Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Biometrics Related Abstracts

24 Effects of Reversible Watermarking on Iris Recognition Performance

Authors: Andrew Lock, Alastair Allen

Abstract:

Fragile watermarking has been proposed as a means of adding additional security or functionality to biometric systems, particularly for authentication and tamper detection. In this paper we describe an experimental study on the effect of watermarking iris images with a particular class of fragile algorithm, reversible algorithms, and the ability to correctly perform iris recognition. We investigate two scenarios, matching watermarked images to unmodified images, and matching watermarked images to watermarked images. We show that different watermarking schemes give very different results for a given capacity, highlighting the importance of investigation. At high embedding rates most algorithms cause significant reduction in recognition performance. However, in many cases, for low embedding rates, recognition accuracy is improved by the watermarking process.

Keywords: Biometrics, Vision Engineering, iris recognition, reversible watermarking

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23 Development of a Secured Telemedical System Using Biometric Feature

Authors: O. Iyare, A. H. Afolayan, O. T. Oluwadare, B. K. Alese

Abstract:

Access to advanced medical services has been one of the medical challenges faced by our present society especially in distant geographical locations which may be inaccessible. Then the need for telemedicine arises through which live videos of a doctor can be streamed to a patient located anywhere in the world at any time. Patients’ medical records contain very sensitive information which should not be made accessible to unauthorized people in order to protect privacy, integrity and confidentiality. This research work focuses on a more robust security measure which is biometric (fingerprint) as a form of access control to data of patients by the medical specialist/practitioner.

Keywords: Privacy, Telemedicine, Biometrics, Patient Information

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22 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared, Amir Hajian

Abstract:

In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: Biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

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21 Student Records Management System Using Smart Cards and Biometric Technology for Educational Institutions

Authors: Patrick O. Bobbie, Prince S. Attrams

Abstract:

In recent times, the rapid change in new technologies has spurred up the way and manner records are handled in educational institutions. Also, there is a need for reliable access and ease-of use to these records, resulting in increased productivity in organizations. In academic institutions, such benefits help in quality assessments, institutional performance, and assessments of teaching and evaluation methods. Students in educational institutions benefit the most when advanced technologies are deployed in accessing records. This research paper discusses the use of biometric technologies coupled with smartcard technologies to provide a unique way of identifying students and matching their data to financial records to grant them access to restricted areas such as examination halls. The system developed in this paper, has an identity verification component as part of its main functionalities. A systematic software development cycle of analysis, design, coding, testing and support was used. The system provides a secured way of verifying student’s identity and real time verification of financial records. An advanced prototype version of the system has been developed for testing purposes.

Keywords: Biometrics, Smartcards, Fingerprints, identity-verification

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20 Description of the Non-Iterative Learning Algorithm of Artificial Neuron

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, T. S. Kartbayev, S. T. Akhmetova, A. I. Ivanov, A. Y. Malygin

Abstract:

The problem of training of a network of artificial neurons in biometric appendices is that this process has to be completely automatic, i.e. the person operator should not participate in it. Therefore, this article discusses the issues of training the network of artificial neurons and the description of the non-iterative learning algorithm of artificial neuron.

Keywords: Biometrics, artificial neuron, biometrical applications, learning of neuron, non-iterative algorithm

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19 Modeling Binomial Dependent Distribution of the Values: Synthesis Tables of Probabilities of Errors of the First and Second Kind of Biometrics-Neural Network Authentication System

Authors: S. T. Akhmetova, B. S.Akhmetov, D. N. Nadeyev, V. Yu. Yegorov, V. V. Smogoonov

Abstract:

Estimated probabilities of errors of the first and second kind for nonideal biometrics-neural transducers 256 outputs, the construction of nomograms based error probability of 'own' and 'alien' from the mathematical expectation and standard deviation of the normalized measures Hamming.

Keywords: Modeling, Probability, Biometrics, Neural Network, Authentication, Errors

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18 Features of Testing of the Neuronetwork Converter Biometrics-Code with Correlation Communications between Bits of the Output Code

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. I. Ivanov, A. Y. Malygin, K. Mukapil, S. D. Tolybayev

Abstract:

The article examines the testing of the neural network converter of biometrics code. Determined the main reasons that prevented the use adopted in the works of foreign researchers classical a Binomial Law when describing distribution of measures of Hamming "Alien" codes-responses.

Keywords: Biometrics, Neural Network, Testing, converter of biometrics-code, Hamming's measure

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17 A Geometric Based Hybrid Approach for Facial Feature Localization

Authors: Debotosh Bhattacharjee, Mrinal Kanti Bhowmik, Priya Saha, Sourav Dey Roy Jr., Mita Nasipuri, Barin Kumar De

Abstract:

Biometric face recognition technology (FRT) has gained a lot of attention due to its extensive variety of applications in both security and non-security perspectives. It has come into view to provide a secure solution in identification and verification of person identity. Although other biometric based methods like fingerprint scans, iris scans are available, FRT is verified as an efficient technology for its user-friendliness and contact freeness. Accurate facial feature localization plays an important role for many facial analysis applications including biometrics and emotion recognition. But, there are certain factors, which make facial feature localization a challenging task. On human face, expressions can be seen from the subtle movements of facial muscles and influenced by internal emotional states. These non-rigid facial movements cause noticeable alterations in locations of facial landmarks, their usual shapes, which sometimes create occlusions in facial feature areas making face recognition as a difficult problem. The paper proposes a new hybrid based technique for automatic landmark detection in both neutral and expressive frontal and near frontal face images. The method uses the concept of thresholding, sequential searching and other image processing techniques for locating the landmark points on the face. Also, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) based software is designed that could automatically detect 16 landmark points around eyes, nose and mouth that are mostly affected by the changes in facial muscles. The proposed system has been tested on widely used JAFFE and Cohn Kanade database. Also, the system is tested on DeitY-TU face database which is created in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University under the research project funded by Department of Electronics & Information Technology, Govt. of India. The performance of the proposed method has been done in terms of error measure and accuracy. The method has detection rate of 98.82% on JAFFE database, 91.27% on Cohn Kanade database and 93.05% on DeitY-TU database. Also, we have done comparative study of our proposed method with other techniques developed by other researchers. This paper will put into focus emotion-oriented systems through AU detection in future based on the located features.

Keywords: Image Processing, Biometrics, Face Recognition, facial landmarks

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16 Japanese Quail Breeding: The Second in Poultry Industry

Authors: F. Haddadj, S. Zenia, A. Smai, H. Idouhar-Saadi, A. Aboun, S.Doumandji

Abstract:

The quail is the smallest member of the order fowl. His captive breeding has been practiced for centuries by the Japanese. Knowing that in the literature, it is mentioned that the end of lay is noted for the age of 6 months, our work has revealed a good egg production by females aged up to 35 weeks of age. In the same vein, our study focused on various parameters such as weight, diet and the number of eggs laid and this in order to better know the potential production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg production has started from the 8th week of age of breeding, crop them and their counts are conducted daily basis until the age of 35 weeks. Indeed, biometric parameters are studied such as weight, length, and the largest diameter, the shape index, the index of shell, in order to analyze the physical condition of eggs by females of age. Until the age of 22 weeks, the eggs have maintained good biometric features. Japanese quail are best producing eggs. Hatchability is also considered. They are excellent poultry yields, since they begin laying eggs in two months and can provide abundant nesting with females over 8 months in our study. Other farms results reveal conclusions. Indeed, one aspect remains to be developed; it is the analysis of nutritional and therapeutic values of eggs over the age of females. The latter, given their wealth is a dietary supplement of animal origin with dietary value (it contains 0 cholesterol) that characterizes the quail eggs. Raising quail among other reproduction requires minimal when compared to other domestic birds space, this is the second breeding, in terms of importance after the chicken. Therefore, in the case of a farm that works exclusively in the production of eggs, requires minimal work and free space, as well as reduced costs.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, reproductive age

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15 A Palmprint Identification System Based Multi-Layer Perceptron

Authors: Abdulkader Helwan, David P. Tantua

Abstract:

Biometrics has been recently used for the human identification systems using the biological traits such as the fingerprints and iris scanning. Identification systems based biometrics show great efficiency and accuracy in such human identification applications. However, these types of systems are so far based on some image processing techniques only, which may decrease the efficiency of such applications. Thus, this paper aims to develop a human palmprint identification system using multi-layer perceptron neural network which has the capability to learn using a backpropagation learning algorithms. The developed system uses images obtained from a public database available on the internet (CASIA). The processing system is as follows: image filtering using median filter, image adjustment, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator to extract features, clear unwanted components of the image. The second phase is to feed those processed images into a neural network classifier which will adaptively learn and create a class for each different image. 100 different images are used for training the system. Since this is an identification system, it should be tested with the same images. Therefore, the same 100 images are used for testing it, and any image out of the training set should be unrecognized. The experimental results shows that this developed system has a great accuracy 100% and it can be implemented in real life applications.

Keywords: Biometrics, biological traits, multi-layer perceptron neural network, image skeletonizing, edge detection using canny operator

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14 Ecobiological Study of Olivier in the Northern Slopes of the Mountains of Tlemcen, Western Algeria

Authors: Hachemi Nouria

Abstract:

The olive tree is a Mediterranean tree, which belongs to the family Oleaceae. The Olea genus contains various species and subspecies, and the only species bearing edible fruit is Olea europaea. The desired issue in this study is to provide the current status of plant cover and especially the training in Olea europaea currently existing in the major centers of the region of Tlemcen. While based on the flora and biometric aspect of this plant germplasm. In order to make an assessment of the phytomass, we made measurements of the four parameters of the aerial part of the taxon: height, diameter, and canopy density to ten feet of the olive tree per station. The floristic analysis shows a certain floristic difference between the different stations. The vegetal formations reflect the biotic and abiotic conditions including climate affecting the ecosystem. Biometric study on the feet of Olea in the six study sites, has led us to conclude that the four measured parameters provides insight on the development or degradation of Olea feet depending on the layout of the stations and the factors environmental. We find that the terrains are havens for these assets. Also the local microclimate (Oued Thalweg) promotes the healthy development of this species.

Keywords: Biometrics, Ecology, Algeria, Tlemcen, olivier

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13 An Innovative Auditory Impulsed EEG and Neural Network Based Biometric Identification System

Authors: Ritesh Kumar, Gitanjali Chhetri, Mandira Bhatia, Mohit Mishra, Abhijith Bailur, Abhinav

Abstract:

The prevalence of the internet and technology in our day to day lives is creating more security issues than ever. The need for protecting and providing a secure access to private and business data has led to the development of many security systems. One of the potential solutions is to employ the bio-metric authentication technique. In this paper we present an innovative biometric authentication method that utilizes a person’s EEG signal, which is acquired in response to an auditory stimulus,and transferred wirelessly to a computer that has the necessary ANN algorithm-Multi layer perceptrol neural network because of is its ability to differentiate between information which is not linearly separable.In order to determine the weights of the hidden layer we use Gaussian random weight initialization. MLP utilizes a supervised learning technique called Back propagation for training the network. The complex algorithm used for EEG classification reduces the chances of intrusion into the protected public or private data.

Keywords: Biometrics, EEG signal, multilayer perceptron neural network, auditory evoked potential, back propagation rule, Gaussian random weight initialization

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12 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma

Abstract:

With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: Biometrics, Authentication, Fingerprinting, human beings

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11 A Method of Detecting the Difference in Two States of Brain Using Statistical Analysis of EEG Raw Data

Authors: Digvijaysingh S. Bana, Kiran R. Trivedi

Abstract:

This paper introduces various methods for the alpha wave to detect the difference between two states of brain. One healthy subject participated in the experiment. EEG was measured on the forehead above the eye (FP1 Position) with reference and ground electrode are on the ear clip. The data samples are obtained in the form of EEG raw data. The time duration of reading is of one minute. Various test are being performed on the alpha band EEG raw data.The readings are performed in different time duration of the entire day. The statistical analysis is being carried out on the EEG sample data in the form of various tests.

Keywords: Biometrics, Authentication, electroencephalogram(EEG), EEG raw data

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10 Triangular Geometric Feature for Offline Signature Verification

Authors: Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Zuraidasahana Zulkarnain, Nor Anita Fairos Ismail, Mohd Azhar M. Arsad

Abstract:

Handwritten signature is accepted widely as a biometric characteristic for personal authentication. The use of appropriate features plays an important role in determining accuracy of signature verification; therefore, this paper presents a feature based on the geometrical concept. To achieve the aim, triangle attributes are exploited to design a new feature since the triangle possesses orientation, angle and transformation that would improve accuracy. The proposed feature uses triangulation geometric set comprising of sides, angles and perimeter of a triangle which is derived from the center of gravity of a signature image. For classification purpose, Euclidean classifier along with Voting-based classifier is used to verify the tendency of forgery signature. This classification process is experimented using triangular geometric feature and selected global features. Based on an experiment that was validated using Grupo de Senales 960 (GPDS-960) signature database, the proposed triangular geometric feature achieves a lower Average Error Rates (AER) value with a percentage of 34% as compared to 43% of the selected global feature. As a conclusion, the proposed triangular geometric feature proves to be a more reliable feature for accurate signature verification.

Keywords: Biometrics, features extraction, offline signature verification, euclidean classifier, voting-based classifier

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9 Study of Some Biometric Parameters of the Incubated Eggs and Unhatched Eggs Depending on the Age of Breeding in Domestic Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica (Aves, Phasianidae)

Authors: Salaheddine Doumandji, Amina Smaï, Habiba Idouhar-Saadi, Safia Zenia, Fairouz Haddadj

Abstract:

The poultry industry (chicken and egg consumption) has become important in Algeria, but that does not prevent other farms from beginning to position themselves on the ground like the turkey, guinea fowl, partridge and quail Japanese. The breeding importance of this last, reside, also in game meat, egg quality and their therapeutic role without forgetting its growth performance. To the same effect, a study was held at the center of Zeralda hunting on various parameters such as the weight and number of eggs laid and this in order to know better the potential of production and reproduction of domestic quail. Egg laying has started from the 8th week of reproductive age, their harvest and their counts are performed daily up to 32 weeks of age and more. We have given the biometrics of incubated eggs and unhatched eggs. The parameters studied were the weight, large and small diameter, density, volume, shell index and the shape index. The work revealed that the maximum weight in males is reached in the 11th week, against the female, he reached the 13th week of age. Indeed, there is a good correlation (R = 0.79) between the weight of females and egg production. The rate of unhatched eggs varies between 11 and 43%, these values are recorded respectively in breeding under the age of 25 and 43 weeks. Furthermore, the biometric parameters of hatched and unhatched eggs have differences that are marked, especially during the beginning and end of lay. Further results will be subsequently exploited. Indeed, rearing Japanese quail is easy in technical terms and does not require big investment but its practical application vigilance and daily presence of the breeder within the farm who oversees the hygiene and well-being of its poultry.

Keywords: Biometrics, Reproduction, Japanese quail, eggs, unhatching eggs

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8 Fusion of Finger Inner Knuckle Print and Hand Geometry Features to Enhance the Performance of Biometric Verification System

Authors: M. L. Anitha, K. A. Radhakrishna Rao

Abstract:

With the advent of modern computing technology, there is an increased demand for developing recognition systems that have the capability of verifying the identity of individuals. Recognition systems are required by several civilian and commercial applications for providing access to secured resources. Traditional recognition systems which are based on physical identities are not sufficiently reliable to satisfy the security requirements due to the use of several advances of forgery and identity impersonation methods. Recognizing individuals based on his/her unique physiological characteristics known as biometric traits is a reliable technique, since these traits are not transferable and they cannot be stolen or lost. Since the performance of biometric based recognition system depends on the particular trait that is utilized, the present work proposes a fusion approach which combines Inner knuckle print (IKP) trait of the middle, ring and index fingers with the geometrical features of hand. The hand image captured from a digital camera is preprocessed to find finger IKP as region of interest (ROI) and hand geometry features. Geometrical features are represented as the distances between different key points and IKP features are extracted by applying local binary pattern descriptor on the IKP ROI. The decision level AND fusion was adopted, which has shown improvement in performance of the combined scheme. The proposed approach is tested on the database collected at our institute. Proposed approach is of significance since both hand geometry and IKP features can be extracted from the palm region of the hand. The fusion of these features yields a false acceptance rate of 0.75%, false rejection rate of 0.86% for verification tests conducted, which is less when compared to the results obtained using individual traits. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of proposed approach and suitability of the selected features for developing biometric based recognition system based on features from palmar region of hand.

Keywords: Biometrics, Recognition, hand geometry features, inner knuckle print

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7 Pyramid Binary Pattern for Age Invariant Face Verification

Authors: Saroj Bijarnia, Preety Singh

Abstract:

We propose a simple and effective biometrics system based on face verification across aging using a new variant of texture feature, Pyramid Binary Pattern. This employs Local Binary Pattern along with its hierarchical information. Dimension reduction of generated texture feature vector is done using Principal Component Analysis. Support Vector Machine is used for classification. Our proposed method achieves an accuracy of 92:24% and can be used in an automated age-invariant face verification system.

Keywords: Biometrics, Verification, support vector machine, age invariant

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6 Application of Biometrics in Patient Identification Card: Case Study of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Tanzila Saba, Sarah Aldhalaan

Abstract:

Healthcare sectors are increasing rapidly to fulfill patient’s needs across the world. A patient identification is considered as the main aspect for a patient to be served in healthcare institutes. Nowadays, people are presenting their insurance card along with their identification card in order to get the needed treatment in hospitals however, this process lack security preferences. The aim of this research paper is to reveal a solution to introduce and use biometrics in healthcare hospitals. The findings show that the people know biometrics since they are interacting with them through different channels and that the need for biometrics techniques to identify patients is essential. Also, the survey relevant questions are used to analyze and add insights on what is are the suitable biometrics to be used in such cases. Moreover, results are presented to exhibit the effectiveness of the used methodology and in analyzing usage of biometrics in hospitals in an enhancing way. Finally, an interesting conclusion of overall work is presented at the end of paper.

Keywords: Healthcare, Biometrics, Fingerprint, Saudi Arabia

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5 Identity Verification Using k-NN Classifiers and Autistic Genetic Data

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot

Abstract:

DNA data have been used in forensics for decades. However, current research looks at using the DNA as a biometric identity verification modality. The goal is to improve the speed of identification. We aim at using gene data that was initially used for autism detection to find if and how accurate is this data for identification applications. Mainly our goal is to find if our data preprocessing technique yields data useful as a biometric identification tool. We experiment with using the nearest neighbor classifier to identify subjects. Results show that optimal classification rate is achieved when the test set is corrupted by normally distributed noise with zero mean and standard deviation of 1. The classification rate is close to optimal at higher noise standard deviation reaching 3. This shows that the data can be used for identity verification with high accuracy using a simple classifier such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN). 

Keywords: Biometrics, genetic data, identity verification, k nearest neighbor

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4 Preprocessing and Fusion of Multiple Representation of Finger Vein patterns using Conventional and Machine Learning techniques

Authors: Tomas Trainys, Algimantas Venckauskas

Abstract:

Application of biometric features to the cryptography for human identification and authentication is widely studied and promising area of the development of high-reliability cryptosystems. Biometric cryptosystems typically are designed for patterns recognition, which allows biometric data acquisition from an individual, extracts feature sets, compares the feature set against the set stored in the vault and gives a result of the comparison. Preprocessing and fusion of biometric data are the most important phases in generating a feature vector for key generation or authentication. Fusion of biometric features is critical for achieving a higher level of security and prevents from possible spoofing attacks. The paper focuses on the tasks of initial processing and fusion of multiple representations of finger vein modality patterns. These tasks are solved by applying conventional image preprocessing methods and machine learning techniques, Convolutional Neural Network (SVM) method for image segmentation and feature extraction. An article presents a method for generating sets of biometric features from a finger vein network using several instances of the same modality. Extracted features sets were fused at the feature level. The proposed method was tested and compared with the performance and accuracy results of other authors.

Keywords: information security, Pattern Recognition, Biometrics, Data fusion, SVM, bio-cryptography, cryptographic key generation, finger vein method

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3 Eye Tracking: Biometric Evaluations of Instructional Materials for Improved Learning

Authors: Janet Holland

Abstract:

Eye tracking is a great way to triangulate multiple data sources for deeper, more complete knowledge of how instructional materials are really being used and emotional connections made. Using sensor based biometrics provides a detailed local analysis in real time expanding our ability to collect science based data for a more comprehensive level of understanding, not previously possible, for teaching and learning. The knowledge gained will be used to make future improvements to instructional materials, tools, and interactions. The literature has been examined and a preliminary pilot test was implemented to develop a methodology for research in Instructional Design and Technology. Eye tracking now offers the addition of objective metrics obtained from eye tracking and other biometric data collection with analysis for a fresh perspective.

Keywords: Biometrics, Fixation, saccades, eye tracking, heat map, area of interest, fixation count, fixation sequence, fixation time, gaze points, time to first fixation

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2 Human-Machine Cooperation in Facial Comparison Based on Likelihood Scores

Authors: Lei Xu, Lanchi Xie, Zhihui Li, Zhigang Li, Guiqiang Wang, Yuwen Yan

Abstract:

Image-based facial features can be classified into category recognition features and individual recognition features. Current automated face recognition systems extract a specific feature vector of different dimensions from a facial image according to their pre-trained neural network. However, to improve the efficiency of parameter calculation, an algorithm generally reduces the image details by pooling. The operation will overlook the details concerned much by forensic experts. In our experiment, we adopted a variety of face recognition algorithms based on deep learning, compared a large number of naturally collected face images with the known data of the same person's frontal ID photos. Downscaling and manual handling were performed on the testing images. The results supported that the facial recognition algorithms based on deep learning detected structural and morphological information and rarely focused on specific markers such as stains and moles. Overall performance, distribution of genuine scores and impostor scores, and likelihood ratios were tested to evaluate the accuracy of biometric systems and forensic experts. Experiments showed that the biometric systems were skilled in distinguishing category features, and forensic experts were better at discovering the individual features of human faces. In the proposed approach, a fusion was performed at the score level. At the specified false accept rate, the framework achieved a lower false reject rate. This paper contributes to improving the interpretability of the objective method of facial comparison and provides a novel method for human-machine collaboration in this field.

Keywords: Biometrics, likelihood ratio, automated facial recognition, facial comparison

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1 Cardiokey: A Binary and Multi-Class Machine Learning Approach to Identify Individuals Using Electrocardiographic Signals on Wearable Devices

Authors: S. Chami, J. Chauvin, T. Demarest, Stan Ng, M. Straus, W. Jahner

Abstract:

Biometrics tools such as fingerprint and iris are widely used in industry to protect critical assets. However, their vulnerability and lack of robustness raise several worries about the protection of highly critical assets. Biometrics based on Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals is a robust identification tool. However, most of the state-of-the-art techniques have worked on clinical signals, which are of high quality and less noisy, extracted from wearable devices like a smartwatch. In this paper, we are presenting a complete machine learning pipeline that identifies people using ECG extracted from an off-person device. An off-person device is a wearable device that is not used in a medical context such as a smartwatch. In addition, one of the main challenges of ECG biometrics is the variability of the ECG of different persons and different situations. To solve this issue, we proposed two different approaches: per person classifier, and one-for-all classifier. The first approach suggests making binary classifier to distinguish one person from others. The second approach suggests a multi-classifier that distinguishes the selected set of individuals from non-selected individuals (others). The preliminary results, the binary classifier obtained a performance 90% in terms of accuracy within a balanced data. The second approach has reported a log loss of 0.05 as a multi-class score.

Keywords: Biometrics, Machine Learning, Signals Processing, electrocardiographic

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