was explored. The effect of contact time, pH, initial copper ion concentration, biosorbent dosage and temperature were investigated in batch experiments. Both the Freundlich and Langmuir Isotherms were found applicable on the experimental data (R2>0.98). Qmax obtained from the Langmuir Isotherms was found to be 28.7 mg/g of biomass. The values of Gibbs free energy (ΔGº) and enthalpy change (ΔHº) suggest that the sorption is spontaneous and endothermic at 20ºC-40ºC.

Keywords: Dose, biosorption, Spirogyra sp, contact time

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36 Removal of Heavy Metals in Wastewater Treatment System of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Pantip Kayee, Yuwadee Yaponha, Jiranit Pongtubthai


This study focused on the determination of heavy metal concentration in wastewater and the investigation of heavy metal removal of wastewater treatment system of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn) were found in wastewater of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Wastewater treatment systems of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University showed the performance to remove heavy metals. However, heavy metals were still presented in effluent but these residue heavy metals were not over the standard for industrial wastewater. Wastewater treatment system can remove heavy metal by different process such as bioaccumulation by microorganism and biosorption on activated sludge.

Keywords: wastewater, heavy metal, biosorption, bioaccumulation

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35 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

Authors: Pramod Kumar, A. V. N. Swamy, C. V. Sowjanya, C. V. Ramachandra Murthy


Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics.

Keywords: Heavy Metal Ions, biosorption, agitation time, metal uptake, aqueous solution

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34 Biosorption of Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solutions by Plant Biomass

Authors: Yamina Zouambia, Khadidja Youcef Ettoumi, Mohamed Krea, Nadji Moulai Mostefa


Environment pollution through various wastes (particularly by heavy metals) is a major environmental problem due to industrialization and the development of various human activities. Considerable attention has been focused, in recent years, upon the field of biosorption which represents a biotechnological innovation as well as an excellent tool for removal of metal ions from aqueous effluents. So the purpose of this study is to valorize by-product which are orange peels and an extract of these peels (pectin; a heteropolysaccharide) in treatment of water containing heavy metals. All biosorption experiments were carried out at room temperature, an indicated pH, a precise amount of biosorbent and under continuous stirring. Biosorption kinetic was determined by evaluating the residual concentration of the metal ion at different time intervals using UV spectroscopy. The results obtained show that the orange peels and pectin are interesting biosorbents with maximum biosorption capacity of up to 140 mg/g.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, pectin, biosorption, orange peels

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33 Banana Peels as an Eco-Sorbent for Manganese Ions

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud


This study was conducted to evaluate the manganese removal from aqueous solution using Banana peels activated carbon (BPAC). Batch experiments have been carried out to determine the influence of parameters such as pH, biosorbent dose, initial metal ion concentrations and contact times on the biosorption process. From these investigations, a significant increase in percentage removal of manganese 97.4 % is observed at pH value 5.0, biosorbent dose 0.8 g, initial concentration 20 ppm, temperature 25 ± 2 °C, stirring rate 200 rpm and contact time 2 h. The equilibrium concentration and the adsorption capacity at equilibrium of the experimental results were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models; the Langmuir isotherm was found to well represent the measured adsorption data implying BPAC had heterogeneous surface. A raw groundwater samples were collected from Baharmos groundwater treatment plant network at Embaba and Manshiet Elkanater City/District-Giza, Egypt, for treatment at the best conditions that reached at first phase by BPAC. The treatment with BPAC could reduce iron and manganese value of raw groundwater by 91.4 % and 97.1 %, respectively and the effect of the treatment process on the microbiological properties of groundwater sample showed decrease of total bacterial count either at 22°C or at 37°C to 85.7 % and 82.4 %, respectively. Also, BPAC was characterized using SEM and FTIR spectroscopy.

Keywords: biosorption, manganese, banana peels, isothermal models

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32 Optimization Studies on Biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) from Wastewater Using Pseudomonas putida in a Packed Bed Bioreactor

Authors: K.Narasimhulu and Y. Pydi Setty


The objective of this present study is the optimization of process parameters in biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions by Pseudomonas putida using Response Surface Methodology in a Packed bed bioreactor. The experimental data were also tested with theoretical models to find the best fit model. The present paper elucidates RSM as an efficient approach for predictive model building and optimization of Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions using Pseudomonas putida. In packed bed biosorption studies, comparison of the breakthrough curves of Ni(II) and Cd(II) for Agar immobilized and PAA immobilized Pseudomonas putida at optimum conditions of flow rate of 300 mL/h, initial metal ion concentration of 100 mg/L and bed height of 20 cm with weight of biosorbent of 12 g, it was found that the Agar immobilized Pseudomonas putida showed maximum percent biosorption and bed saturation occurred at 20 minutes. Optimization results of Ni(II) and Cd(II) by Pseudomonas putida from the Design Expert software were obtained as bed height of 19.93 cm, initial metal ion concentration of 103.85 mg/L, and flow rate of 310.57 mL/h. The percent biosorption of Ni(II) and Cd(II) is 87.2% and 88.2% respectively. The predicted optimized parameters are in agreement with the experimental results.

Keywords: Waste water, biosorption, packed bed bioreactor, response surface mthodology, pseudomonas putida

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31 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari


The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: Potable water, cadmium, ANN, biosorption, packed-bed

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30 Mercury Removal Using Pseudomonas putida (ATTC 49128): Effect of Acclimatization Time, Speed, and Temperature of Incubator Shaker

Authors: R. M. Yunus, A. A. M. Azoddein, N. M. Sulaiman, A. B. Bustary, K. Sabar


Microbes have been used to solve environmental problems for many years. The use microorganism to sequester, precipitate or alter the oxidation state of various heavy metals has been extensively studied. Processes by which microorganism interacts with toxic metal are very diverse. The purpose of this research is to remove the mercury using Pseudomonas putida, pure culture ATTC 49128 at optimum growth parameters such as techniques of culture, acclimatization time and speed of incubator shaker. Thus, in this study, the optimum growth parameters of P.putida were obtained to achieve the maximum of mercury removal. Based on the optimum parameters of Pseudomonas putida for specific growth rate, the removal of two different mercury concentration, 1 ppm and 4 ppm were studied. A mercury-resistant bacterial strain which is able to reduce ionic mercury to metallic mercury was used to reduce ionic mercury from mercury nitrate solution. The overall levels of mercury removal in this study were between 80% and 90%. The information obtained in this study is of fundamental for understanding of the survival of P.putida ATTC 49128 in mercury solution. Thus, microbial mercury environmental pollutants removal is a potential biological treatment for waste water treatment especially in petrochemical industries in Malaysia.

Keywords: Mercury, biosorption, pseudomonas putida, growth kinetic, petrochemical waste water

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29 Synthesis and Applications of Biosorbent from Barley Husk for Adsorption of Heavy Metals and Bacteria from Water

Authors: Sunil S. Bhagwat, Sudarshan Kalsulkar


Biosorption is a physiochemical process that occurs naturally in certain biomass which allows it to passively concentrate and bind contaminants onto its cellular structure. Activated carbons (AC) are one such efficient biosorbents made by utilizing lignocellulosic materials from agricultural waste. Steam activated carbon (AC) was synthesized from Barley husk. Its synthesis parameters of time and temperature were optimized. Its physico-chemical properties like density, surface area, pore volume, Methylene blue and Iodine values were characterized. BET surface area was found to be 42 m²/g. Batch Adsorption tests were carried out to determine the maximum adsorption capacity (qmax) for various metal ions. Cd+2 48.74 mg/g, Pb+2 19.28 mg/g, Hg+2 39.1mg/g were the respective qmax values. pH and time were optimized for adsorption of each ion. Column Adsorptions were carried for each to obtain breakthrough data. Microbial adsorption was carried using E. coli K12 strain. 78% reduction in cell count was observed at operating conditions. Thus the synthesized Barley husk AC can be an economically feasible replacement for commercially available AC prepared from the costlier coconut shells. Breweries and malting industries where barley husk is a primary waste generated on a large scale can be a good source for bulk raw material.

Keywords: Water Treatment, decontamination, activated carbon, biosorption, Barley husk, heavy metal removal

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28 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Lead Acid Battery Industry Wastewater by Immobilized Dead Isolated Bacterial Biomass

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati, Harikrishna Yadav Nanganuru


Over the past many years, many sites in the world have been contaminated with heavy metals, which are the largest class of contaminants. Lead is one of the toxic heavy metals contaminated in the environment. Lead is not biodegradable, that’s why it is accumulated in the human body and impacts all the systems of the human body when it has been taken by humans. The accumulation of lead in the water environment has been showing adverse effects on the public health. So the removal of lead from the water environment by the biosorption process, which is emerged as a potential method for the lead removal, is an efficient approach. This work was focused to examine the removal of Lead [Pb (II)] ions from aqueous solution and effluent from battery industry. Lead contamination in water is a widespread problem throughout the world and mainly results from lead acid battery manufacturing effluent. In this work, isolated bacteria from wastewater of lead acid battery industry has been utilized for the removal of lead. First effluent from the lead acid battery industry was characterized by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP – AES). Then the bacteria was isolated from the effluent and used it’s immobilized dead mass for the biosorption of lead. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies clearly suggested that the Lead (Pb) was adsorbed efficiently. The adsorbed percentage of lead (II) from waste was 97.40 the concentration of lead (II) is measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). From the result of AAS it can be concluded that immobilized isolated dead mass was well efficient and useful for biosorption of lead contaminated waste water.

Keywords: SEM, biosorption, ICP-AES, lead (Pb)

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27 Treatment of a Galvanization Wastewater in a Fixed-Bed Column Using L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata Macroalgae as Natural Cation Exchangers

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Maria A. P. Cechinel, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar.


Two brown macroalgae, Laminaria hyperborea and Pelvetia canaliculata, were employed as natural cation exchangers in a fixed-bed column for Zn(II) removal from a galvanization wastewater. The column (4.8 cm internal diameter) was packed with 30-59 g of previously hydrated algae up to a bed height of 17-27 cm. The wastewater or eluent was percolated using a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 10 mL/min. The effluent used in each experiment presented similar characteristics: pH of 6.7, 55 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand and about 300, 44, 186 and 244 mg/L of sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions, respectively. The main difference was nitrate concentration: 20 mg/L for the effluent used with L. hyperborean and 341 mg/L for the effluent used with P. canaliculata. The inlet zinc concentration also differed slightly: 11.2 mg/L for L. hyperborean and 8.9 mg/L for P. canaliculata experiments. The breakthrough time was approximately 22.5 hours for both macroalgae, corresponding to a service capacity of 43 bed volumes. This indicates that 30 g of biomass is able to treat 13.5 L of the galvanization wastewater. The uptake capacities at the saturation point were similar to that obtained in batch studies (unpublished data) for both algae. After column exhaustion, desorption with 0.1 M HNO3 was performed. Desorption using 9 and 8 bed volumes of eluent achieved an efficiency of 100 and 91%, respectively for L. hyperborean and P. canaliculata. After elution with nitric acid, the column was regenerated using different strategies: i) convert all the binding sites in the sodium form, by passing a solution of 0.5 M NaCl, until achieve a final pH of 6.0; ii) passing only tap water in order to increase the solution pH inside the column until pH 3.0, and in this case the second sorption cycle was performed using protonated algae. In the first approach, in order to remove the excess of salt inside the column, distilled water was passed through the column, leading to the algae structure destruction and the column collapsed. Using the second approach, the algae remained intact during three consecutive sorption/desorption cycles without loss of performance.

Keywords: zinc, biosorption, galvanization wastewater, packed-bed column

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26 Effect of Chemical Modification of Functional Groups on Copper(II) Biosorption by Brown Marine Macroalgae Ascophyllum nodosum

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The principal mechanism of metal ions sequestration by brown algae involves the formation of complexes between the metal ion and functional groups present on the cell wall of the biological material. To understand the role of functional groups on copper(II) uptake by Ascophyllum nodosum, some functional groups were chemically modified. The esterification of carboxylic groups was carried out by suspending the biomass in a methanol/HCl solution under stirring for 48 h and the blocking of the sulfonic groups was performed by repeating the same procedure for 4 cycles of 48 h. The methylation of amines was conducted by suspending the biomass in a formaldehyde/formic acid solution under shaking for 6 h and the chemical modification of sulfhydryl groups on the biomass surface was achieved using dithiodipyridine for 1 h. Equilibrium sorption studies for Cu2+ using the raw and esterified algae were performed at pH 2.0 and 4.0. The experiments were performed using an initial copper concentration of 300 mg/L and algae dose of 1.0 g/L. After reaching the equilibrium, the metal in solution was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The biological material was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Potentiometric Titration techniques for functional groups identification and quantification, respectively. The results using unmodified algae showed that the maximum copper uptake capacity at pH 4.0 and 2.0 was 1.17 and 0.52 mmol/g, respectively. At acidic pH values most carboxyl groups are protonated and copper sorption suffered a significant reduction of 56%. Blocking the carboxylic, sulfonic, amines and sulfhydryl functional groups, copper uptake decreased by 24/26%, 69/81%, 1/23% and 40/27% at pH 2.0/4.0, respectively, when compared to the unmodified biomass. It was possible to conclude that the carboxylic and sulfonic groups are the main functional groups responsible for copper binding (>80%). This result is supported by the fact that the adsorption capacity is directly related to the presence of carboxylic groups of the alginate polymer, and the second most abundant acidic functional group in brown algae is the sulfonic acid of fucoidan that contributes, to a lower extent, to heavy metal binding, particularly at low pH.

Keywords: Copper, biosorption, ion-exchange, brown marine macroalgae

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25 Brown Macroalgae L. hyperborea as Natural Cation Exchanger and Electron Donor for the Treatment of a Zinc and Hexavalent Chromium Containing Galvanization Wastewater

Authors: Tatiana A. Pozdniakova, Luciana P. Mazur, Rui A. R. Boaventura, Vitor J. P. Vilar


The electroplating industry requires a lot of process water, which generates a large volume of wastewater loaded with heavy metals. Two different wastewaters were collected in a company’s wastewater treatment plant, one after the use of zinc in the metal plating process and the other after the use of chromium. The main characteristics of the Zn(II) and Cr(VI) wastewaters are: pH = 6.7/5.9; chemical oxygen demand = 55/<5 mg/L; sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium ions concentrations of 326/28, 4/28, 11/7 and 46/37 mg/L, respectively; zinc(II) = 11 mg/L and Cr(VI) = 39 mg/L. Batch studies showed that L. hyperborea can be established as a natural cation exchanger for heavy metals uptake mainly due to the presence of negatively charged functional groups in the surface of the biomass. Beyond that, L. hyperborea can be used as a natural electron donor for hexavalent chromium reduction to trivalent chromium at acidic medium through the oxidation of the biomass, and Cr(III) can be further bound to the negatively charged functional groups. The uptake capacity of Cr(III) by the oxidized biomass after Cr(VI) reduction was higher than by the algae in its original form. This can be attributed to the oxidation of the biomass during Cr(VI) reduction, turning other active sites available for Cr(III) binding. The brown macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea was packed in a fixed-bed column in order to evaluate the feasibility of the system for the continuous treatment of the two galvanization wastewaters. The column, with an internal diameter of 4.8 cm, was packed with 59 g of algae up to a bed height of 27 cm. The operation strategy adopted for the treatment of the two wastewaters consisted in: i) treatment of the Zn(II) wastewater in the first sorption cycle; ii) desorption of pre-loaded Zn(II) using an 1.0 M HCl solution; iii) treatment of the Cr(VI) wastewater, taking advantage of the acidic conditions of the column after the desorption cycle, for the reduction of the Cr(VI) to Cr(III), in the presence of the electrons resulting from the biomass oxidation. This cycle ends when all the oxidizing groups are used.

Keywords: Chromium, zinc, biosorption, brown marine macroalgae

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24 Biosorption of Cu (II) and Zn (II) from Real Wastewater onto Cajanus cajan Husk

Authors: Basudeb Munshi, Mallappa A. Devani, John U. Kennedy Oubagaranadin


In this preliminary work, locally available husk of Cajanus cajan (commonly known in India as Tur or Arhar), a bio-waste, has been used in its physically treated and chemically activated form for the removal of binary Cu (II) and Zn(II) ions from the real waste water obtained from an electroplating industry in Bangalore, Karnataka, India and from laboratory prepared binary solutions having almost similar composition of the metal ions, for comparison. The real wastewater after filtration and dilution for five times was used for biosorption studies at the normal pH of the solutions at room temperature. Langmuir's binary model was used to calculate the metal uptake capacities of the biosorbents. It was observed that Cu(II) is more competitive than Zn(II) in biosorption. In individual metal biosorption, Cu(II) uptake was found to be more than that of the Zn(II) and a similar trend was observed in the binary metal biosorption from real wastewater and laboratory prepared solutions. FTIR analysis was carried out to identify the functional groups in the industrial wastewater and EDAX for the elemental analysis of the biosorbents after experiments.

Keywords: wastewater, biosorption, Cajanus cajan, multi metal remediation

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23 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo


In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bioprocess, Copper, biosorption

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22 Uptake of Copper by Dead Biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia Isolated from a Metal Mine in Pará, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Elen A. Perpetuo, Ingrid R. Avanzi, Claudio Auguto Oller do Nascimento


In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process. In this study was developed a natural process using a biological system for the uptake of Copper and possible removal of copper from wastewater by dead biomass of the strain Burkholderia cenocepacia. Dead and live biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia was used to analyze the equilibrium and kinetics of copper biosorption by this strain in function of the pH. Living biomass exhibited the highest biosorption capacity of copper, 50 mg g−1, which was achieved within 5 hours of contact, at pH 7.0, temperature of 30°C, and agitation speed of 150 rpm. The dead biomass of Burkholderia cenocepacia may be considered an efficiently bioprocess, being fast and low-cost to production of copper and also a probably nano-adsorbent of this metal ion in wastewater in bioremediation process.

Keywords: Biotechnology, biosorption, copper recovery, dead biomass

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21 Removal of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption Using Macadamia Nutshells: Effect of Different Treatment Methods

Authors: Vusumzi E. Pakade, Themba D. Ntuli, Augustine E. Ofomaja


Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different methods (raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)) were investigated for the adsorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent dosage 0.2 g L-1, and concentration 100 mg L-1. The different treatment methods altered the surface characteristics of the sorbents and produced different maximum binding capacities of 42.5, 40.6 and 37.5 mg g-1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively. The data was fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Sips isotherms. No single model could clearly explain the data perhaps due to the complexity of process taking place. The kinetic modeling results showed that the process of Cr(VI) biosorption with Macadamia sorbents was better described by a process of chemical sorption in pseudo-second order. These results showed that the three treatment methods yielded different surface properties which then influenced adsorption of Cr(VI) differently.

Keywords: treatment, Reduction, biosorption, isotherms, chromium(VI), Macadamia

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20 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari


In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Non-linear Analysis, cadmium, biocomposite, biosorption

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19 Biosorption of Metal Ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage by Immobilized Bacillus thuringiensis in a Fixed-Bed Column

Authors: V. Khosravi, F. D. Ardejani, A. Aryafar, M. Sedighi


Heavy metals have a damaging impact for the environment, animals and humans due to their extreme toxicity and removing them from wastewaters is a very important and interesting task in the field of water pollution control. Biosorption is a relatively new method for treatment of wastewaters and recovery of heavy metals. In this study, a continuous fixed bed study was carried out by using Bacillus thuringiensis as a biosorbent for the removal of Cu and Mn ions from Sarcheshmeh Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate and bed height on the sorption characteristics of B. thuringiensis was investigated at pH 6.0 for each metal ion. The experimental results showed that the breakthrough time decreased with increasing flow rate and decreasing bed height. The data also indicated that the equilibrium uptake of both metals increased with decreasing flow rate and increasing bed height. BDST, Thomas, and Yoon–Nelson models were applied to experimental data to predict the breakthrough curves. All models were found suitable for describing the whole dynamic behavior of the column with respect to flow rate and bed height. In order to regenerate the adsorbent, an elution step was carried out with 1 M HCl and five adsorption-desorption cycles were carried out in continuous manner.

Keywords: biosorption, fixed bed, Bacillus thuringiensis, acid mine drainage, cu and mn ions

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18 Studies on Dye Removal by Aspergillus niger Strain

Authors: M. S. Mahmoud, Samah A. Mohamed, Neama A. Sobhy


For color removal from wastewater containing organic contaminants, biological treatment systems have been widely used such as physical and chemical methods of flocculation, coagulation. Fungal decolorization of dye containing wastewater is one of important goal in industrial wastewater treatment. This work was aimed to characterize Aspergillus niger strain for dye removal from aqueous solution and from raw textile wastewater. Batch experiments were studied for removal of color using fungal isolate biomass under different conditions. Environmental conditions like pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial dye concentration were studied. Influence of the pH on the removal of azo dye by Aspergillus niger was carried out between pH 1.0 and pH 11.0. The optimum pH for red dye decolonization was 9.0. Results showed the decolorization of dye was decreased with the increase of its initial dye concentration. The adsorption data was analyzed based on the models of equilibrium isotherm (Freundlich model and Langmuir model). During the adsorption isotherm studies; dye removal was better fitted to Freundlich model. The isolated fungal biomass was characterized according to its surface area both pre and post the decolorization process by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis. Results indicate that the isolated fungal biomass showed higher affinity for dye in decolorization process.

Keywords: biomass, biosorption, isotherms, dye

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17 Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions by Biosorption on Pomegranate Skin: Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamics

Authors: G. Henini, Y. Laidani, F. Souahi, A. Labbaci, S. Hanini


In this study, pomegranate skin, a material suitable for the conditions in Algeria, was chosen as adsorbent material for removal of lead in an aqueous solution. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, the initial concentration of metal, and temperature. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g, 0.035 mg/g; 1.25 g, 0.096 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at pH value of 8 for the lead. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial concentration of metal in solution (Co = 4 mg/L, qt = 1.2 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.995) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 0.85 mg/g for lead. The adsorption of the lead was exothermic in nature (ΔH° = -17.833 kJ/mol for Pb (II). The reaction was accompanied by a decrease in entropy (ΔS° = -0.056 kJ/K. mol). The Gibbs energy (ΔG°) increased from -1.458 to -0.305 kJ/mol, respectively for Pb (II) when the temperature was increased from 293 to 313 K.

Keywords: wastewater, biosorption, Pb (+II), pomegranate skin

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16 Correlation between Vitreoscilla Hemoglobin Gene (Vgb) and Cadmium Uptake in the Heterologous Host Enterobacter Aerogenes in Response to Metabolic Inhibitors

Authors: Khaled Khleifat, Muayyad Abboud, Ahmad Almustafa


The effect of metabolic inhibitor/uncoupler(s) (CCCP and NaN3) and sulfhydryl reagents (dithiothreitol, 2 mercaptoethanol glutathione) on cadmium uptake was investigated in Enterobacter aerogenes strains. They include a transformed strain bearing the Vitreoscillahemoglobin gene, vgb as well as control strains that lack this transformed gene. The vgb-harboring strains showed better uptake of cadmium than vgb-lacking strains. Under low aeration, there was 2 fold enhancement of Cd+2 uptake in vgb-harboring strains compared with 1.6-fold enhancement under high aeration. The CCCP caused 36, 40 and 58% inhibition in cadmium uptake of parental, pUC9 harboring and VHb expressing cells, respectively. Similarly, the sodium azide exerted 44, 38 and 55% inhibition in Cd+2 uptake of parental, pUC9 harboring and VHb expressing cells, respectively. Less extensive inhibition of Cd+2 uptake in the range of 11 to 39% was observed with sulfhydryl reagents.

Keywords: biosorption, bacterial hemoglobin, VHb, Cd uptake

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15 Association between Copper Uptake and Decrease of Copper (hypocupremia) in Burn Patients-Infected Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Khaled Khleifat, Muayyad Abboud, Amjad Khleifat, Humodi Saeed


In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from infected burn patients and characterized by standard biochemical tests. The in vitro copper uptake was compared between this isolated pathogenic strain and two non-pathogenic control strains of Gram positive bacteria Bacillusthuringiensis strain Israelisas well as Gram negative bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes. Maximum copper uptake of 470 ppm/g biomass was obtained by P. aeruginosa strain, while the control strains B. thuringiensis andEnterobacter aerogenes had copper uptake of 350 and 383 ppm/g biomass, respectively. However, the lowest copper uptake (60 ppm/g biomass) was observed with another control the saprophytic strain Pseudomonas (Shewanella) putrefaciens. A further investigation regarding the effect of copper toxicity on bacterial growth, gave an MIC score of 600 ppm for P. aeruginosa strain compared to 460 and 300 ppm for the two Gram positive and Gram negative control strains, respectively. In tandem with these in vitro findings, blood analysis on burn patients infected with P. aeruginosa has indicated a selective decrease of copper (hypocupremia) and ceruloplasmin plasma levels. The iron metabolism was also affected by this copper deprivation leading to a similar decrease in plasma levels of PCV, iron, total iron binding capacity, and transferrin. All these hematological changes were significantly different (P < 0.05) from the matched group of non-infected burn patients. The observed hypocupremia in infected burn patients was attributed to demanding scavenger ability by P. aeruginosa strain for the copper of plasma.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, biosorption, Cu uptake, burn patients

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14 Studies on Optimization of Batch Biosorption of Cr (VI) and Cu (II) from Wastewater Using Bacillus subtilis

Authors: Narasimhulu Korrapati


The objective of this present study is to optimize the process parameters for batch biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions by Bacillus subtilis using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Batch biosorption studies were conducted under optimum pH, temperature, biomass concentration and contact time for the removal of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) ions using Bacillus subtilis. From the studies it is noticed that the maximum biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) was by Bacillus subtilis at optimum conditions of contact time of 30 minutes, pH of 4.0, biomass concentration of 2.0 mg/mL, the temperature of 32°C in batch biosorption studies. Predicted percent biosorption of the selected heavy metal ions by the design expert software is in agreement with experimental results of percent biosorption. The percent biosorption of Cr(VI) and Cu(II) in batch studies is 80% and 78.4%, respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, Heavy Metal Ions, response surface methodology, biosorption

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13 Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution Using Watermelon (Citrullus C. lanatus) Rind

Authors: Fidelis Chigondo


This study focuses on investigating the effectiveness of watermelon rind in phenol removal from aqueous solution. The effects of various parameters (pH, initial phenol concentration, biosorbent dosage and contact time) on phenol adsorption were investigated. The pH of 2, initial phenol concentration of 40 ppm, the biosorbent dosage of 0.6 g and contact time of 6 h also deduced to be the optimum conditions for the adsorption process. The maximum phenol removal under optimized conditions was 85%. The sorption data fitted to the Freundlich isotherm with a regression coefficient of 0.9824. The kinetics was best described by the intraparticle diffusion model and Elovich Equation with regression coefficients of 1 and 0.8461 respectively showing that the reaction is chemisorption on a heterogeneous surface and the intraparticle diffusion rate only is the rate determining step. The study revealed that watermelon rind has a potential of removing phenol from industrial wastewaters.

Keywords: phenol, biosorption, biosorbent, watermelon rind

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12 Biosorption of Gold from Chloride Media in a Simultaneous Adsorption-Reduction Process

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Yen Ning Lee


Conventional hydrometallurgical processing of metals involves the use of large quantities of toxic chemicals. Realizing a need to develop sustainable technologies, extensive research studies are being carried out to recover and recycle base, precious and rare earth metals from their pregnant leach solutions (PLS) using green chemicals/biomaterials prepared from biomass wastes derived from agriculture, marine and forest resources. Our innovative research showed that bio-adsorbents prepared from such biomass wastes can effectively adsorb precious metals, especially gold after conversion of their functional groups in a very simple process. The highly effective ‘Adsorption-coupled-Reduction’ phenomenon witnessed appears promising for the potential use of this gold biosorption process in the mining industry. Proper management and effective use of biomass wastes as value added green chemicals will not only reduce the volume of wastes being generated every day in our society, but will also have a high-end value to the mining and mineral processing industries as those biomaterials would be cheap, but very selective for gold recovery/recycling from low grade ore, leach residue or e-wastes.

Keywords: biomass, Sustainability, Adsorption, Reduction, Hydrometallurgy, Gold, biosorption

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11 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater through Biosorption for the Removal of Toxic Metals

Authors: Shafiq Alam, Manjunathan Ulaganathan


Water/wastewater often contains heavy/toxic metals, such as lead, copper, zinc and arsenic as well as harmful elements, such as antimony, selenium and fluoride. It may also contains radioactive elements, such as cesium and strontium. If they are not removed from water/wastewater then the environment and human health can be negatively impacted. Extensive research has been carried out to remove such harmful metals/elements from water/wastewater through biosorption using biomaterials (bioadsorbents). This presentation will give an overview of the research on preparation of bioadsorbents from biomass wastes and their use for the removal of harmful metals/elements from aqueous media.

Keywords: Environmental, wastewater, biosorption, toxic metals

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10 Box-Behnken Design for the Biosorption of Cationic Dye from Aqueous Solution Using a Zero-Valent Iron Nano Algal Composite

Authors: V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold


The advancement of adsorption is the development of nano-biocomposite for the sorption dyes and heavy metal ions. In fact, Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is cost-effective reducing agent and a most reliable biosorbent for the dye biosorption. In this study, nano zero valent iron Sargassum swartzii (nZVI-SS) biocomposite, a novel marine algal based biosorbent, was used for the removal of simulated crystal violet (CV) in batch mode of operation. The Box-Behnen design (BBD) experimental results revealed the biosoprtion was maximum at pH 7.5, biosorbent dosage 0.1 g/L and initial CV concentration of 100 mg/L. Therefore, the result implies that nZVI-SS biocomposite is a cheap and most promising biosorbent for the removal of CV from wastewater.

Keywords: Waste water, Algae, biosorption, dye, zero-valent

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9 Laboratory Scale Purification of Water from Copper Waste

Authors: Mumtaz Khan, Adeel Shahid, Waqas Khan


Heavy metals presence in water streams is a big danger for aquatic life and ultimately effects human health. Removal of copper (Cu) by ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake from synthetic solution in batch conditions was studied. Different experimental parameters such as contact time, initial solution pH, agitation rate, initial Cu concentration, biosorbent concentration, and biosorbent particle size has been studied to quantify the Cu biosorption. The rate of adsorption of metal ions was very fast at the beginning and became slow after reaching the saturation point, followed by a slower active metabolic uptake of metal ions into the cells. Up to a certain point, (pH=4, concentration of Cu = ~ 640 mg/l, agitation rate = ~ 400 rpm, biosorbent concentration = ~ 0.5g, 3g, 3g for ispaghula husk, maize fiber and maize oil cake, respectively) increasing the pH, concentration of Cu, agitation rate, and biosorbent concentration, increased the biosorption rate; however the sorption capacity increased by decreasing the particle size. At optimized experimental parameters, the maximum Cu biosorption by ispaghula husk, maize fibre and maize oil cake were 86.7%, 59.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the kinetics studies demonstrated that the biosorption of copper on ispaghula husk, maize fibre, and maize oil cake followed pseudo-second order kinetics. The results of adsorption were fitted to both the Langmuir and Freundlich models. The Langmuir model represented the sorption process better than Freundlich, and R² value ~ 0.978. Optimizations of physical and environmental parameters revealed, ispaghula husk as more potent copper biosorbent than maize fibre, and maize oil cake. The sorbent is cheap and available easily, so this study can be applied to remove Cu impurities on pilot and industrial scale after certain modifications.

Keywords: Purification, Copper, biosorption, ispaghula husk, maize fibre, maize oil cake

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8 Biosorption of Fluoride from Aqueous Solutions by Tinospora Cordifolia Leaves

Authors: Srinivasulu Dasaiah, Kalyan Yakkala, Gangadhar Battala, Pavan Kumar Pindi, Ramakrishna Naidu Gurijala


Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass used for the removal fluoride from aqueous solutions. Batch biosorption technique was applied, pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration was studied. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) techniques used to study the surface characteristics and the presence of chemical functional groups on the biosorbent. Biosorption isotherm models and kinetic models were applied to understand the sorption mechanism. Results revealed that pH, contact time, biosorbent dose and initial fluoride concentration played a significant effect on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions. The developed biosorbent derived from Tinospora cordifolia leaves biomass found to be a low-cost biosorbent and could be used for the effective removal of fluoride in synthetic as well as real water samples.

Keywords: biosorption, contact time, fluoride, isotherms

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