Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

biopolymer Related Abstracts

16 Biotransformation of Glycerine Pitch as Renewable Carbon Resource into P(3HB-co-4HB) Biopolymer

Authors: Amirul Al-Ashraf Abdullah, Hema Ramachandran, Iszatty Ismail


Oleochemical industry in Malaysia has been diversifying significantly due to the abundant supply of both palm and kernel oils as raw materials as well as the high demand for downstream products such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols and glycerine. However, environmental awareness is growing rapidly in Malaysia because oleochemical industry is one of the palm-oil based industries that possess risk to the environment. Glycerine pitch is one of the scheduled wastes generated from the fatty acid plants in Malaysia and its discharge may cause a serious environmental problem. Therefore, it is imperative to find alternative applications for this waste glycerine. Consequently, the aim of this research is to explore the application of glycerine pitch as direct fermentation substrate in the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer, aiming to contribute toward the sustainable production of biopolymer in the world. Utilization of glycerine pitch (10 g/l) together with 1,4-butanediol (5 g/l) had resulted in the achievement of 40 mol% 4HB monomer with the highest PHA concentration of 2.91 g/l. Synthesis of yellow pigment which exhibited antimicrobial properties occurred simultaneously with the production of P(3HB-co-4HB) through the use of glycerine pitch as renewable carbon resource. Utilization of glycerine pitch in the biosynthesis of P(3HB-co-4HB) will not only contribute to reducing society’s dependence on non-renewable resources but also will promote the development of cost efficiency microbial fermentation towards biosustainability and green technology.

Keywords: biopolymer, glycerine pitch, natural pigment, P(3HB-co-4HB)

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15 Biodegradable Polymeric Composites of Polylactide and Epoxidized Natural Rubber

Authors: Masek A., Zaborski M., Diakowska K.


Polymeric materials have found their use almost in every branch of industry worldwide. Most of them constitute so-called “petropolymers" obtained from crude oil. However literature information sounds a warning that its global sources are running out. Thus, it seems that one should search for polymeric materials from renewable raw materials belonging to the group of green polymers. Therefore on account of environmental protection and the issue of sustainable technologies, nowadays greater and greater achievements have been observed in the field of green technology using engineering sciences to develop composite materials. The main aim of this study was to research what is the influence of biofillers on the properties. We used biofillers like : cellulose with different length of fiber, cellulose UFC100, silica and montmorillonite. In our research, we reported on biodegradable composites exhibitingspecificity properties by melt blending of polylactide (PLA), one of the commercially available biodegradable material, and epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) containing 50 mol.%epoxy group. Blending hydrophilic natural polymers and aliphatic polyesters is of significant interest, since it could lead to the development of a new range of biodegradable polymeric materials. We research the degradation of composites on the basis epoxidized natural rubber and poly(lactide). The addition of biofillers caused far-reaching degradation processes. The greatest resistance to biodegradation showed a montmorillonite-based mixtures, the smallest inflated cellulose fibers of varying length.The final aim in the present study is to use ENR and poly(lactide) to design composite from renewable resources with controlled degradation.

Keywords: Renewable Resources, degradation, biopolymer, polylactide

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14 Structural, Optical and Electrical Thin-Film Characterization Using Graphite-Bioepoxy Composite Materials

Authors: Anika Zafiah M. Rus, Nur Munirah Abdullah, M. F. L. Abdullah


The fabrication and characterization of composite films of graphite- bioepoxy is described. Free-standing thin films of ~0.1 mm thick are prepared using a simple solution mixing with mass proportion of 7/3 (bioepoxy/graphite) and drop casting at room temperature. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer are performed to evaluate the changes in chemical structure and adsorption spectra arising with the increasing of graphite weight loading (wt.%) into the biopolymer matrix. The morphologic study shows a homogeneously dispersed and strong particle bonding between the graphite and the bioepoxy, with conductivity of the film 103 S/m, confirming the efficiency of the processes.

Keywords: biopolymer, absorbance peak, graphite- bioepoxy composites, particle bonding

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13 Design of a Recombinant Expression System for Bacterial Cellulose Production

Authors: Gizem Buldum, Alexander Bismarck, Athanasios Mantalaris


Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on earth and it is currently being utilised in a multitude of industrial applications. Over the last 30 years, attention has been paid to the bacterial cellulose (BC), since BC exhibits unique physical, chemical and mechanical properties when compared to plant-based cellulose, including high purity and biocompatibility. Although Acetobacter xylinum is the most efficient producer of BC, it’s long doubling time results in insufficient yields of the cellulose production. This limits widespread and continued use of BC. In this study, E. coli BL21 (DE3) or E. coli HMS cells are selected as host organisms for the expression of bacterial cellulose synthase operon (bcs) of A.xylinum. The expression system is created based on pET-Duet1 and pCDF plasmid vectors, which carry bcs operon. The results showed that all bcs genes were successfully transferred and expressed in E.coli strains. The expressions of bcs proteins were shown by SDS and Native page analyses. The functionality of the bcs operon was proved by congo red binding assay. The effect of culturing temperature and the inducer concentration (IPTG) on cell growth and plasmid stability were monitored. The percentage of plasmid harboring cells induced with 0.025 mM IPTG was obtained as 85% at 22˚C in the end of 10-hr culturing period. It was confirmed that the high output cellulose production machinery of A.xylinum can be transferred into other organisms.

Keywords: Production, bacterial cellulose, biopolymer, recombinant expression system

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12 Potential of Enhancing Oil Recovery in Omani Oil Fields via Biopolymer Injection

Authors: Yahya Al-Wahaibi, Saif Al-Bahry, Abdulkadir Elshafie, Ali Al-Bemani, Sanket Joshi


Microbial enhanced oil recovery is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. There are a variety of metabolites produced by microorganisms that can be useful for oil recovery, like biopolymers-polysaccharides secreted by microbes, biodegradable thus environmentally friendly. Some fungi like Schizophyllum commune (a type of mushroom), and Aureobasidium pullulans are reported to produce biopolymers-schizophyllan and pullulan. Hence, we have procured a microbial strain (Schizophyllum commune) from American Type Culture Collection, which is reported for producing a biopolymer and also isolated several Omani strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from different samples. Studies were carried out for maintenance of the strains and primary screening of production media and environmental conditions for growth of S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates, for 30 days. The observed optimum growth and production temperature was ≤35 °C for S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates. Better growth was observed for both types of fungi under shaking conditions. The initial yield of lyophilized schizophyllan was ≥3.0 g/L, and the yield of pullulan was ≥0.5g/L. Both schizophyllan and pullulan were extracted in crude form and were partially identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which showed partial similarity in chemical structure with published biopolymers. The produced pullulan and schizophyllan increased the viscosity from 9-20 cp of the control media (without biopolymer) to 20 - 121.4 cp of the cell free broth at 0.1 s-1 shear rate at range of temperatures from 25–45 °C. Enhanced biopolymer production and its physicochemical and rheological properties under different environmental conditions (different temperatures, salt concentrations and wide range of pH), complete characterization and effects on oil recovery enhancement were also investigated in this study.

Keywords: biopolymer, Aureobasidium pullulans, oil recovery enhancement, Schizophyllum commune

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11 Bacterial Cellulose: A New Generation Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Biomaterial

Authors: Bhavana V. Mohite, Satish V. Patil


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative for plant cellulose (PC) that prevents global warming leads to preservation of nature. Although PC and BC have the same chemical structure, BC is superior with its properties like its size, purity, porosity, degree of polymerization, crystallinity and water holding capacity, thermal stability etc. On this background the present study focus production and applications of BC as antimicrobial wound dressing material. BC was produced by Gluconoacetobacter hansenii (strain NCIM 2529) under shaking condition and statistically enhanced upto 7.2 g/l from 3.0 g/l. BC was analyzed for its physico mechanical, structural and thermal characteristics. BC produced at shaking condition exhibits more suitable properties in support to its high performance applications. The potential of nano silver impregnated BC was determined for sustained release modern antimicrobial wound dressing material by swelling ratio, mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. BC in nanocomposite form with other synthetic polymer like PVA shows improvement in its properties such as swelling ratio (757% to 979%) and sustainable release of antibacterial agent. The high drug loading and release potential of BC was evidenced in support to its nature as antimicrobial wound dressing material. The nontoxic biocompatible nature of BC was confirmed by MTT assay on human epidermal cells with 90% cell viability that allows its application as a regenerative biomaterial. Thus, BC as a promising new generation antimicrobial wound dressing material was projected.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biopolymer, agitated culture, gluconoacetobacter hansenii

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10 Using Biopolymer Materials to Enhance Sandy Soil Behavior

Authors: Abdelazim Negm, Mohamed Ayeldeen


Nowadays, strength characteristics of soils have more importance due to increasing building loads. In some projects, geotechnical properties of the soils are be improved using man-made materials varying from cement-based to chemical-based. These materials have proven successful in improving the engineering properties of the soil such as shear strength, compressibility, permeability, bearing capacity etc.. However, the use of these artificial injection formulas often modifies the pH level of soil, contaminates soil and groundwater. This is attributed to their toxic and hazardous characteristics. Recently, an environmentally friendly soil treatment method or Biological Treatment Method (BTM) was to bond particles of loose sandy soils. This research paper presents the preliminary results of using biopolymers for strengthening cohesionless soil. Xanthan gum was identified for further study over a range of concentrations varying from 0.25% to 2.00%. Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide secreted by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris, used as a food additive and it is a nontoxic material. A series of direct shear, unconfined compressive strength, and permeability tests were carried out to investigate the behavior of sandy soil treated with Xanthan gum with different concentration ratios and at different curing times. Laser microscopy imaging was also conducted to study the microstructure of the treated sand. Experimental results demonstrated the compatibility of Xanthan gum to improve the geotechnical properties of sandy soil. Depending on the biopolymer concentration, it was observed that the biopolymers effectively increased the cohesion intercept and stiffness of the treated sand and reduced the permeability of sand. The microscopy imaging indicates that the cross-links of the biopolymers through and over the soil particles increase with the increase of the biopolymer concentration.

Keywords: Sand, Permeability, Shear Strength, biopolymer, direct shear, xanthan gum

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9 Hydroxyapatite from Biowaste for the Reinforcement of Polymer

Authors: M. D. H. Beg, John O. Akindoyo, Suriati Binti Ghazali, Nitthiyah Jeyaratnam


Regeneration of bone due to the many health challenges arising from traumatic effects of bone loss, bone tumours and other bone infections is fast becoming indispensable. Over the period of time, some approaches have been undertaken to mitigate this challenge. This includes but not limited to xenografts, allografts, autografts as well as artificial substitutions like bioceramics, synthetic cements and metals. However, most of these techniques often come along with peculiar limitation and problems such as morbidity, availability, disease transmission, collateral site damage or absolute rejection by the body as the case may be. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is very compatible and suitable for this application. However, most of the common methods for HA synthesis are expensive and environmentally unfriendly. Extraction of HA from bio-wastes have been perceived not only to be cost effective, but also environment-friendly. In this research, HA was produced from bio-waste: namely bovine bones through a combination of hydrothermal chemical processes and ordinary calcination techniques. Structure and property of the HA was carried out through different characterization techniques (such as TGA, FTIR, DSC, XRD and BET). The synthesized HA was found to possess similar properties to stoichiometric HA with highly desirable thermal, degradation, structural and porous properties. This material is unique for its potential minimal cost, environmental friendliness and property controllability. It is also perceived to be suitable for tissue and bone engineering applications.

Keywords: Bone, Biomaterial, hydroxyapatite, biopolymer

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8 Flow Performance of Hybrid Cement Based Mortars

Authors: Z. Abdollahnejad, M. Kheradmand, F. Pacheco Torgal


The workability of hybrid alkaline cements is a field of knowledge that still needs further research efforts. This paper reports experimental results of 32 hybrid cement mixes regarding the joint effect of sodium hydroxide concentration, the use of a commercial superplasticizer and a biopolymer on the flow and compressive strength performance. The results show that the use of commercial admixtures led to a slightly increase in the flow of mortars with lower sodium hydroxide concentration.

Keywords: fly ash, Flow, biopolymer, waste glass, waste reuse, hybrid cement, polycarboxylate

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7 Ultrasonic Micro Injection Molding: Manufacturing of Micro Plates of Biomaterials

Authors: Ariadna Manresa, Ines Ferrer


Introduction: Ultrasonic moulding process (USM) is a recent injection technology used to manufacture micro components. It is able to melt small amounts of material so the waste of material is certainly reduced comparing to microinjection molding. This is an important advantage when the materials are expensive like medical biopolymers. Micro-scaled components are involved in a variety of uses, such as biomedical applications. It is required replication fidelity so it is important to stabilize the process and minimize the variability of the responses. The aim of this research is to investigate the influence of the main process parameters on the filling behaviour, the dimensional accuracy and the cavity pressure when a micro-plate is manufactured by biomaterials such as PLA and PCL. Methodology or Experimental Procedure: The specimens are manufactured using a Sonorus 1G Ultrasound Micro Molding Machine. The used geometry is a rectangular micro-plate of 15x5mm and 1mm of thickness. The materials used for the investigation are PLA and PCL due to biocompatible and degradation properties. The experimentation is divided into two phases. Firstly, the influence of process parameters (vibration amplitude, sonotrodo velocity, ultrasound time and compaction force) on filling behavior is analysed, in Phase 1. Next, when filling cavity is assured, the influence of both cooling time and force compaction on the cavity pressure, part temperature and dimensional accuracy is instigated, which is done in Phase. Results and Discussion: Filling behavior depends on sonotrodo velocity and vibration amplitude. When the ultrasonic time is higher, more ultrasonic energy is applied and the polymer temperature increases. Depending on the cooling time, it is possible that when mold is opened, the micro-plate temperature is too warm. Consequently, the polymer relieve its stored internal energy (ultrasonic and thermal) expanding through the easier direction. This fact is reflected on dimensional accuracy, causing micro-plates thicker than the mold. It has also been observed the most important fact that affects cavity pressure is the compaction configuration during the manufacturing cycle. Conclusions: This research demonstrated the influence of process parameters on the final micro-plated manufactured. Future works will be focused in manufacturing other geometries and analysing the mechanical properties of the specimens.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Biomaterial, biopolymer, micro injection molding

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6 Improvement of Oxidative Stability of Edible Oil by Microencapsulation Using Plant Proteins

Authors: L. Le Priol, A. Nesterenko, K. El Kirat, K. Saleh


Introduction and objectives: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 are widely recognized as being beneficial to the health and normal growth. Unfortunately, due to their highly unsaturated nature, these molecules are sensitive to oxidation and thermic degradation leading to the production of toxic compounds and unpleasant flavors and smells. Hence, it is necessary to find out a suitable way to protect them. Microencapsulation by spray-drying is a low-cost encapsulation technology and most commonly used in the food industry. Many compounds can be used as wall materials, but there is a growing interest in the use of biopolymers, such as proteins and polysaccharides, over the last years. The objective of this study is to increase the oxidative stability of sunflower oil by microencapsulation in plant protein matrices using spray-drying technique. Material and methods: Sunflower oil was used as a model substance for oxidable food oils. Proteins from brown rice, hemp, pea, soy and sunflower seeds were used as emulsifiers and microencapsulation wall materials. First, the proteins were solubilized in distilled water. Then, the emulsions were pre-homogenized using a high-speed homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax) and stabilized by using a high-pressure homogenizer (HHP). Drying of the emulsion was performed in a Mini Spray Dryer. The oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil was determined by performing accelerated oxidation tests with a Rancimat. The size of the microparticles was measured using a laser diffraction analyzer. The morphology of the spray-dried microparticles was acquired using environmental scanning microscopy. Results: Pure sunflower oil was used as a reference material. Its induction time was 9.5 ± 0.1 h. The microencapsulation of sunflower oil in pea and soy protein matrices significantly improved its oxidative stability with induction times of 21.3 ± 0.4 h and 12.5 ± 0.4 h respectively. The encapsulation with hemp proteins did not significantly change the oxidative stability of the encapsulated oil. Sunflower and brown rice proteins were ineffective materials for this application, with induction times of 7.2 ± 0.2 h and 7.0 ± 0.1 h respectively. The volume mean diameter of the microparticles formulated with soy and pea proteins were 8.9 ± 0.1 µm and 16.3 ± 1.2 µm respectively. The values for hemp, sunflower and brown rice proteins could not be obtained due to the agglomeration of the microparticles. ESEM images showed smooth and round microparticles with soy and pea proteins. The surfaces of the microparticles obtained with sunflower and hemp proteins were porous. The surface was rough when brown rice proteins were used as the encapsulating agent. Conclusion: Soy and pea proteins appeared to be efficient wall materials for the microencapsulation of sunflower oil by spray drying. These results were partly explained by the higher solubility of soy and pea proteins in water compared to hemp, sunflower, and brown rice proteins. Acknowledgment: This work has been performed, in partnership with the SAS PIVERT, within the frame of the French Institute for the Energy Transition (Institut pour la Transition Energétique (ITE)) P.I.V.E.R.T. ( selected as an Investments for the Future (Investissements d’Avenir). This work was supported, as part of the Investments for the Future, by the French Government under the reference ANR-001-01.

Keywords: release, biopolymer, microencapsulation, oxidative stability, edible oil, spray-drying

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5 Synthesis of Polyvinyl Alcohol Encapsulated Ag Nanoparticle Film by Microwave Irradiation for Reduction of P-Nitrophenol

Authors: S. Sengupta, Supriya, J. K. Basu


Silver nanoparticles have caught a lot of attention because of its unique physical and chemical properties. Silver nanoparticles embedded in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/Ag) free-standing film have been prepared by microwave irradiation in few minutes. PVA performed as a reducing agent, stabilizing agents as well as support for silver nanoparticles. UV-Vis spectrometry, scanning transmission electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques affirmed the reduction of silver ion to silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Effect of irradiation time, the concentration of PVA and concentration of silver precursor on the synthesis of silver nanoparticle has been studied. Particles size of silver nanoparticles decreases with increase in irradiation time. Concentration of silver nanoparticles increases with increase in concentration of silver precursor. Good dispersion of silver nanoparticles in the film has been confirmed by TEM analysis. Particle size of silver nanoparticle has been found to be in the range of 2-10nm. Catalytic property of prepared silver nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst has been studied in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol (a water pollutant) with >98% conversion. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that PVA encapsulated Ag nanoparticles film as a catalyst shows better efficiency and reusability in the reduction of p-Nitrophenol.

Keywords: Silver Nanoparticles, biopolymer, microwave irradiation, water pollutant

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4 Removal of Lead Ions from Aqueous Medium Using Devised Column Filters Packed with Chitosan from Trash Crab Shells: A Characterization Study

Authors: Charles Klein O. Gorit, Mark Tristan J. Quimque Jr., M. Cecilia V. Almeda, Concepcion M. Salvana


Chitosan is a promising biopolymer commonly found in crustacean shells that has plausible effects in water purification and wastewater treatment. It is a primary derivative of chitin and considered second of the most abundant biopolymer prior to cellulose. Morphological analysis had been done using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Microscopy (SEM/EDS), and due to its porous nature, it showcases a certain degree of porosity, hence, larger adsorption site of heavy metal. The Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy of the chitosan and ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, shows a relative increase of percent abundance of lead cation from 1.44% to 2.08% hence, adsorption occurs. Chitosan, as a nitrogenous polysaccharide, subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis shows amide bands ranging from 1635.36 cm⁻¹ for amide 1 band and 1558.40 cm-1 for amide 2 band with NH stretching. For ‘lead-bound’ chitosan, the FT-IR analysis shows a change in peaks upon adsorption of Pb(II) cation. The spectrum shows broadening of OH and NH stretching band. Such observation can be attributed to the probability that the attachment of Pb(II) ions is in these functional groups. A column filter was devised with lead-bound chitosan to determine the zero point charge (pHzpc) of the biopolymer. The results show that at pH 8.34, below than the zpc level of literatures cited for lead which ranges from pH 4 to 7, favors the adsorption site of chitosan and its capability to adsorb traces amount of aqueous lead.

Keywords: SEM, chitosan, heavy metal, FT-IR, biopolymer, zero-point charge, lead ions

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3 Preparation and Characterization of Maltodextrin Microcapsules Containing Walnut Green Husk Extract

Authors: Leila Mirmoghtadaie, Fatemeh Cheraghali, Saeedeh Shojaee-Aliabadi, Seyede Marzieh Hosseini


In recent years, the field of natural antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds is one of the main research topics in the food industry. Application of agricultural residues is mainly cheap, and available resources are receiving increased attention. Walnut green husk is one of the agricultural residues that is considered as natural compounds with biological properties because of phenolic compounds. In this study, maltodextrin 10% was used for microencapsulation of walnut green husk extract. At first, the extract was examined to consider extraction yield, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activation. The results showed the extraction yield of 81.43%, total phenolic compounds of 3997 [mg GAE/100 g], antioxidant activity [DPPH] of 84.85% for walnut green husk extract. Antioxidant activity is about 75%-81% and by DPPH. At the next stage, microencapsulation was done by spry-drying method. The microencapsulation efficiency was 72%-79%. The results of SEM tests confirmed this microencapsulation process. In addition, microencapsulated and free extract was more effective on gram-positive bacteria’s rather than the gram-negative ones. According to the study, walnut green husk can be used as a cheap antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds due to sufficient value of phenolic compounds.

Keywords: biopolymer, microencapsulation, spray-drying, walnut green husk

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2 Application of Biopolymer for Adsorption of Methylene Blue Dye from Simulated Effluent: A Green Method for Textile Industry Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ramkrishna Sen, Rabiya


The textile industry releases huge volume of effluent containing reactive dyes in the nearby water bodies. These effluents are significant source of water pollution since most of the dyes are toxic in nature. Moreover, it scavenges the dissolved oxygen essential to the aquatic species. Therefore, it is necessary to treat the dye effluent before it is discharged in the nearby water bodies. The present study focuses on removing the basic dye methylene blue from simulated wastewater using biopolymer. The biopolymer was partially purified from the culture of Bacillus licheniformis by ultrafiltration. Based on the elution profile of the biopolymer from ion exchange column, it was found to be a negatively charged molecule. Its net anionic nature allows the biopolymer to adsorb positively charged molecule, methylene blue. The major factors which influence the removal of dye by the biopolymer such as incubation time, pH, initial dye concentration were evaluated. The methylene blue uptake by the biopolymer is more (14.84 mg/g) near neutral pH than in acidic pH (12.05mg/g) of the water. At low pH, the lower dissociation of the dye molecule as well as the low negative charge available on the biopolymer reduces the interaction between the biopolymer and dye. The optimum incubation time for maximum removal of dye was found to be 60 min. The entire study was done with 25 mL of dye solution in 100 mL flask at 25 °C with an amount of 11g/L of biopolymer. To study the adsorption isotherm, the dye concentration was varied in the range of 25mg/L to 205mg/L. The dye uptake by the biopolymer against the equilibrium concentration was plotted. The plot indicates that the adsorption of dye by biopolymer follows the Freundlich adsorption isotherm (R-square 0.99). Hence, these studies indicate the potential use of biopolymer for the removal of basic dye from textile wastewater in an ecofriendly and sustainable way.

Keywords: wastewater, Textile Industry, biopolymer, methylene blue dye

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1 Dewatering of Brewery Sludge through the Use of Biopolymers

Authors: Audrey Smith, M. Saifur Rahaman


The waste crisis has become a global issue, forcing many industries to reconsider their disposal methods and environmental practices. Sludge is a form of waste created in many fields, which include water and wastewater, pulp and paper, as well as from breweries. The composition of this sludge differs between sources and can, therefore, have varying disposal methods or future applications. When looking at the brewery industry, it produces a significant amount of sludge with a high water content. In order to avoid landfilling, this waste can further be processed into a valuable material. Specifically, the sludge must undergo dewatering, a process which typically involves the addition of coagulants like aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride. These chemicals, however, limit the potential uses of the sludge since it will contain traces of metals. In this case, the desired outcome of the brewery sludge would be to produce animal feed; however, these conventional coagulants would add a toxic component to the sludge. The use of biopolymers like chitosan, which act as a coagulant, can be used to dewater brewery sludge while allowing it to be safe for animal consumption. Chitosan is also a by-product created by the shellfish processing industry and therefore reduces the environmental imprint since it involves using the waste from one industry to treat the waste from another. In order to prove the effectiveness of this biopolymer, experiments using jar-tests will be utilised to determine the optimal dosages and conditions, while variances of contaminants like ammonium will also be observed. The efficiency of chitosan can also be compared to other polysaccharides to determine which is best suited for this waste. Overall a significant separation has been achieved between the solid and liquid content of the waste during the coagulation-flocculation process when applying chitosan. This biopolymer can, therefore, be used to dewater brewery sludge such that it can be repurposed as animal feed. The use of biopolymers can also be applied to treat sludge from other industries, which can reduce the amount of waste produced and allow for more diverse options for reuse.

Keywords: Animal Feed, chitosan, biopolymer, brewery sludge

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