Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Biosafety Related Abstracts

5 Combained Cultivation of Endemic Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Yeast with Antimicrobial Properties

Authors: A. M. Isakhanyan, F. N. Tkhruni, N. N. Yakimovich, Z. I. Kuvaeva, T. V. Khachatryan

Abstract:

Introduction: At present, the simbiotics based on different genera and species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts are used. One of the basic properties of probiotics is presence of antimicrobial activity and therefore selection of LAB and yeast strains for their co-cultivation with the aim of increasing of the activity is topical. Since probiotic yeast and bacteria have different mechanisms of action, natural synergies between species, higher viability and increasing of antimicrobial activity might be expected from mixing both types of probiotics. Endemic strains of LAB Enterococcus faecium БТK-64, Lactobaccilus plantarum БТK-66, Pediococcus pentosus БТK-28, Lactobacillus rhamnosus БТK-109 and Kluyveromyces lactis БТX-412, Saccharomycopsis sp. БТX- 151 strains of yeast, with probiotic properties and hight antimicrobial activity, were selected. Strains are deposited in "Microbial Depository Center" (MDC) SPC "Armbiotechnology". Methods: LAB and yeast strains were isolated from different dairy products from rural households of Armenia. The genotyping by 16S rRNA sequencing for LAB and 26S RNA sequencing for yeast were used. Combined cultivation of LAB and yeast strains was carried out in the nutrient media on the basis of milk whey, in anaerobic conditions (without shaker, in a thermostat at 37oC, 48 hours). The complex preparations were obtained by purification of cell free culture broth (CFC) broth by the combination of ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration methods. The spot-on-lawn method was applied for determination of antimicrobial activity and expressed in arbitrary units (AU/ml). Results. The obtained data showed that at the combined growth of bacteria and yeasts, the cultivation conditions (medium composition, time of growth, genera of LAB and yeasts) affected the display of antimicrobial activity. Purification of CFC broth allowed obtaining partially purified antimicrobial complex preparation which contains metabiotics from both bacteria and yeast. The complex preparation inhibited the growth of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic bacteria, isolated from various internal organs from diseased animals and poultry with greater efficiency than the preparations derived individually alone from yeast and LAB strains. Discussion. Thus, our data shown perspectives of creation of a new class of antimicrobial preparations on the basis of combined cultivation of endemic strains of LAB and yeast. Obtained results suggest the prospect of use of the partially purified complex preparations instead antibiotics in the agriculture and for food safety. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the RA MES State Committee of Science and Belarus National Foundation for Basic Research in the frames of the joint Armenian - Belarusian joint research project 13РБ-064.

Keywords: Biosafety, Lactic Acid Bacteria, Yeast, Antimicrobial activity, co-cultivation, metabiotics

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4 Cartagena Protocol and Beyond: Issues and Challenges in the Nigeria's Response to Biosafety

Authors: Dalhat Binta Dan - Ali

Abstract:

The reality of the new world economic order and the ever increasing importance of biotechnology in the global economy have necessitated the ratification of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety and the recent promulgation of Biosafety Act in Nigeria 2015. The legal regimes are anchored on the need to create an enabling environment for the flourishing of bio-trade and also to ensure the safety of the environment and human health. This paper critically examines the legal framework on biosafety by taking a cursory look at its philosophical foundation, key issues and milestones. The paper argues that the extant laws, though a giant leap in the establishment of a legal framework on biosafety, it posits that the legal framework raises debate and controversy on the difficulties of risk assessment on biodiversity and human health, other challenges includes lack of sound institutional capacity and the regimes direction of a hybrid approach between environmental conservation and trade issues. The paper recommend the need for the country to do more in the area of stimulating awareness and establishment of a sound institutional capacity to enable the law ensure adequate level of protection in the field of safe transfer, handling, and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Nigeria.

Keywords: Challenges, Environment, Biosafety, Issues, Cartagena protocol, biotrade, genetically modified organism (GMOs)

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3 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

Abstract:

Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: Biosafety, Estuarine, Prevalence, Vibrios

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2 Biorisk Management Education for Undergraduates Studying Clinical Microbiology at University in Japan

Authors: Shuji Fujimoto, Fumiko Kojima, Mika Shigematsu

Abstract:

Biorisk management (Biosafety/Biosecurity) is required for anyone working in a clinical laboratory (including medical/clinical research laboratories) where infectious agents and potentially hazardous biological materials are examined/stored. Proper education and training based on international standards of biorisk management should be provided not only as a part of laboratory safety program in work place but also as a part of introductory training at educational institutions for continuity and to elevate overall baseline of the biorisk management. We reported results of the pilot study of biorisk management education for graduate students majored in laboratory diagnostics previously. However, postgraduate education is still late in their profession and the participants’ interview also revealed importance and demands of earlier biorisk management education for undergraduates. The aim of this study is to identify the need for biosafety/biosecurity education and training program which is designed for undergraduate students who are entering the profession in clinical microbiology. We modified the previous program to include more basic topics and explanations (risk management, principles of safe clinical lab practices, personal protective equipment, disinfection, disposal of biological substances) and provided incorporating in the routine educational system for faculty of medical sciences in Kyushu University. The results of the pre and post examinations showed that the knowledge of the students on biorisk control had developed effectively as a proof of effectiveness of the program even in the undergraduate students. Our study indicates that administrating the basic biorisk management program in the earlier stage of learning will add positive impact to the understanding of biosafety to the health professional education.

Keywords: Biosafety, Clinical Microbiology, Biosecurity, biorisk management, education for undergraduates

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1 Problems and Prospects of Agricultural Biotechnology in Nigeria’s Developing Economy

Authors: Samson Abayomi Olasoju, Olufemi Adekunle, Titilope Edun, Johnson Owoseni

Abstract:

Science offers opportunities for revolutionizing human activities, enriched by input from scientific research and technology. Biotechnology is a major force for development in developing countries such as Nigeria. It is found to contribute to solving human problems like water and food insecurity that impede national development and threaten peace wherever it is applied. This review identified the problems of agricultural biotechnology in Nigeria. On the part of rural farmers, there is a lack of adequate knowledge or awareness of biotechnology despite the fact that they constitute the bulk of Nigerian farmers. On part of the government, the problems include: lack of adequate implementation of government policy on bio-safety and genetically modified products, inadequate funding of education as well as research and development of products related to biotechnology. Other problems include: inadequate infrastructures (including laboratory), poor funding and lack of national strategies needed for development and running of agricultural biotechnology. In spite of all the challenges associated with agricultural biotechnology, its prospects still remain great if Nigeria is to meet with the food needs of the country’s ever increasing population. The introduction of genetically engineered products will lead to the high productivity needed for commercialization and food security. Insect, virus and other related diseases resistant crops and livestock are another viable area of contribution of biotechnology to agricultural production. In conclusion, agricultural biotechnology will not only ensure food security, but, in addition, will ensure that the local farmers utilize appropriate technology needed for large production, leading to the prosperity of the farmers and national economic growth, provided government plays its role of adequate funding and good policy implementation.

Keywords: Biotechnology, Food Security, Biosafety, Genetic Engineering, Genetic Modification

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