Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Biosensors Related Abstracts

14 Application of the Mesoporous Silica Oxidants on Immunochromatography Detections

Authors: Hsieh, Chang, Ya-Ju, Pei-Hsin, Jui-Chuang, Chen-Yang, Yui Whei

Abstract:

A mesoporous silica material was prepared to apply to the lateral-flow immunochromatography for detecting a model biosample. The probe antibody is immobilized on the silica surface as the test line to capture its affinity antigen, which laterally flows through the chromatography strips. The antigen is labeled with nano-gold particles, such that the detection can be visually read out from the test line without instrument aids. The result reveals that the mesoporous material provides a vast area for immobilizing the detection probes. Biosening surfaces corresponding with a positive proportion of detection signals is obtained with the biosample loading.

Keywords: Biosensors, mesoporous silica, immunochromatography, lateral-flow strips, nano-gold particles

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13 SPR Immunosensor for the Detection of Staphylococcus aureus

Authors: Muhammad Ali Syed, Arshad Saleem Bhatti, Chen-zhong Li, Habib Ali Bokhari

Abstract:

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have emerged as a promising technique for bioanalysis as well as microbial detection and identification. Real time, sensitive, cost effective, and label free detection of biomolecules from complex samples is required for early and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases. Like many other types of optical techniques, SPR biosensors may also be successfully utilized for microbial detection for accurate, point of care, and rapid results. In the present study, we have utilized a commercially available automated SPR biosensor of BI company to study the microbial detection form water samples spiked with different concentration of Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. The gold thin film sensor surface was functionalized to react with proteins such as protein G, which was used for directed immobilization of monoclonal antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. The results of our work reveal that this immunosensor can be used to detect very small number of bacterial cells with higher sensitivity and specificity. In our case 10^3 cells/ml of water have been successfully detected. Therefore, it may be concluded that this technique has a strong potential to be used in microbial detection and identification.

Keywords: Biosensors, Staphylococcus aureus, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), microbial detection

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12 Biosensors as Analytical Tools in Legume Processing

Authors: A. I. O. Jideani, S. V. Ncube, E. T. Gwata

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The plight of food insecurity in developing countries has led to renewed interest in underutilized legumes. Their nutritional versatility, desirable functionality, pharmaceutical value and inherent bioactive compounds have drawn the attention of researchers. This has provoked the development of value added products with the aim of commercially exploiting their full potential. However processing of these legumes leads to changes in nutritional composition as affected by processing variables like pH, temperature and pressure. There is therefore a need for process control and quality assurance during production of the value added products. However, conventional methods for microbiological and biochemical identification are labour intensive and time-consuming. Biosensors offer rapid and affordable methods to assure the quality of the products. They may be used to quantify nutrients and anti-nutrients in the products while manipulating and monitoring variables such as pH, temperature, pressure and oxygen that affect the quality of the final product. This review gives an overview of the types of biosensors used in the food industry, their advantages and disadvantages and their possible application in processing of legumes.

Keywords: Biosensors, Quality Control, legume processing, nutritional versatility

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11 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Cross-Linked Redox Enzyme/Nanomaterials

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff

Abstract:

In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of cross-linked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biosensors, redox enzyme, electrical communication

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10 Application of Biosensors in Forensic Analysis

Authors: Samaneh Nabavi, Hadi Shirzad, Somayeh Khanjani, Shirin Jalili

Abstract:

Biosensors in forensic analysis are ideal biological tools that can be used for rapid and sensitive initial screening and testing to detect of suspicious components like biological and chemical agent in crime scenes. The wide use of different biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, microorganisms, antibodies and enzymes makes it possible. These biosensors have great advantages such as rapidity, little sample manipulation and high sensitivity, also Because of their stability, specificity and low cost they have become a very important tool to Forensic analysis and detection of crime. In crime scenes different substances such as rape samples, Semen, saliva fingerprints and blood samples, act as a detecting elements for biosensors. On the other hand, successful fluid recovery via biosensor has the propensity to yield a highly valuable source of genetic material, which is important in finding the suspect. Although current biological fluid testing techniques are impaired for identification of body fluids. But these methods have disadvantages. For example if they are to be used simultaneously, Often give false positive result. These limitations can negatively result the output of a case through missed or misinterpreted evidence. The use of biosensor enable criminal researchers the highly sensitive and non-destructive detection of biological fluid through interaction with several fluid-endogenous and other biological and chemical contamination at the crime scene. For this reason, using of the biosensors for detecting the biological fluid found at the crime scenes which play an important role in identifying the suspect and solving the criminal.

Keywords: Biosensors, Forensic Analysis, Crime Detection, biological fluid

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9 Biological Applications of CNT Inherited Polyaniline Nano-Composites

Authors: Anees Ahmad, Yashfeen Khan

Abstract:

In the last few decades, nano-composites have been the topic of interest. Presently, the modern era enlightens the synthesis of hybrid nano-composites over their individual counterparts because of higher application potentials and synergism. Recently, CNT hybrids have demonstrated their pronounced capability as effective sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions (the root trouble) and organic contaminants due to their high specific surface area, enhanced reactivity, and sequestration characteristics. The present abstract discusses removal efficiencies of organic, inorganic pollutants through CNT/PANI/ composites. It also represents the widespread applications of CNT like monitoring biological systems, biosensors, as heat resources for treating cancer, fire retardant applications of polymer/CNT composites etc. And considering the same, this article aims to brief the scenario of CNT-PANI nano-composites.

Keywords: Biosensors, Hybrids, polyaniline, CNT, synergism

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8 Optimized Processing of Neural Sensory Information with Unwanted Artifacts

Authors: John Lachapelle

Abstract:

Introduction: Neural stimulation is increasingly targeted toward treatment of back pain, PTSD, Parkinson’s disease, and for sensory perception. Sensory recording during stimulation is important in order to examine neural response to stimulation. Most neural amplifiers (headstages) focus on noise efficiency factor (NEF). Conversely, neural headstages need to handle artifacts from several sources including power lines, movement (EMG), and neural stimulation itself. In this work a layered approach to artifact rejection is used to reduce corruption of the neural ENG signal by 60dBv, resulting in recovery of sensory signals in rats and primates that would previously not be possible. Methods: The approach combines analog techniques to reduce and handle unwanted signal amplitudes. The methods include optimized (1) sensory electrode placement, (2) amplifier configuration, and (3) artifact blanking when necessary. The techniques together are like concentric moats protecting a castle; only the wanted neural signal can penetrate. There are two conditions in which the headstage operates: unwanted artifact < 50mV, linear operation, and artifact > 50mV, fast-settle gain reduction signal limiting (covered in more detail in a separate paper). Unwanted Signals at the headstage input: Consider: (a) EMG signals are by nature < 10mV. (b) 60 Hz power line signals may be > 50mV with poor electrode cable conditions; with careful routing much of the signal is common to both reference and active electrode and rejected in the differential amplifier with <50mV remaining. (c) An unwanted (to the neural recorder) stimulation signal is attenuated from stimulation to sensory electrode. The voltage seen at the sensory electrode can be modeled Φ_m=I_o/4πσr. For a 1 mA stimulation signal, with 1 cm spacing between electrodes, the signal is <20mV at the headstage. Headstage ASIC design: The front end ASIC design is designed to produce < 1% THD at 50mV input; 50 times higher than typical headstage ASICs, with no increase in noise floor. This requires careful balance of amplifier stages in the headstage ASIC, as well as consideration of the electrodes effect on noise. The ASIC is designed to allow extremely small signal extraction on low impedance (< 10kohm) electrodes with configuration of the headstage ASIC noise floor to < 700nV/rt-Hz. Smaller high impedance electrodes (> 100kohm) are typically located closer to neural sources and transduce higher amplitude signals (> 10uV); the ASIC low-power mode conserves power with 2uV/rt-Hz noise. Findings: The enhanced neural processing ASIC has been compared with a commercial neural recording amplifier IC. Chronically implanted primates at MGH demonstrated the presence of commercial neural amplifier saturation as a result of large environmental artifacts. The enhanced artifact suppression headstage ASIC, in the same setup, was able to recover and process the wanted neural signal separately from the suppressed unwanted artifacts. Separately, the enhanced artifact suppression headstage ASIC was able to separate sensory neural signals from unwanted artifacts in mouse-implanted peripheral intrafascicular electrodes. Conclusion: Optimizing headstage ASICs allow observation of neural signals in the presence of large artifacts that will be present in real-life implanted applications, and are targeted toward human implantation in the DARPA HAPTIX program.

Keywords: Biosensors, Biomedical Sensors, Biomedical Signal Processing, ASIC

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7 Europium Chelates as a Platform for Biosensing

Authors: Eiman A. Al-Enezi, Gin Jose, Sikha Saha, Paul Millner

Abstract:

Rare earth nanotechnology has gained a considerable amount of interest in the field of biosensing due to the unique luminescence properties of lanthanides. Chelating rare earth ions plays a significant role in biological labelling applications including medical diagnostics, due to their different excitation and emission wavelengths, variety of their spectral properties, sharp emission peaks and long fluorescence lifetimes. We aimed to develop a platform for biosensors based on Europium (Eu³⁺) chelates against biomarkers of cardiac injury (heart-type fatty acid binding protein; H-FABP3) and stroke (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP). Additional novelty in this project is the use of synthetic binding proteins (Affimers), which could offer an excellent alternative targeting strategy to the existing antibodies. Anti-GFAP and anti-HFABP3 Affimer binders were modified to increase the number of carboxy functionalities. Europium nitrate then incubated with the modified Affimer. The luminescence characteristics of the Eu³⁺ complex with modified Affimers and antibodies against anti-GFAP and anti-HFABP3 were measured against different concentrations of the respective analytes on excitation wavelength of 395nm. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a control against the IgG/Affimer Eu³⁺ complexes. The emission spectrum of Eu³⁺ complex resulted in 5 emission peaks ranging between 550-750 nm with the highest intensity peaks were at 592 and 698 nm. The fluorescence intensity of Eu³⁺ chelates with the modified Affimer or antibodies increased significantly by 4-7 folder compared to the emission spectrum of Eu³⁺ complex. The fluorescence intensity of the Affimer complex was quenched proportionally with increased analyte concentration, but this did not occur with antibody complex. In contrast, the fluorescence intensity for Eu³⁺ complex increased slightly against increased concentration of BSA. These data demonstrate that modified Affimers Eu³⁺ complexes can function as nanobiosensors with potential diagnostic and analytical applications.

Keywords: Biosensors, europium, lanthanides, chelates

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6 Iron(III)-Tosylate Doped PEDOT and PEG: A Nanoscale Conductivity Study of an Electrochemical System with Biosensing Applications

Authors: Giulio Rosati, Luciano Sappia, Rossana Madrid, Noemi Rozlòsnik

Abstract:

The addition of PEG of different molecular weights has important effects on the physical, electrical and electrochemical properties of iron(III)-tosylate doped PEDOT. This particular polymer can be easily spin coated over plastic discs, optimizing thickness and uniformity of the PEDOT-PEG films. The conductivity and morphological analysis of the hybrid PEDOT-PEG polymer by 4-point probe (4PP), 12-point probe (12PP), and conductive AFM (C-AFM) show strong effects of the PEG doping. Moreover, the conductive films kinetics at the nanoscale, in response to different bias voltages, change radically depending on the PEG molecular weight. The hybrid conductive films show also interesting electrochemical properties, making the PEDOT PEG doping appealing for biosensing applications both for EIS-based and amperometric affinity/catalytic biosensors.

Keywords: Biosensors, Atomic Force Microscopy, PEDOT, four-point probe, nano-films

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5 Correlation between Defect Suppression and Biosensing Capability of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods

Authors: Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh, Mayoorika Shukla, Pramila Jakhar

Abstract:

Biosensors are analytical devices with wide range of applications in biological, chemical, environmental and clinical analysis. It comprises of bio-recognition layer which has biomolecules (enzymes, antibodies, DNA, etc.) immobilized over it for detection of analyte and transducer which converts the biological signal into the electrical signal. The performance of biosensor primarily the depends on the bio-recognition layer and therefore it has to be chosen wisely. In this regard, nanostructures of metal oxides such as ZnO, SnO2, V2O5, and TiO2, etc. have been explored extensively as bio-recognition layer. Recently, ZnO has the attracted attention of researchers due to its unique properties like high iso-electric point, biocompatibility, stability, high electron mobility and high electron binding energy, etc. Although there have been many reports on usage of ZnO as bio-recognition layer but to the authors’ knowledge, none has ever observed correlation between optical properties like defect suppression and biosensing capability of the sensor. Here, ZnO nanorods (ZNR) have been synthesized by a low cost, simple and low-temperature hydrothermal growth process, over Platinum (Pt) coated glass substrate. The ZNR have been synthesized in two steps viz. initially a seed layer was coated over substrate (Pt coated glass) followed by immersion of it into nutrient solution of Zinc nitrate and Hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) with in situ addition of KMnO4. The addition of KMnO4 was observed to have a profound effect over the growth rate anisotropy of ZnO nanostructures. Clustered and powdery growth of ZnO was observed without addition of KMnO4, although by addition of it during the growth, uniform and crystalline ZNR were found to be grown over the substrate. Moreover, the same has resulted in suppression of defects as observed by Normalized Photoluminescence (PL) spectra since KMnO4 is a strong oxidizing agent which provides an oxygen rich growth environment. Further, to explore the correlation between defect suppression and biosensing capability of the ZNR Glucose oxidase (Gox) was immobilized over it, using physical adsorption technique followed by drop casting of nafion. Here the main objective of the work was to analyze effect of defect suppression over biosensing capability, and therefore Gox has been chosen as model enzyme, and electrochemical amperometric glucose detection was performed. The incorporation of KMnO4 during growth has resulted in variation of optical and charge transfer properties of ZNR which in turn were observed to have deep impact on biosensor figure of merits. The sensitivity of biosensor was found to increase by 12-18 times, due to variations introduced by addition of KMnO4 during growth. The amperometric detection of glucose in continuously stirred buffer solution was performed. Interestingly, defect suppression has been observed to contribute towards the improvement of biosensor performance. The detailed mechanism of growth of ZNR along with the overall influence of defect suppression on the sensing capabilities of the resulting enzymatic electrochemical biosensor and different figure of merits of the biosensor (Glass/Pt/ZNR/Gox/Nafion) will be discussed during the conference.

Keywords: Biosensors, Defects, ZnO nanorods, KMnO4

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4 Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of DNA-Ionic Liquids Complexes

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider, Gohar Khachatryan, Krzysztof Danel

Abstract:

Complexes of ionic liquids with different heterocyclic-rings were synthesized by ion exchange reactions with pure salmon DNA. Ionic liquids (ILs) like 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride and 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide were used. The ILs were built into helical state and confirmed by IR spectrometric techniques. Patterns of UV-Vis, photoluminescence, IR, and CD spectra indicated inclusion of small molecules into DNA structure. Molecular weight and radii of gyrations values of ILs-DNA complexes chains were established by HPSEC–MALLS–RI method. Modification DNA with 1-ethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bromide gives more uniform material and leads to elimination of high molecular weight chains. Thus, the incorporation DNA double helical structure with both 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium chloride exhibited higher molecular weight values. Scanning electron microscopy images indicate formation of nanofibre structures in all DNA complexes. Fluorescence depends strongly on the environment in which the chromophores are inserted and simultaneously on the molecular interactions with the biopolymer matrix. The most intensive emission was observed for DNA-imidazole ring complex. Decrease in intensity UV-Vis peak absorption is a consequence of a reduction in the spatial order of polynucleotide strands and provides different π–π stacking structure. Changes in optical properties confirmed by spectroscopy methods make DNA-ILs complexes potential biosensor applications.

Keywords: Biosensors, Biopolymers, Dna, cationic surfactant, DNA-gels

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3 Fabrication of ZnO Nanorods Based Biosensor via Hydrothermal Method

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Ajab Khan Kasi, Jafar Khan Kasi, Samiullah

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Biosensors are playing vital role in industrial, clinical, and chemical analysis applications. Among other techniques, ZnO based biosensor is an easy approach due to its exceptional chemical and electrical properties. ZnO nanorods have positively charged isoelectric point which helps immobilize the negative charge glucose oxides (GOx). Here, we report ZnO nanorods based biosensors for the immobilization of GOx. The ZnO nanorods were grown by hydrothermal method on indium tin oxide substrate (ITO). The fabrication of biosensors was carried through batch processing using conventional photolithography. The buffer solutions of GOx were prepared in phosphate with a pH value of around 7.3. The biosensors effectively immobilized the GOx and result was analyzed by calculation of voltage and current on nanostructures.

Keywords: Biosensors, sol-gel, hydrothermal growth, zinc dioxide

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2 Meta-Review of Scholarly Publications on Biosensors: A Bibliometric Study

Authors: Nasrine Olson

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With over 70,000 scholarly publications on the topic of biosensors, an overview of the field has become a challenge. To facilitate, there are currently over 700 expert-reviews of publications on biosensors and related topics. This study focuses on these review papers in order to provide a Meta-Review of the area. This paper provides a statistical analysis and overview of biosensor-related review papers. Comprehensive searches are conducted in the Web of Science, and PubMed databases and the resulting empirical material are analyzed using bibliometric methods and tools. The study finds that the biosensor-related review papers can be categorized in five related subgroups, broadly denoted by (i) properties of materials and particles, (ii) analysis and indicators, (iii) diagnostics, (iv) pollutant and analytical devices, and (v) treatment/ application. For an easy and clear access to the findings visualization of clusters and networks of connections are presented. The study includes a temporal dimension and identifies the trends over the years with an emphasis on the most recent developments. This paper provides useful insights for those who wish to form a better understanding of the research trends in the area of biosensors.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Biosensors, Bibliometrics, meta-review, trends visualization

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1 Dual Electrochemical Immunosensor for IL-13Rα2 and E-Cadherin Determination in Cell, Serum and Tissues from Cancer Patients

Authors: Amira ben Hassine, A. Valverde, V. Serafín, C. Muñoz-San Martín, M. Garranzo-Asensio, M. Gamella, R. Barderas, M. Pedrero, N. Raouafi, S. Campuzano, P. Yáñez-Sedeño, J. M. Pingarrón

Abstract:

This work describes the development of a dual electrochemical immunosensing platform for accurate determination of two target proteins, IL-13 Receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) and E-cadherin (E-cad). The proposed methodology is based on the use of sandwich immunosensing approaches (involving horseradish peroxidase-labeled detector antibodies) implemented onto magnetic microbeads (MBs) and amperometric transduction at screen-printed dual carbon electrodes (SPdCEs). The magnetic bioconjugates were captured onto SPdCEs and the amperometric transduction was performed using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the developed bio platform demonstrates linear concentration ranges of 1.0–25 and 5.0-100 ng mL-1, detection limits of 0.28 and 1.04 ng mL-1 for E-cad and IL-13Rα2, respectively, and excellent selectivity against other non-target proteins. The developed immuno-platform also offers a good reproducibility among amperometric responses provided by nine different sensors constructed in the same manner (Relative Standard Deviation values of 3.1% for E-cad and 4.3% for IL-13Rα2). Moreover, obtained results confirm the practical applicability of this bio-platform for the accurate determination of the endogenous levels of both extracellular receptors in colon cancer cells (both intact and lysed) with different metastatic potential and serum and tissues from patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer at different grades. Interesting features in terms of, simplicity, speed, portability and sample amount required to provide quantitative results, make this immuno-platform more compatible than conventional methodologies with the clinical diagnosis and prognosis at the point of care.

Keywords: Biosensors, Electrochemistry, E-cadherin, mmunosensors, IL-13 receptor α2, cancer colorectal

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