Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

biopesticide Related Abstracts

8 Toxicity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and. For this, a new control method appeared it comes to the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium "Green Muscle" on part of the cuticule the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775). Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of M. anisopliae var acridium biocontrol agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment in the digestive tract and it administrant 20μl of entomopathogenic solution orally at a dose DL50 = 3.25 x107 sp./ ml (median lethal dose estimated at earlier), 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. After dissection cuticles are recovered and then subjected to histological sections. The histological technique followed is that of Martoja Martoja-Pierson (1967). Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticule which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: Toxicity, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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7 Comparative Toxicity of Garlic Juice and Dicofol to Population of Citrus Mites

Authors: T. Slimani, Y. Atibi, A. Boutaleb Joutei

Abstract:

Insecticidal properties of Alliaceae are widely known, they are plant with varied biological properties. Garlic and onion are known for their positive effect on health, including the prevention of cardiovascular disease and some digestive cancers. These health benefits molecules are also responsible for pest potential control of Alliaceae. With these properties, we can consider using Alliaceae as acaricides. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chemical and biopesticides on citrus mites, especially Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri and Eutetranychus orientalis. Chemical treatment (Dicofol) and biopesticides (Garlic juice + Alcohol) applied on this study to control the various stages of mites, have reduced the proliferation of mobile forms and reducing the number of eggs to acceptable levels. Garlic juice + alcohol revealed efficiency from 50 to 57.69 % against the mobile forms of T. urticae, however, it was effective against the mobile forms of P. citri and E. orientalis with an efficiency of 85.71 % and 100 % respectively, its action has also reduced the number of eggs of T. urticae and E. orientalis at low levels. Therefore, this biopesticide is conceivable viewpoint technical and economic as the infestation by mite is low.

Keywords: Alcohol, garlic juice, biopesticide, acaricide, mites, Tetranychus urticae, Panonychus citri, Eutetranychus orientalis

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6 Contribution to the Production of Phenazine Antibiotics Effect Type Compounds by Some Strains of Pseudomonas spp.fluorescent

Authors: Nacéra Benoussaid, Lehalali Meriem, Benchabane Messaoud

Abstract:

Our work focuses on the production of compound antibiotic effect of volatile nature namely hydrogen cyanide and the production and identification of molecules phénazinique by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp isolated from the rhizosphere of some trees for a possible use as bio pesticides antifungal effect and/or antibiotic. We tested the production of hydrogen cyanide of 21 strains of Pseudomonas spp. fluorescent among them 19 strains (90, 47%) showed a positive cyanogenesis.The antagonism test executed in vitro showed that Pseudomonas strains have a higher anti fungal effect relative to their antibacterial effect with diameters of inhibition zones up to 3, 9 cm recorded by the strain F48 against Coleosporiumsp compared with recorded results against bacteria with a maximum inhibition of 1, 26 cm among this antagonistic strain.Three strains were selected by testing for producing phénazines namely PI9, BB9 and F20. The effect of the antimicrobial activity was performed on different culture media (GN, King B, ISP2 and PDA). The results of our study allowed us to retain the King B medium as ideal medium for the production of secondary metabolite. The produced phenazinique compounds was extracted from various organic solvents, and after the results of antibiographie against germs - targets, the extracts of ethyl acetate gave the best results compared to dichloromethane and hexane.The Analysis of these compounds of antibiotic phenazinique effect within layer chromatography (CCM) and high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC) indicate that both strains PI9 and F20 are productive of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA). The BB9 strain is suspected to be productive of another phenazinique compound.

Keywords: biopesticide, Pseudomonas ssp. fluorescents, antagonism in vitro, secondary metabolite, phenazines

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5 Toxic Activity of Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on the Cuticle of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gegaria (Forskål, 1775)

Authors: F. Acheuk, F. Haddadj, S. Hamdi, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Saadi, B. Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Locust is causing significant losses in agricultural production in the countries concerned by the invasion. Up to the present control strategy has consisted only of the spreaders chemicals; they have proven harmful to the environment and taking a conscience prompted researchers and institutions to lean towards the biological control based mostly by using microorganism. It is in that sense is we've made our contribution by the use of a biopesticide which is entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae var acridium ‘Green Muscle’ on part of the cuticle the larval of fifth instar locust Schistocerca gregaria. Preliminary test on the study of the pathogenicity of the bio-control agent, was conducted in the laboratory on L5 S. gregaria, on which we inoculated treatment by direct spraying of the cuticle, 5 days after treatment individuals are sacrificed. Microscopic observation revealed alterations in the architecture of the cuticle which leads to disorganization of cell layers.

Keywords: effect, cuticle, biopesticide, desert locust

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4 Study of the Antimicrobial Activity of the Extract of the Eucalyptus camaldulensis stemming from the Algerian Northeast

Authors: Meksem Nabila, Bordjiba Ouahiba, Meraghni Messaouda, Meksem Amara Leila, Djebar Mohhamed Reda

Abstract:

The problems of protection of the cultures are being more and more important that they interest great number of farmers and scientists because of the excessive use of the organic phytosanitary products of synthesis that causes fatal damages on the environment. To reduce the inconveniences produced by these pesticides, the use of "biopesticides" originated from plants could be an alternative. The aim of this work is the valuation of a botanical species: Eucalyptus camaldulensis from Northeastern Algeria which extracts are supposed to have an antimicrobial activity, similar to pesticides. The extraction of secondary metabolites from the leaves of E. camaldulensis was realized using methanol and water, and measurements of total polyphenols were made by spectrometric method. Determination of the antimicrobial activity of the extracts at issue was realized in vitro on phyto-pathogenic fungal and bacterial stumps. Tests of comparison were included in the essays by using the chemical pesticidal products of synthesis. The obtained results show that the plant contains polyphenols with an efficiency mattering of the order of 22 %. These polyphenols have a strong fungicidal and bactericidal pesticidal activity against various microbial stumps and the values of the zones of inhibition are more important compared with that obtained in the presence of the chemicals of synthesis (fungicide).

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, polyphenols, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, biopesticide

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3 Biomass Production Improvement of Beauveria bassiana at Laboratory Scale for a Biopesticide Development

Authors: M. Gomez, G. Quiroga-Cubides, M. Cruz, E. Grijalba, J. Sanabria, A. Ceballos, L. García

Abstract:

Beauveria sp. has been used as an entomopathogenic microorganism for biological control of various plant pests such as whitefly, thrips, aphids and chrysomelidaes (including Cerotoma tingomariana species), which affect soybean crops in Colombia´s Altillanura region. Therefore, a biopesticide prototype based on B. bassiana strain Bv060 was developed at Corpoica laboratories. For the production of B. bassiana conidia, a baseline fermentation was performed at laboratory in a solid medium using broken rice as a substrate, a temperature of 25±2 °C and a relative humidity of 60±10%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a three-time repetition. These culture conditions resulted in an average conidial concentration of 1.48x10^10 conidia/g, a yield of 13.07 g/kg dry substrate and a productivity of 8.83x10^7 conidia/g*h were achieved. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the particle size reduction of rice (<1 mm) and the addition of a complex nitrogen source over conidia production and efficiency parameters in a solid-state fermentation, in a completely randomized experiment with a three-time repetition. For this aim, baseline fermentation conditions of temperature and humidity were employed in a semisolid culture medium with powdered rice (10%) and a complex nitrogen source (8%). As a result, it was possible to increase conidial concentration until 9.87x10^10 conidia/g, yield to 87.07 g/g dry substrate and productivity to 3.43x10^8 conidia/g*h. This suggested that conidial concentration and yield in semisolid fermentation increased almost 7 times compared with baseline while the productivity increased 4 times. Finally, the designed system for semisolid-state fermentation allowed to achieve an easy conidia recovery, which means reduction in time and costs of the production process.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Beauveria bassiana, biopesticide, semisolid medium culture

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2 Naturally Occurring Chemicals in Biopesticides' Resistance Control through Molecular Topology

Authors: Riccardo Zanni, Maria Galvez-Llompart, Ramon Garcia-Domenech, Jorge Galvez

Abstract:

Biopesticides, such as naturally occurring chemicals, pheromones, fungi, bacteria and insect predators are often a winning choice in crop protection because of their environmental friendly profile. They are considered to have lower toxicity than traditional pesticides. After almost a century of pesticides use, resistances to traditional insecticides are wide spread, while those to bioinsecticides have raised less attention, and resistance management is frequently neglected. This seems to be a crucial mistake since resistances have already occurred for many marketed biopesticides. With an eye to the future, we present here a selection of new natural occurring chemicals as potential bioinsecticides. The molecules were selected using a consolidated mathematical paradigm called molecular topology. Several QSAR equations were depicted and subsequently applied for the virtual screening of hundred thousands molecules of natural origin, which resulted in the selection of new potential bioinsecticides. The most innovative aspect of this work does not only reside in the importance of the identification of new molecules overcoming biopesticides’ resistances, but on the possibility to promote shared knowledge in the field of green chemistry through this unique in silico discipline named molecular topology.

Keywords: Green Chemistry, QSAR, biopesticide, molecular topology

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1 Growth, Yield and Pest Infestation Response of Maize (Zea mays Linn.) to Biopesticide

Authors: Sombat Chuenchooklin, Udomporn Pangnakorn, Settawut Prasatporn

Abstract:

The effect of biopesticide on growth, yield and pest infestation of maize (Zea mays Linn.) (variety DK 6818) was evaluated during the drought season. The experimental plots were located at research station of Faculty of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand. The extracted substance from plants was evaluated in the plots in 4 treatments: 1) water as control; 2) bitter bush (Chromolaena odorata L.); 3) neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), 4) golden shower (Cassia fistula Linn.). The experiment was followed a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications per treatment. The results showed that golden shower gave the highest growth of maize in term of height (203.29 cm), followed by neem and bitter bush with average height of 202.66 cm and 191.66 cm respectively with significance different. But neem treatment given significantly higher average of yield component in term of length, width, and weight of pod corn with 18.89 cm 13.91 cm and 166.46 g respectively. Also, treatment of neem showed the highest harvested yield at 284.06 kg/ha followed by the golden shower and bitter bush with harvested yield at 245.86 kg/ha and 235.52 kg/ha respectively. Additionally, treatment of neem and golden shower were the highest effectiveness for reducing insects pest infestation of maize: corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis Fitch, corn borer Ostrinia fumacalis Guenee and corn armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. The treatment of neem, golden shower, and bitter bush given reduction insect infestation on maize with leaves area were infested at 5,412 mm², 6,827 mm² and 8,910 mm² respectively with significance different when compared to control.

Keywords: maize, biopesticide, Zea mays Linn, bitter bush, Chromolaena odorata L.), neem, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, golden shower, Cassia fistula Linn

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