Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Biosensor Related Abstracts

36 Polymer-Nanographite Nanocomposites for Biosensor Applications

Authors: Payal Mazumdar, Sunita Rattan, Monalisa Mukherjee

Abstract:

Polymer nanocomposites are a special class of materials having unique properties and wide application in diverse areas such as EMI shielding, sensors, photovoltaic cells, membrane separation properties, drug delivery etc. Recently the nanocomposites are being investigated for their use in biomedical fields as biosensors. Though nanocomposites with carbon nanoparticles have received worldwide attention in the past few years, comparatively less work has been done on nanographite although it has in-plane electrical, thermal and mechanical properties comparable to that of carbon nanotubes. The main challenge in the fabrication of these nanocomposites lies in the establishment of homogeneous dispersion of nanographite in polymer matrix. In the present work, attempts have been made to synthesize the nanocomposites of polystyrene and nanographite using click chemistry. The polymer and the nanographite are functionalized prior to the formation of nanocomposites. The polymer, polystyrene, was functionalized with alkyne moeity and nanographite with azide moiety. The fabricating of the nanocomposites was accomplished through click chemistry using Cu (I)-catalyzed Huisgen dipolar cycloaddition. The functionalization of filler and polymer was confirmed by NMR and FTIR. The nanocomposites formed by the click chemistry exhibit better electrical properties and the sensors are evaluated for their application as biosensors.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Biosensor, Click Chemistry, nanographite

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35 Direct Electrical Communication of Redox Enzyme Based on 3-Dimensional Crosslinked Redox Enzyme/Carbon Nanotube on a Thiol-Modified Au Surface

Authors: A. K. M. Kafi, S. N. Nina, Mashitah M. Yusoff

Abstract:

In this work, we have described a new 3-dimensional (3D) network of crosslinked Horseradish Peroxidase/Carbon Nanotube (HRP/CNT) on a thiol-modified Au surface in order to build up the effective electrical wiring of the enzyme units with the electrode. This was achieved by the electropolymerization of aniline-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 4-aminothiophenol -modified-HRP on a 4-aminothiophenol monolayer-modified Au electrode. The synthesized 3D HRP/CNT networks were characterized with cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, resulting the establishment direct electron transfer between the redox active unit of HRP and the Au surface. Electrochemical measurements reveal that the immobilized HRP exhibits high biological activity and stability and a quasi-reversible redox peak of the redox center of HRP was observed at about −0.355 and −0.275 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electron transfer rate constant, KS and electron transfer co-efficient were found to be 0.57 s-1 and 0.42, respectively. Based on the electrocatalytic process by direct electrochemistry of HRP, a biosensor for detecting H2O2 was developed. The developed biosensor exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2. The proposed biosensor modified with HRP/CNT 3D network displays a broader linear range and a lower detection limit for H2O2 determination. The linear range is from 1.0×10−7 to 1.2×10−4M with a detection limit of 2.2.0×10−8M at 3σ. Moreover, this biosensor exhibits very high sensitivity, good reproducibility and long-time stability. In summary, ease of fabrication, a low cost, fast response and high sensitivity are the main advantages of the new biosensor proposed in this study. These obvious advantages would really help for the real analytical applicability of the proposed biosensor.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Biosensor, redox enzyme, thiol-modified Au surface

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34 Production of Camel Nanobodies against of Anti-Morphine-3-Glucuronide for the Development of a Biosensor for Detecting Illicit Drug

Authors: Hadi Shirzad, Shirin Jalili, Sadegh Hasannia, Afshin Khara

Abstract:

Morphine is one of the most medicinally important analgesics and narcotics. Structurally, it is classified as an alkaloid because of the presence of nitrogen. Its structure is similar to that of codeine, thebaine, and heroin. An immunoassay to accurately discriminate between these analogous alkaloids would be highly beneficial. A key factor for such an assay is specificity with high sensitivity, which is totally dependent on the antibody employed. However, most antibodies against haptens are polyclonal serum antibodies that exhibit significant cross-reactivities with closely related compounds. The camel-derived single-chain antibody fragments (VHH) are the smallest molecules with antigen-binding capacity, possessing unique properties compared to other conventional antibodies. In this study, a library containing the VHH genes of a camel immunized with with morphine conjugated BSA following phage display technology was generated. By screening the camel-derived variable region of the heavy chain cDNA phage display library with the ability to bind the desired hapten, we obtained some nanobodies that recognize this hapten. Phage display expression of the Nbs from this library and pannings against this hapten resulted in a clear enrichment of four distinct Nb-displaying phages with specificity for morphine that could be a potential target site for the development of new strategies for the development of a biosensor for detecting illicit drug.

Keywords: Biosensor, Phage Display, ELISA, nanobody, Morphine-3, glucuronide

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33 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma

Abstract:

Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: Biosensor, Nitric Oxide, arginine, carbon paste elctrode

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32 A Contactless Capacitive Biosensor for Muscle Activity Measurement

Authors: Mamun Bin Ibne Reaz, Charn Loong Ng

Abstract:

As elderly population grows globally, the percentage of people diagnosed with musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) increase proportionally. Electromyography (EMG) is an important biosignal that contributes to MSD’s clinical diagnose and recovery process. Conventional conductive electrode has many disadvantages in the continuous EMG measurement application. This research has design a new surface EMG biosensor based on the parallel-plate capacitive coupling principle. The biosensor is developed by using a double-sided PCB with having one side of the PCB use to construct high input impedance circuitry while the other side of the copper (CU) plate function as biosignal sensing metal plate. The metal plate is insulated using kapton tape for contactless application. The result implicates that capacitive biosensor is capable to constantly capture EMG signal without having galvanic contact to human skin surface. However, there are noticeable noise couple into the measured signal. Post signal processing is needed in order to present a clean and significant EMG signal. A complete design of single ended, non-contact, high input impedance, front end EMG biosensor is presented in this paper.

Keywords: Biosensor, electromyography, contactless, capacitive

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31 Development of Lectin-Based Biosensor for Glycoprofiling of Clinical Samples: Focus on Prostate Cancer

Authors: Dominika Pihikova, Stefan Belicky, Tomas Bertok, Roman Sokol, Petra Kubanikova, Jan Tkac

Abstract:

Since aberrant glycosylation is frequently accompanied by both physiological and pathological processes in a human body (cancer, AIDS, inflammatory diseases, etc.), the analysis of tumor-associated glycan patterns have a great potential for the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Moreover, altered glycoforms may assist as a suitable tool for the specificity and sensitivity enhancement in early-stage prostate cancer diagnosis. In this paper we discuss the construction and optimization of ultrasensitive sandwich biosensor platform employing lectin as glycan-binding protein. We focus on the immunoassay development, reduction of non-specific interactions and final glycoprofiling of human serum samples including both prostate cancer (PCa) patients and healthy controls. The fabricated biosensor was measured by label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with further lectin microarray verification. Furthermore, we analyzed different biosensor interfaces with atomic force microscopy (AFM) in nanomechanical mapping mode showing a significant differences in the altitude. These preliminary results revealing an elevated content of α-2,3 linked sialic acid in PCa patients comparing with healthy controls. All these experiments are important step towards development of point-of-care devices and discovery of novel glyco-biomarkers applicable in cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: Biosensor, Prostate Cancer, lectin, glycan

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30 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang, Steven W. Cranford

Abstract:

The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: Biomarker, Biosensor, Dna, molecular dynamics simulation

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29 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

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The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: Biosensor, Magnetic Field, Magnetic Separation, super-paramagnetic bead

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28 Sensitivity Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Fiber Biosensor

Authors: Mohamed Farhat O. Hameed, Yasamin K. A. Alrayk, A. A Shaalan, S. S. A. Obayya

Abstract:

The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors are widely used due to its high sensitivity with molecular labels free. The commercial SPR sensors depend on the conventional prism-coupled configuration. However, this type of configuration suffers from miniaturization and integration. Therefore, the search for compact, portable and highly sensitive SPR sensors becomes mandatory.In this paper, sensitivity enhancement of a novel photonic crystal fiber biosensoris introduced and studied. The suggested design has microstructure of air holes in the core region surrounded by two large semicircular metallized channels filled with the analyte. The inner surfaces of the two channels are coated by a silver layer followed by a gold layer.The simulation results are obtained using full vectorial finite element methodwith perfect matched layer (PML) boundary conditions. The proposed design depends on bimetallic configuration to enhance the biosensor sensitivity. Additionally, the suggested biosensor can be used for multi-channel/multi-analyte sensing. In this study, the sensor geometrical parameters are studied to maximize the sensitivity for the two polarized modes. The numerical results show that high refractive index sensitivity of 4750 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) and 4300 nm/RIU can be achieved for the quasi (transverse magnetic) TM and quasi (transverse electric) TE modes of the proposed biosensor, respectively. The reportedbiosensor has advantages of integration of microfluidics setup, waveguide and metallic layers into a single structure. As a result, compact biosensor with better integration compared to conventional optical fiber SPR biosensors can be obtained.

Keywords: Biosensor, Silver, Gold, surface plasmon, photonic crystal fibers

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27 Sensitivity Enhancement in Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, S. K. Srivastava, Angad S. Kushwaha, Monika Srivastava

Abstract:

A lot of research work is going on in the field of graphene based SPR biosensor. In the conventional SPR based biosensor, graphene is used as a biomolecular recognition element. Graphene adsorbs biomolecules due to carbon based ring structure through sp2 hybridization. The proposed SPR based biosensor configuration will open a new avenue for efficient biosensing by taking the advantage of Graphene and its fascinating nanofabrication properties. In the present study, we have studied an SPR biosensor based on graphene mediated by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Gold. In the proposed structure, prism (BK7) base is coated with Zinc Oxide followed by Gold and Graphene. Using the waveguide approach by transfer matrix method, the proposed structure has been investigated theoretically. We have analyzed the reflectance versus incidence angle curve using He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. Angle, at which the reflectance is minimized, termed as SPR angle. The shift in SPR angle is responsible for biosensing. From the analysis of reflectivity curve, we have found that there is a shift in SPR angle as the biomolecules get attached on the graphene surface. This graphene layer also enhances the sensitivity of the SPR sensor as compare to the conventional sensor. The sensitivity also increases by increasing the no of graphene layer. So in our proposed biosensor we have found minimum possible reflectivity with optimum level of sensitivity.

Keywords: Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, Sensitivity, transfer matrix method

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26 An Electrochemical Enzymatic Biosensor Based on Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Poly (3,4 Ethylenedioxythiophene) Nanocomposites for Organophosphate Detection

Authors: Navpreet Kaur, Himkusha Thakur, Nirmal Prabhakar

Abstract:

The most controversial issue in crop production is the use of Organophosphate insecticides. This is evident in many reports that Organophosphate (OP) insecticides, among the broad range of pesticides are mainly involved in acute and chronic poisoning cases. OPs detection is of crucial importance for health protection, food and environmental safety. In our study, a nanocomposite of poly (3,4 ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been deposited electrochemically onto the surface of fluorine doped tin oxide sheets (FTO) for the analysis of malathion OP. The -COOH functionalization of MWCNTs has been done for the covalent binding with amino groups of AChE enzyme. The use of PEDOT-MWCNT films exhibited an excellent conductivity, enables fast transfer kinetics and provided a favourable biocompatible microenvironment for AChE, for the significant malathion OP detection. The prepared biosensors were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical studies. Various optimization studies were done for different parameters including pH (7.5), AChE concentration (50 mU), substrate concentration (0.3 mM) and inhibition time (10 min). Substrate kinetics has been performed and studied for the determination of Michaelis Menten constant. The detection limit for malathion OP was calculated to be 1 fM within the linear range 1 fM to 1 µM. The activity of inhibited AChE enzyme was restored to 98% of its original value by 2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide (2-PAM) (5 mM) treatment for 11 min. The oxime 2-PAM is able to remove malathion from the active site of AChE by means of trans-esterification reaction. The storage stability and reusability of the prepared biosensor is observed to be 30 days and seven times, respectively. The application of the developed biosensor has also been evaluated for spiked lettuce sample. Recoveries of malathion from the spiked lettuce sample ranged between 96-98%. The low detection limit obtained by the developed biosensor made them reliable, sensitive and a low cost process.

Keywords: Biosensor, malathion, acetylcholinesterase, organophosphates, PEDOT-MWCNT, oxime (2-PAM)

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25 Ultra-Sensitive and Real Time Detection of ZnO NW Using QCM

Authors: Changsoo Han, Sungsoo Na, Juneseok You, Chanho Park, Kuewhan Jang, Jaeyeong Choi, Hyunjun Park, Sehyun Shin

Abstract:

Nanomaterials occur toxic effects to human being or ecological systems. Some sensors have been developed to detect toxic materials and the standard for toxic materials has been established. Zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) is known for toxic material. By ionizing in cell body, ionized Zn ions are overexposed to cell components, which cause critical damage or death. In this paper, we detected ZnO NW in water using QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) and ssDNA (single strand DNA). We achieved 30 minutes of response time for real time detection and 100 pg/mL of limit of detection (LOD).

Keywords: Biosensor, QCM, zinc oxide nanowire, ssDNA, toxic material

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24 Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW)-Induced Mixing Enhances Biomolecules Kinetics in a Novel Phase-Interrogation Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: M. Agostini, A. Sonato, G. Greco, M. Travagliati, G. Ruffato, E. Gazzola, D. Liuni, F. Romanato, M. Cecchini

Abstract:

Since their first demonstration in the early 1980s, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely recognized as useful tools for detecting chemical and biological species, and the interest of the scientific community toward this technology has known a rapid growth in the past two decades owing to their high sensitivity, label-free operation and possibility of real-time detection. Recent works have suggested that a turning point in SPR sensor research would be the combination of SPR strategies with other technologies in order to reduce human handling of samples, improve integration and plasmonic sensitivity. In this light, microfluidics has been attracting growing interest. By properly designing microfluidic biochips it is possible to miniaturize the analyte-sensitive areas with an overall reduction of the chip dimension, reduce the liquid reagents and sample volume, improve automation, and increase the number of experiments in a single biochip by multiplexing approaches. However, as the fluidic channel dimensions approach the micron scale, laminar flows become dominant owing to the low Reynolds numbers that typically characterize microfluidics. In these environments mixing times are usually dominated by diffusion, which can be prohibitively long and lead to long-lasting biochemistry experiments. An elegant method to overcome these issues is to actively perturb the liquid laminar flow by exploiting surface acoustic waves (SAWs). With this work, we demonstrate a new approach for SPR biosensing based on the combination of microfluidics, SAW-induced mixing and the real-time phase-interrogation grating-coupling SPR technology. On a single lithium niobate (LN) substrate the nanostructured SPR sensing areas, interdigital transducer (IDT) for SAW generation and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chambers were fabricated. SAWs, impinging on the microfluidic chamber, generate acoustic streaming inside the fluid, leading to chaotic advection and thus improved fluid mixing, whilst analytes binding detection is made via SPR method based on SPP excitation via gold metallic grating upon azimuthal orientation and phase interrogation. Our device has been fully characterized in order to separate for the very first time the unwanted SAW heating effect with respect to the fluid stirring inside the microchamber that affect the molecules binding dynamics. Avidin/biotin assay and thiol-polyethylene glycol (bPEG-SH) were exploited as model biological interaction and non-fouling layer respectively. Biosensing kinetics time reduction with SAW-enhanced mixing resulted in a ≈ 82% improvement for bPEG-SH adsorption onto gold and ≈ 24% for avidin/biotin binding—≈ 50% and 18% respectively compared to the heating only condition. These results demonstrate that our biochip can significantly reduce the duration of bioreactions that usually require long times (e.g., PEG-based sensing layer, low concentration analyte detection). The sensing architecture here proposed represents a new promising technology satisfying the major biosensing requirements: scalability and high throughput capabilities. The detection system size and biochip dimension could be further reduced and integrated; in addition, the possibility of reducing biological experiment duration via SAW-driven active mixing and developing multiplexing platforms for parallel real-time sensing could be easily combined. In general, the technology reported in this study can be straightforwardly adapted to a great number of biological system and sensing geometry.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Biosensor, Surface Plasmon Resonance, surface acoustic wave

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23 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Coconut Oil and Fabrication of a Non Enzymatic Cholesterol Biosensor

Authors: Mitali Saha, Soma Das

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The fabrication of nanoscale materials for use in chemical sensing, biosensing and biological analyses has proven a promising avenue in the last few years. Cholesterol has aroused considerable interest in recent years on account of its being an important parameter in clinical diagnosis. There is a strong positive correlation between high serum cholesterol level and arteriosclerosis, hypertension, and myocardial infarction. Enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors have shown high selectivity and excellent sensitivity, but the enzyme is easily denatured during its immobilization procedure and its activity is also affected by temperature, pH, and toxic chemicals. Besides, the reproducibility of enzyme-based sensors is not very good which further restrict the application of cholesterol biosensor. It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes could promote electron transfer with various redox active proteins, ranging from cytochrome c to glucose oxidase with a deeply embedded redox center. In continuation of our earlier work on the synthesis and applications of carbon and metal based nanoparticles, we have reported here the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CCNT) by burning coconut oil under insufficient flow of air using an oil lamp. The soot was collected from the top portion of the flame, where the temperature was around 6500C which was purified, functionalized and then characterized by SEM, p-XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The SEM micrographs showed the formation of tubular structure of CCNT having diameter below 100 nm. The XRD pattern indicated the presence of two predominant peaks at 25.20 and 43.80, which corresponded to (002) and (100) planes of CCNT respectively. The Raman spectrum (514 nm excitation) showed the presence of 1600 cm-1 (G-band) related to the vibration of sp2-bonded carbon and at 1350 cm-1 (D-band) responsible for the vibrations of sp3-bonded carbon. A nonenzymatic cholesterol biosensor was then fabricated on an insulating Teflon material containing three silver wires at the surface, covered by CCNT, obtained from coconut oil. Here, CCNTs worked as working as well as counter electrodes whereas reference electrode and electric contacts were made of silver. The dimensions of the electrode was 3.5 cm×1.0 cm×0.5 cm (length× width × height) and it is ideal for working with 50 µL volume like the standard screen printed electrodes. The voltammetric behavior of cholesterol at CCNT electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammeter and differential pulse voltammeter using 0.001 M H2SO4 as electrolyte. The influence of the experimental parameters on the peak currents of cholesterol like pH, accumulation time, and scan rates were optimized. Under optimum conditions, the peak current was found to be linear in the cholesterol concentration range from 1 µM to 50 µM with a sensitivity of ~15.31 μAμM−1cm−2 with lower detection limit of 0.017 µM and response time of about 6s. The long-term storage stability of the sensor was tested for 30 days and the current response was found to be ~85% of its initial response after 30 days.

Keywords: Biosensor, cholesterol, coconut oil, CCNT

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22 Biosensor: An Approach towards Sustainable Environment

Authors: Rita Kumar, Purnima Dhall

Abstract:

Introduction: River Yamuna, in the national capital territory (NCT), and also the primary source of drinking water for the city. Delhi discharges about 3,684 MLD of sewage through its 18 drains in to the Yamuna. Water quality monitoring is an important aspect of water management concerning to the pollution control. Public concern and legislation are now a day’s demanding better environmental control. Conventional method for estimating BOD5 has various drawbacks as they are expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of highly trained personnel. Stringent forthcoming regulations on the wastewater have necessitated the urge to develop analytical system, which contribute to greater process efficiency. Biosensors offer the possibility of real time analysis. Methodology: In the present study, a novel rapid method for the determination of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) has been developed. Using the developed method, the BOD of a sample can be determined within 2 hours as compared to 3-5 days with the standard BOD3-5day assay. Moreover, the test is based on specified consortia instead of undefined seeding material therefore it minimizes the variability among the results. The device is coupled to software which automatically calculates the dilution required, so, the prior dilution of the sample is not required before BOD estimation. The developed BOD-Biosensor makes use of immobilized microorganisms to sense the biochemical oxygen demand of industrial wastewaters having low–moderate–high biodegradability. The method is quick, robust, online and less time consuming. Findings: The results of extensive testing of the developed biosensor on drains demonstrate that the BOD values obtained by the device correlated with conventional BOD values the observed R2 value was 0.995. The reproducibility of the measurements with the BOD biosensor was within a percentage deviation of ±10%. Advantages of developed BOD biosensor • Determines the water pollution quickly in 2 hours of time; • Determines the water pollution of all types of waste water; • Has prolonged shelf life of more than 400 days; • Enhanced repeatability and reproducibility values; • Elimination of COD estimation. Distinctiveness of Technology: • Bio-component: can determine BOD load of all types of waste water; • Immobilization: increased shelf life > 400 days, extended stability and viability; • Software: Reduces manual errors, reduction in estimation time. Conclusion: BiosensorBOD can be used to measure the BOD value of the real wastewater samples. The BOD biosensor showed good reproducibility in the results. This technology is useful in deciding treatment strategies well ahead and so facilitating discharge of properly treated water to common water bodies. The developed technology has been transferred to M/s Forbes Marshall Pvt Ltd, Pune.

Keywords: Biosensor, monitoring, immobilized, biochemical oxygen demand, Yamuna

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21 Fluorescence-Based Biosensor for Dopamine Detection Using Quantum Dots

Authors: Sylwia Krawiec, Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha

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Nowadays, progress in the field of the analytical methods is of great interest for reliable biological research and medical diagnostics. Classical techniques of chemical analysis, despite many advantages, do not permit to obtain immediate results or automatization of measurements. Chemical sensors have displaced the conventional analytical methods - sensors combine precision, sensitivity, fast response and the possibility of continuous-monitoring. Biosensor is a chemical sensor, which except of conventer also possess a biologically active material, which is the basis for the detection of specific chemicals in the sample. Each biosensor device mainly consists of two elements: a sensitive element, where is recognition of receptor-analyte, and a transducer element which receives the signal and converts it into a measurable signal. Through these two elements biosensors can be divided in two categories: due to the recognition element (e.g immunosensor) and due to the transducer (e.g optical sensor). Working of optical sensor is based on measurements of quantitative changes of parameters characterizing light radiation. The most often analyzed parameters include: amplitude (intensity), frequency or polarization. Changes in the optical properties one of the compound which reacts with biological material coated on the sensor is analyzed by a direct method, in an indirect method indicators are used, which changes the optical properties due to the transformation of the testing species. The most commonly used dyes in this method are: small molecules with an aromatic ring, like rhodamine, fluorescent proteins, for example green fluorescent protein (GFP), or nanoparticles such as quantum dots (QDs). Quantum dots have, in comparison with organic dyes, much better photoluminescent properties, better bioavailability and chemical inertness. These are semiconductor nanocrystals size of 2-10 nm. This very limited number of atoms and the ‘nano’-size gives QDs these highly fluorescent properties. Rapid and sensitive detection of dopamine is extremely important in modern medicine. Dopamine is very important neurotransmitter, which mainly occurs in the brain and central nervous system of mammals. Dopamine is responsible for the transmission information of moving through the nervous system and plays an important role in processes of learning or memory. Detection of dopamine is significant for diseases associated with the central nervous system such as Parkinson or schizophrenia. In developed optical biosensor for detection of dopamine, are used graphene quantum dots (GQDs). In such sensor dopamine molecules coats the GQD surface - in result occurs quenching of fluorescence due to Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). Changes in fluorescence correspond to specific concentrations of the neurotransmitter in tested sample, so it is possible to accurately determine the concentration of dopamine in the sample.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Biosensor, Fluorescence, Dopamine

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20 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi

Abstract:

‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: Biosensor, cavitas sensor, contact lens, mouthguard

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19 A Stepwise Approach for Piezoresistive Microcantilever Biosensor Optimization

Authors: Amal E. Ahmed, Levent Trabzon

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Due to the low concentration of the analytes in biological samples, the use of Biological Microelectromechanical System (Bio-MEMS) biosensors for biomolecules detection results in a minuscule output signal that is not good enough for practical applications. In response to this, a need has arisen for an optimized biosensor capable of giving high output signal in response the detection of few analytes in the sample; the ultimate goal is being able to convert the attachment of a single biomolecule into a measurable quantity. For this purpose, MEMS microcantilevers based biosensors emerged as a promising sensing solution because it is simple, cheap, very sensitive and more importantly does not need analytes optical labeling (Label-free). Among the different microcantilever transducing techniques, piezoresistive based microcantilever biosensors became more prominent because it works well in liquid environments and has an integrated readout system. However, the design of piezoresistive microcantilevers is not a straightforward problem due to coupling between the design parameters, constraints, process conditions, and performance. It was found that the parameters that can be optimized to enhance the sensitivity of Piezoresistive microcantilever-based sensors are: cantilever dimensions, cantilever material, cantilever shape, piezoresistor material, piezoresistor doping level, piezoresistor dimensions, piezoresistor position, Stress Concentration Region's (SCR) shape and position. After a systematic analyzation of the effect of each design and process parameters on the sensitivity, a step-wise optimization approach was developed in which almost all these parameters were variated one at each step while fixing the others to get the maximum possible sensitivity at the end. At each step, the goal was to optimize the parameter in a way that it maximizes and concentrates the stress in the piezoresistor region for the same applied force thus get the higher sensitivity. Using this approach, an optimized sensor that has 73.5x times higher electrical sensitivity (ΔR⁄R) than the starting sensor was obtained. In addition to that, this piezoresistive microcantilever biosensor it is more sensitive than the other similar sensors previously reported in the open literature. The mechanical sensitivity of the final senior is -1.5×10-8 Ω/Ω ⁄pN; which means that for each 1pN (10-10 g) biomolecules attach to this biosensor; the piezoresistor resistivity will decrease by 1.5×10-8 Ω. Throughout this work COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, a commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool, has been used to simulate the sensor performance.

Keywords: Biosensor, microcantilever, piezoresistive, stress concentration region (SCR)

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18 Development of a Direct Immunoassay for Human Ferritin Using Diffraction-Based Sensing Method

Authors: Joel Ballesteros, Harriet Jane Caleja, Florian Del Mundo, Cherrie Pascual

Abstract:

Diffraction-based sensing was utilized in the quantification of human ferritin in blood serum to provide an alternative to label-based immunoassays currently used in clinical diagnostics and researches. The diffraction intensity was measured by the diffractive optics technology or dotLab™ system. Two methods were evaluated in this study: direct immunoassay and direct sandwich immunoassay. In the direct immunoassay, human ferritin was captured by human ferritin antibodies immobilized on an avidin-coated sensor while the direct sandwich immunoassay had an additional step for the binding of a detector human ferritin antibody on the analyte complex. Both methods were repeatable with coefficient of variation values below 15%. The direct sandwich immunoassay had a linear response from 10 to 500 ng/mL which is wider than the 100-500 ng/mL of the direct immunoassay. The direct sandwich immunoassay also has a higher calibration sensitivity with value 0.002 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1) compared to the 0.004 Diffractive Intensity (ng mL-1)-1 of the direct immunoassay. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values of the direct immunoassay were found to be 29 ng/mL and 98 ng/mL, respectively, while the direct sandwich immunoassay has a limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 8.2 ng/mL. In terms of accuracy, the direct immunoassay had a percent recovery of 88.8-93.0% in PBS while the direct sandwich immunoassay had 94.1 to 97.2%. Based on the results, the direct sandwich immunoassay is a better diffraction-based immunoassay in terms of accuracy, LOD, LOQ, linear range, and sensitivity. The direct sandwich immunoassay was utilized in the determination of human ferritin in blood serum and the results are validated by Chemiluminescent Magnetic Immunoassay (CMIA). The calculated Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.995 and the p-values of the paired-sample t-test were less than 0.5 which show that the results of the direct sandwich immunoassay was comparable to that of CMIA and could be utilized as an alternative analytical method.

Keywords: Biosensor, Immunoassay, ferritin, diffraction

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17 Two-Step Patterning of Microfluidic Structures in Paper by Laser Cutting and Wax Printing for Mass Fabrication of Biosensor

Authors: Young Ho Kim, Bong Keun Kang, Sung Suk Oh, Jeong-Woo Sohn, Jong-Ryul Choi

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe two-step micro-pattering by using laser cutting and wax printing. Wax printing is performed only on the bridges for hydrophobic barriers. We prepared 405nm blue-violet laser module and wax pencil module. And, this two modules combine x-y plot. The hollow microstructure formed by laser patterning define the hydrophilic flowing paths. However, bridges are essential to avoid the cutting area being the island. Through the support bridges, microfluidic solution spread out to the unnecessary areas. Chromatography blotting paper was purchased from Whatman. We used 20x20 cm and 46x57 cm of chromatography blotting paper. Axis moving speed of x-y plot was the main parameter of optimization. For aligning between the two patterning, the paper sheet was taped at the bottom. After the two-step patterning, temperature curing step was done at 110-130 °C. The resolution of the fabrication and the potential of the multiplex detection were investigated.

Keywords: Biosensor, Microfluidic, µPADs, mass-fabrication

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16 Evaluation of DNA Oxidation and Chemical DNA Damage Using Electrochemiluminescent Enzyme/DNA Microfluidic Array

Authors: Itti Bist, Snehasis Bhakta, Di Jiang, Tia E. Keyes, Aaron Martin, Robert J. Forster, James F. Rusling

Abstract:

DNA damage from metabolites of lipophilic drugs and pollutants, generated by enzymes, represents a major toxicity pathway in humans. These metabolites can react with DNA to form either 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), which is the oxidative product of DNA or covalent DNA adducts, both of which are genotoxic and hence considered important biomarkers to detect cancer in humans. Therefore, detecting reactions of metabolites with DNA is an effective approach for the safety assessment of new chemicals and drugs. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) sensor array which can detect DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage in a single array, facilitating a more accurate diagnostic tool for genotoxicity screening. Layer-by-layer assembly of DNA and enzyme are assembled on the pyrolytic graphite array which is housed in a microfluidic device for sequential detection of two type of the DNA damages. Multiple enzyme reactions are run on test compounds using the array, generating toxic metabolites in situ. These metabolites react with DNA in the films to cause DNA oxidation and chemical DNA damage which are detected by ECL generating osmium compound and ruthenium polymer, respectively. The method is further validated by the formation of 8-oxodG and DNA adduct using similar films of DNA/enzyme on magnetic bead biocolloid reactors, hydrolyzing the DNA, and analyzing by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Hence, this combined DNA/enzyme array/LC-MS approach can efficiently explore metabolic genotoxic pathways for drugs and environmental chemicals.

Keywords: Biosensor, DNA damage, electrochemiluminescence, microfluidic array

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15 Simulation Model of Biosensor Based on Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Kholod Hajo

Abstract:

In this study COMSOL Multiphysics was used to design lateral flow biosensors (LFBs) which provide advantages in low cost, simplicity, rapidity, stability and portability thus making LFBs popular in biomedical, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This study was focused on simulation model of biosensor based on gold nanoparticles (GNPs) designed using software package (COMSOL Multiphysics), the magnitude of the laminar velocity field in the flow cell, concentration distribution in the analyte stream and surface coverage of adsorbed species and average fractional surface coverage of adsorbed analyte were discussed from the model and couples of suggestion was given in order to functionalize GNPs and to increase the accuracy of the biosensor design, all above were obtained acceptable results.

Keywords: Biosensor, model, gold nanoparticles, COMSOL multiphysics

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14 Integration of Magnetoresistance Sensor in Microfluidic Chip for Magnetic Particles Detection

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Pei-Sheng Wu, Yu-Chi Kuo, Yin-Chou Huang, Tan-Yueh Chen, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger

Abstract:

Application of magnetic particles (MPs) has been applied in biomedical field for many years. There are lots of advantages through this mediator including high biocompatibility and multi-diversified bio-applications. However, current techniques for evaluating the quantity of the magnetic-labeled sample assays are rare. In this paper, a Wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor integrated with a homemade detecting system was fabricated and used to quantify the concentration of MPs. The homemade detecting system has shown high detecting sensitivity of 10 μg/μl of MPs with optimized parameter vertical magnetic field 100 G, horizontal magnetic field 2 G and flow rate 0.4 ml/min.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Biosensor, Magnetic Particles, Magnetoresistive Sensors

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13 DNA-Based Gold Nanoprobe Biosensor to Detect Pork Contaminant

Authors: Sri Mulijani, Rizka Ardhiyana, Liesbetini Haditjaroko, Reki Ashadi Wicaksono, Raafqi Ranasasmita

Abstract:

Designing a sensitive, specific and easy to use method to detect pork contamination in the food industry remains a major challenge. In the current study, we developed a sensitive thiol-bond AuNP-Probe biosensor that will change color when detecting pork DNA in the Cytochrome B region. The interaction between the biosensors and DNA sample is measured by spectrophotometer at 540 nm. The biosensor is made by reducing gold with trisodium citrate to produce gold nanoparticle with 39.05 nm diameter. The AuNP-Probe biosensor (gold nanoprobe) achieved 16.04 ng DNA/µl limit of detection and 53.48 ng DNA/µl limit of quantification. The linearity (R2) between color absorbance changes and DNA concentration is 0.9916. The biosensor has a good specificty as it does not cross-react with DNA of chicken and beef. To verify specificity towards the target sequence, PCR was tested to the target sequence and reacted to the PCR product with the biosensor. The PCR DNA isolate resulted in a 2.7 fold higher absorbance compared to pork-DNA isolate alone (without PCR). The sensitivity and specificity of the method show the promising application of the thiol-bond AuNP biosensor in pork-detection.

Keywords: Biosensor, pork meat, qPCR, DNA probe, gold nanoparticle (AuNP)

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12 Reagentless Detection of Urea Based on ZnO-CuO Composite Thin Film

Authors: Monika Tomar, Vinay Gupta, Neha Batra Bali

Abstract:

A reagentless biosensor for detection of urea based on ZnO-CuO composite thin film is presented in following work. Biosensors have immense potential for varied applications ranging from environmental to clinical testing, health care, and cell analysis. Immense growth in the field of biosensors is due to the huge requirement in today’s world to develop techniques which are both cost effective and accurate for prevention of disease manifestation. The human body comprises of numerous biomolecules which in their optimum levels are essential for functioning. However mismanaged levels of these biomolecules result in major health issues. Urea is one of the key biomolecules of interest. Its estimation is of paramount significance not only for healthcare sector but also from environmental perspectives. If level of urea in human blood/serum is abnormal, i.e., above or below physiological range (15-40mg/dl)), it may lead to diseases like renal failure, hepatic failure, nephritic syndrome, cachexia, urinary tract obstruction, dehydration, shock, burns and gastrointestinal, etc. Various metal nanoparticles, conducting polymer, metal oxide thin films, etc. have been exploited to act as matrix to immobilize urease to fabricate urea biosensor. Amongst them, Zinc Oxide (ZnO), a semiconductor metal oxide with a wide band gap is of immense interest as an efficient matrix in biosensors by virtue of its natural abundance, biocompatibility, good electron communication feature and high isoelectric point (9.5). In spite of being such an attractive candidate, ZnO does not possess a redox couple of its own which necessitates the use of electroactive mediators for electron transfer between the enzyme and the electrode, thereby causing hindrance in realization of integrated and implantable biosensor. In the present work, an effort has been made to fabricate a matrix based on ZnO-CuO composite prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique in order to incorporate redox properties in ZnO matrix and to utilize the same for reagentless biosensing applications. The prepared bioelectrode Urs/(ZnO-CuO)/ITO/glass exhibits high sensitivity (70µAmM⁻¹cm⁻²) for detection of urea (5-200 mg/dl) with high stability (shelf life ˃ 10 weeks) and good selectivity (interference ˂ 4%). The enhanced sensing response obtained for composite matrix is attributed to the efficient electron exchange between ZnO-CuO matrix and immobilized enzymes, and subsequently fast transfer of generated electrons to the electrode via matrix. The response is encouraging for fabricating reagentless urea biosensor based on ZnO-CuO matrix.

Keywords: Biosensor, urea, reagentless, ZnO-CuO composite

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11 The Strategy for Detection of Catecholamines in Body Fluids: Optical Sensor

Authors: Joanna Cabaj, Karol Malecha, Sylwia Baluta, Kamila Drzozga

Abstract:

Catecholamines are the principal neurotransmitters that mediate a variety of the central nervous system functions, such as motor control, cognition, emotion, memory processing, and endocrine modulation. Dysfunctions in catecholamine neurotransmission are induced in some neurologic and neuropsychiatric diseases. Changeable neurotransmitters level in biological fluids can be a marker of several neurological disorders. Because of its significance in analytical techniques and diagnostics, sensitive and selective detection of neurotransmitters is increasingly attracting a lot of attention in different areas of bio-analysis or biomedical research. Recently, fluorescent techniques for detection of catecholamines have attracted interests due to their reasonable cost, convenient control, as well as maneuverability in biological environments. Nevertheless, with the observed need for a sensitive and selective catecholamines sensor, the development of a convenient method for this neurotransmitter is still at its basic level. The manipulation of nanostructured materials in conjunction with biological molecules has led to the development of a new class of hybrid modified biosensors in which both enhancement of charge transport and biological activity preservation may be obtained. Immobilization of biomaterials on electrode surfaces is the crucial step in fabricating electrochemical as well as optical biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Continuing systematic investigation in the manufacturing of enzyme–conducting sensitive systems, here is presented a convenient fluorescence sensing strategy for catecholamines detection based on FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) phenomena observed for, i.e., complexes of Fe²⁺ and epinephrine. The biosensor was constructed using low temperature co-fired ceramics technology (LTCC). This sensing system used the catalytical oxidation of catecholamines and quench of the strong luminescence of obtained complexes due to FRET. The detection process was based on the oxidation of substrate in the presence of the enzyme–laccase/tyrosinase.

Keywords: Biosensor, enzyme, conducting polymer, FRET, LTCC

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10 Increase of Sensitivity in 3D Suspended Polymeric Microfluidic Platform through Lateral Misalignment

Authors: Muthukumaran Packirisamy, Ehsan Yazdanpanah Moghadam

Abstract:

In the present study, a design of the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform is introduced that is fabricated with three polymeric layers. Changing the microchannel plane to be perpendicular to microcantilever plane, drastically decreases moment of inertia in that direction. In addition, the platform is made of polymer (around five orders of magnitude less compared to silicon). It causes significant increase in the sensitivity of the cantilever deflection. Next, although the dimensions of this platform are constant, by misaligning the embedded microchannels laterally in the suspended microfluidic platform, the sensitivity can be highly increased. The investigation is studied on four fluids including water, seawater, milk, and blood for flow ranges from low rate of 5 to 70 µl/min to obtain the best design with the highest sensitivity. The best design in this study shows the sensitivity increases around 50% for water, seawater, milk, and blood at the flow rate of 70 µl/min by just misaligning the embedded microchannels in the suspended polymeric microfluidic platform.

Keywords: Biosensor, MEMS, Microfluidic, microresonator

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9 Highly Specific DNA-Aptamer-Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Mercury (II) and Lead (II) Ions Detection in Water Samples

Authors: H. Abu-Ali, A. Nabok, T. Smith

Abstract:

Aptamers are single-strand of DNA or RNA nucleotides sequence which is designed in vitro using selection process known as SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) were developed for the selective detection of many toxic materials. In this work, we have developed an electrochemical biosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of Hg2+ and Pb2+ using a specific aptamer probe (SAP) labelled with ferrocene (or methylene blue) in (5′) end and the thiol group at its (3′) termini, respectively. The SAP has a specific coil structure that matching with G-G for Pb2+ and T-T for Hg2+ interaction binding nucleotides ions, respectively. Aptamers were immobilized onto surface of screen-printed gold electrodes via SH groups; then the cyclic voltammograms were recorded in binding buffer with the addition of the above metal salts in different concentrations. The resulted values of anode current increase upon binding heavy metal ions to aptamers and analyte due to the presence of electrochemically active probe, i.e. ferrocene or methylene blue group. The correlation between the anodic current values and the concentrations of Hg2+ and Pb2+ ions has been established in this work. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of using a specific DNA aptamers for electrochemical detection of heavy metals. Each increase in concentration of 0.1 μM results in an increase in the anode current value by simple DC electrochemical test i.e (Cyclic Voltammetry), thus providing an easy way of determining Hg2+ and Pb2+concentration.

Keywords: Biosensor, electrochemical, Dna, aptamer, based, highly, specific

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8 Superparamagnetic Sensor with Lateral Flow Immunoassays as Platforms for Biomarker Quantification

Authors: M. Salvador, J. C. Martinez-Garcia, A. Moyano, M. C. Blanco-Lopez, M. Rivas

Abstract:

Biosensors play a crucial role in the detection of molecules nowadays due to their advantages of user-friendliness, high selectivity, the analysis in real time and in-situ applications. Among them, Lateral Flow Immunoassays (LFIAs) are presented among technologies for point-of-care bioassays with outstanding characteristics such as affordability, portability and low-cost. They have been widely used for the detection of a vast range of biomarkers, which do not only include proteins but also nucleic acids and even whole cells. Although the LFIA has traditionally been a positive/negative test, tremendous efforts are being done to add to the method the quantifying capability based on the combination of suitable labels and a proper sensor. One of the most successful approaches involves the use of magnetic sensors for detection of magnetic labels. Bringing together the required characteristics mentioned before, our research group has developed a biosensor to detect biomolecules. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNPs) together with LFIAs play the fundamental roles. SPMNPs are detected by their interaction with a high-frequency current flowing on a printed micro track. By means of the instant and proportional variation of the impedance of this track provoked by the presence of the SPNPs, quantitative and rapid measurement of the number of particles can be obtained. This way of detection requires no external magnetic field application, which reduces the device complexity. On the other hand, the major limitations of LFIAs are that they are only qualitative or semiquantitative when traditional gold or latex nanoparticles are used as color labels. Moreover, the necessity of always-constant ambient conditions to get reproducible results, the exclusive detection of the nanoparticles on the surface of the membrane, and the short durability of the signal are drawbacks that can be advantageously overcome with the design of magnetically labeled LFIAs. The approach followed was to coat the SPIONs with a specific monoclonal antibody which targets the protein under consideration by chemical bonds. Then, a sandwich-type immunoassay was prepared by printing onto the nitrocellulose membrane strip a second antibody against a different epitope of the protein (test line) and an IgG antibody (control line). When the sample flows along the strip, the SPION-labeled proteins are immobilized at the test line, which provides magnetic signal as described before. Preliminary results using this practical combination for the detection and quantification of the Prostatic-Specific Antigen (PSA) shows the validity and consistency of the technique in the clinical range, where a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL is the established upper normal limit. Moreover, a LOD of 0.25 ng/mL was calculated with a confident level of 3 according to the IUPAC Gold Book definition. Its versatility has also been proved with the detection of other biomolecules such as troponin I (cardiac injury biomarker) or histamine.

Keywords: Biosensor, superparamagnetic nanoparticles, lateral flow immunoassays, point-of-care devices

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7 Low-Complex, High-Fidelity Two-Grades Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) Based Thermal Bonding Technique for Sealing a Thermoplastic Microfluidic Biosensor

Authors: Jorge Prada, Christina Cordes, Carsten Harms, Walter Lang

Abstract:

The development of microfluidic-based biosensors over the last years has shown an increasing employ of thermoplastic polymers as constitutive material. Their low-cost production, high replication fidelity, biocompatibility and optical-mechanical properties are sought after for the implementation of disposable albeit functional lab-on-chip solutions. Among the range of thermoplastic materials on use, the Cyclo-Olefin Copolymer (COC) stands out due to its optical transparency, which makes it a frequent choice as manufacturing material for fluorescence-based biosensors. Moreover, several processing techniques to complete a closed COC microfluidic biosensor have been discussed in the literature. The reported techniques differ however in their implementation, and therefore potentially add more or less complexity when using it in a mass production process. This work introduces and reports results on the application of a purely thermal bonding process between COC substrates, which were produced by the hot-embossing process, and COC foils containing screen-printed circuits. The proposed procedure takes advantage of the transition temperature difference between two COC grades foils to accomplish the sealing of the microfluidic channels. Patterned heat injection to the COC foil through the COC substrate is applied, resulting in consistent channel geometry uniformity. Measurements on bond strength and bursting pressure are shown, suggesting that this purely thermal bonding process potentially renders a technique which can be easily adapted into the thermoplastic microfluidic chip production workflow, while enables a low-cost as well as high-quality COC biosensor manufacturing process.

Keywords: Biosensor, Thermoplastics, cyclo-olefin copolymer, hot embossing, thermal bonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 114