Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Biomedicine Related Abstracts

20 Heterocyclic Ring Extension of Estrone: Synthesis and Cytotoxicity of Fused Pyrin, Pyrimidine and Thiazole Derivatives

Authors: Rafat M. Mohareb

Abstract:

Several D-ring alkylated estrone analogues display exceptionally high affinity for estrogen receptors. In particular, compounds in which an E-ring is formed are known to be involved in the inhibition of steroidogenic enzymes. Such compounds also have an effect on steroid dehydrogenase activity and the ability to inhibit the detrimental action of the steroid sulfatase enzyme. Generally, E-ring extended steroids have been accessed by modification of the C17-ketone in the D-ring by either arylimine or oximino formation, addition of a carbon nucleophile or hydrazone formation. Other approaches have included ketone reduction, silyl enol ether formation or ring-closing metathesis (giving five- or six-membered E-rings). Chemical modification of the steroid D-ring provides a way to alter the functional groups, sizes and stereochemistry of the D-ring, and numerous structure-activity relationships have been established by such synthetic alterations. Steroids bearing heterocycles fused to the D-ring of the steroid nucleus have been of pharmaceutical interest. In the present paper, we report on the efficient synthesis of estrone possessing pyran, pyrimidine and thiazole ring systems. This study focused on the synthesis and biochemical evaluation of newly synthesized heterocyclic compounds which were then subjected through inhibitory evaluations towards human cancer and normal cell lines.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Cytotoxicity, estrone, heterocyclization

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
19 Detection of Fuel Theft and Vehicle Position Using Third Party Monitoring Software

Authors: N. Vijayarangan, P. Senthilraja, C. Rukumani Khandhan, M. Palaniappan, S. L. Rama, P. Sai Sushimitha, R. Madhan, J. Vinumathi

Abstract:

Nowadays, the logistics achieve a vast improvement in efficient delivery of goods. The technology improvement also helps to improve its development, but still the owners of transport vehicles face problems, i.e., fuel theft in vehicles by the drivers or by an unknown person. There is no proper solution to overcome the problems. This scheme is to determine the amount of fuel that has been stolen and also to determine the position of the vehicle at a particular time using the technologies like GPS, GSM, ultrasonic fuel level sensor and numeric lock system. The ultrasonic sensor uses the ultrasonic waves to calculate the height of the tank up to which the fuel is available. Based on height it is possible to calculate the amount of fuel. The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system. The scientific community uses GPS for its precision timing capability and position information. The GSM provides the periodic information about the fuel level. A numeric lock system has been provided for fuel tank opening lever. A password is provided to access the fuel tank lever and this is authenticated only by the driver and the owner. Once the fuel tank is opened an alert is sent to owner through a SMS including the timing details. Third party monitoring software is a user interface that updates the information automatically into the database which helps to retrieve the data as and when required. Third party monitoring software provides vehicle’s information to the owner and also shows the status of the vehicle. The techniques that are to be proposed will provide an efficient output. This project helps to overcome the theft and hence to put forth fuel economy.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, fuel theft, third party monitoring software

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
18 The Effect of Benson Relaxation Method on Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients in 2012-2013, Kermanshah, Iran

Authors: Fateme Hadadian, Behnam Khaledi Paveh, Hosein Feizi

Abstract:

Background: High number of patients with end-stage renal disease worldwide, and Iran and the patients required hemodialysis, As well as symptoms and treatment process and its impact on quality of life The researcher had to take a step towards solving these problems. Methods: In randomized clinical trial in 60 hemodialysis patients admitted to hospital hemodialysis Imam Reza (AS) were studied. Using questionnaires dialysis patients' QOL, quality of life was measured in patients and controls were divided randomly into two groups. Benson's relaxation method for the experimental group and two months at home, once per day, respectively and the control group received no special action. Immediately after the end of the period with was used for evaluating the quality of life in both the experimental and control groups were survey and data using independent t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results: The general dimensions of quality of life scores before and after intervention, there was significant difference (P=0/001). But this difference was not significant after QOL (P=0/2). Between QOL scores before and after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0/02). Conclusion: Benson relaxation has the desired effect on quality of life in hemodialysis patients and can be used as a useful method to enhance the quality of life in hemodialysis patients, implementation and training will be given.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Quality of Life, hemodialysis, Benson muscle relaxation

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
17 Biochemical Characterization of CTX-M-15 from Enterobacter cloacae and Designing a Novel Non-β-Lactam-β-Lactamase Inhibitor

Authors: Asad U. Khan, Mohammad Faheem, M. Tabish Rehman, Mohd Danishuddin

Abstract:

The worldwide dissemination of CTX-M type β-lactamases is a threat to human health. Previously, we have reported the spread of blaCTX-M-15 gene in different clinical strains of Enterobacteriaceae from the hospital settings of Aligarh in north India. In view of the varying resistance pattern against cephalosporins and other β-lactam antibiotics, we intended to understand the correlation between MICs and catalytic activity of CTX-M-15. In this study, steady-state kinetic parameters and MICs were determined on E. coli DH5α transformed with blaCTX-M-15 gene that was cloned from Enterobacter cloacae (EC-15) strain of clinical background. The effect of conventional β-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam) on CTX-M-15 was also studied. We have found that tazobactam is the best among these inhibitors against CTX-M-15. The inhibition characteristic of tazobactam is defined by its very low IC50 value (6 nM), high affinity (Ki = 0.017 µM) and better acylation efficiency (k+2/K9 = 0.44 µM-1s-1). It forms an acyl-enzyme covalent complex, which is quite stable (k+3 = 0.0057 s-1). Since increasing resistance has been reported against conventional b-lactam antibiotic-inhibitor combinations, we aspire to design a non-b-lactam core containing b-lactamase inhibitor. For this, we screened ZINC database and performed molecular docking to identify a potential non-β-lactam based inhibitor (ZINC03787097). The MICs of cephalosporin antibiotics in combination with this inhibitor gave promising results. Steady-state kinetics and molecular docking studies showed that ZINC03787097 is a reversible inhibitor which binds non-covalently to the active site of the enzyme through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Though, it’s IC50 (180 nM) is much higher than tazobactam, it has good affinity for CTX-M-15 (Ki = 0.388 µM). This study concludes that ZINC03787097 compound can be used as seed molecule to design more efficient non-b-lactam containing b-lactamase inhibitor that could evade pre-existing bacterial resistance mechanisms.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, ESBL, non-b-lactam-b-lactamase inhibitor

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
16 The Relationship between Creative Imagination and Curriculum

Authors: Faride Hashemiannejad, Shima Oloomi

Abstract:

Imagination is one of the important elements of creative thinking which as a skill needs attention by the educational system. Although most students learn reading, writing, and arithmetic skills well, they lack high level thinking skills like creative thinking. Therefore, in the information age and in the beginning of entry to knowledge-based society, the educational system needs to think over its goals and mission, and concentrate on creativity-based curriculum. From among curriculum elements-goals, content, method and evaluation “method” is a major domain whose reform can pave the way for fostering imagination and creativity. The purpose of this study was examining the relationship between creativity development and curriculum. Research questions were: (1) is there a relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and creativity development? (2) Is there a relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and creativity development? (3) Is there a relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and creativity development? (4) Is there a relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and creativity development? (5) Is there a relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and creativity development? Method: This research is a applied research and the research method is Correlational research. Participants: The total number of participants in this study included 894 students from High school through 11th grade from seven schools of seven zones in Mashad city. Sampling Plan: Sampling was selected based on Random Multi State. Measurement: The dependent measure in this study was: (a) the Test of Creative Thinking, (b) The researcher-made questionnaire includes five fragments, cognitive, emotional structure, environmental social structure, thinking structure, physical structure, and instructional structure. The Results Show: There was significant relationship between the cognitive-emotional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.139). There was significant relationship between the environmental-social structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.006). There was significant relationship between the thinking structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.004). There was not significant relationship between the physical structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.215). There was significant relationship between the instructional structure of the classroom and student’s creativity development (sig=0.003). These findings denote if students feel secure, calm and confident, they can experience creative learning. Also the quality of coping with students’ questions, imaginations and risks can influence on their creativity development.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Creativity, Curriculum, Imagination

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
15 Is there Anything Useful in That? High Value Product Extraction from Artemisia annua L. in the Spent Leaf and Waste Streams

Authors: Anike Akinrinlade

Abstract:

The world population is estimated to grow from 7.1 billion to 9.22 billion by 2075, increasing therefore by 23% from the current global population. Much of the demographic changes up to 2075 will take place in the less developed regions. There are currently 54 countries which fall under the bracket of being defined as having ‘low-middle income’ economies and need new ways to generate valuable products from current resources that is available. Artemisia annua L is well used for the extraction of the phytochemical artemisinin, which accounts for around 0.01 to 1.4 % dry weight of the plant. Artemisinin is used in the treatment of malaria, a disease rampart in sub-Saharan Africa and in many other countries. Once artemisinin has been extracted the spent leaf and waste streams are disposed of as waste. A feasibility study was carried out looking at increasing the biomass value of A. annua, by designing a biorefinery where spent leaf and waste streams are utilized for high product generation. Quercetin, ferulic acid, dihydroartemisinic acid, artemisinic acid and artemsinin were screened for in the waste stream samples and the spent leaf. The analytical results showed that artemisinin, artemisinic acid and dihydroartemisinic acid were present in the waste extracts as well as camphor and arteannuin b. Ongoing effects are looking at using more industrially relevant solvents to extract the phytochemicals from the waste fractions and investigate how microwave pyrolysis of spent leaf can be utilized to generate bio-products.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, high value product generation, waste streams, spent leaf

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
14 The Standard of Best Interest of the Child in Custody Adjudication under the Malaysian Laws

Authors: Roslina Che Soh

Abstract:

Best interest of the child has been the prevailing principle of the custody legislations of most nations in the world. The tremendous shift from parental rights to parental responsibilities throughout the centuries had made the principle of best interests of the child as the utmost matter which parents must uphold in child upbringing. Despite the commitment to this principle is significantly enshrined in the United Nation Convention on Rights of the Child, the content and application of the principle differs across borders. Differences persist notwithstanding many countries have experienced a substantial shift over the last several decades in the types of custodial arrangements that are thought to best serve children’s interests. The laws in Malaysia similarly uphold this principle but do not provide further deliberation on the principle itself. The principle is entirely developed by the courts through decided cases. Thus, this paper seeks to discuss the extent of the application of best interest of the child principle in custody disputes. In doing so, it attempts to provide an overview of the current laws and the approach of the Civil and the Shariah courts in Malaysia in applying the principle in determining custody disputes. For purposes of comparison, it briefly examines the legislations and the courts practices in Australia and England on this matter. The purpose is to determine the best standard to be adopted by Malaysia and to propose improvement to the laws whenever appropriate.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, child custody, best interest, Malaysian law

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
13 Isotherm Study for Phenol Removal onto GAC

Authors: Arvind Kumar, Lallan Singh Yadav, Bijay Kumar Mishra, Manoj Kumar Mahapatra

Abstract:

Adsorption data for phenol removal onto granular activated carbon were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The adsorption capacity of phenol was estimated to be 16.12 mg/g at initial pH=5.7. The thermodynamics of adsorption process has also been determined in the present work.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Adsorption, granular activated carbon, phenol

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
12 Investigating the Successes of in vitro Embryogenesis

Authors: Zelikha Labbani

Abstract:

The in vitro isolated microspore culture is the most powerful androgenic pathway to produce doubled haploid plants in the short time. To deviate a microspore toward embryogenesis, a number of factors, different for each species, must concur at the same time and place. Once induced, the microspore undergoes numerous changes at different levels, from overall morphology to gene expression. Induction of microspore embryogenesis not only implies the expression of an embryogenic program, but also a stress-related cellular response and a repression of the gametophytic program to revert the microspore to a totipotent status. As haploid single cells, microspore became a strategy to achieve various objectives particularly in genetic engineering. In this communication we would show the most recent advances in the producing haploid embryos via in vitro isolated microspore culture.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, success, in vitro isolated microspore culture, haploid cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
11 Hemispheric Locus and Gender Predict the Delay between the Moment of Stroke and Hospitalization

Authors: D. Anderlini, G. Wallis

Abstract:

Background: The number of people experiencing stroke is steadily increasing due to changes in diet and lifestyle, to longer life expectancy resulting in older population, to higher survival rates as a consequence of improvements during the acute phase. This study considers what risk factors might contribute to delayed entry to hospital for treatment. Methods: We analyzed data from 2472 patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of the Royal Brisbane Women's Hospital, Australia, between 2002 to 2011. Results: Previous studies have reported that factors which can contribute to delay include the patient’s age, the time of day, physical location, visit the GP instead of going to the emergency, means of transport, severity of symptoms and type of stroke. Contrary to findings of other studies, we found a strong correlation between side of lesion and delay in admission: patients with right hemisphere lesions had an average delay of 3.78 days, while patients with left hemisphere lesions had an average delay of 1.49 days. Damage to the right hemisphere generally ends in motor impairment in the non-dominant hand and no speech impediment. In contrast, left hemisphere lesions can result in deficit to; dominant hand function and aphasia which will be noticed even if their impact on performance is relatively minor. A finding which goes against many previous studies, is the fact that women get to the hospital much sooner than men, showing an average delay of 0.92 days in women vs. 3.36 days in men. Conclusion: Acute surgical-pharmacological therapies are most effective if applied immediately after stroke. Hence delays to admission can be crucial to the degree of recovery. The tendency of patients to overlook symptoms of right hemisphere lesion should be the target of information campaigns both for the general public and GPs. Why do men go to hospital so late? We don't know yet! Nevertheless an awareness plan specifically direct to male population should be on the agenda of Health Departments.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Gender, admission delay, stroke location

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
10 Increasing Creativity in Virtual Learning Space for Developing Creative Cities

Authors: Elham Fariborzi, Hoda Anvari Kazemabad

Abstract:

Today, ICT plays an important role in all matters and it affects the development of creative cities. According to virtual space in this technology, it use especially for expand terms like smart schools, Virtual University, web-based training and virtual classrooms that is in parallel with the traditional teaching. Nowadays, the educational systems in different countries such as Iran are changing and start increasing creativity in the learning environment. It will contribute to the development of innovative ideas and thinking of the people in this environment; such opportunities might be cause scientific discovery and development issues. The creativity means the ability to generate ideas and numerous, new and suitable solutions for solving the problems of real and virtual individuals and society, which can play a significant role in the development of creative current physical cities or virtual borders ones in the future. The purpose of this paper is to study strategies to increase creativity in a virtual learning to develop a creative city. In this paper, citation/ library study was used. The full description given in the text, including how to create and enhance learning creativity in a virtual classroom by reflecting on performance and progress; attention to self-directed learning guidelines, efficient use of social networks, systematic discussion groups and non-intuitive targeted controls them by involved factors and it may be effective in the teaching process regarding to creativity. Meanwhile, creating a virtual classroom the style of class recognizes formally the creativity. Also the use of a common model of creative thinking between student/teacher is effective to solve problems of virtual classroom. It is recommended to virtual education’ authorities in Iran to have a special review to the virtual curriculum for increasing creativity in educational content and such classes to be witnesses more creative in Iran's cities.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, e-Learning, Biomedicine, Creativity, Virtual learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
9 Comparative Analysis of Forensic Medicine Course Evaluation: A Two Year Study

Authors: Prateek Rastogi

Abstract:

Medical teaching in present era concentrates not only on teaching but on effective teaching. For effective teaching a combination of effective carefully designed curriculum, an educated educator, competent learner and fool proof evaluation system is required. Keeping these parameters in mind and study was undertaken at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore among medical students. In this study, evaluation of Forensic Medicine syllabus along with its teaching and evaluation methodology was done using 20 different parameters. This questionnaire based study was done over a period of two years i.e. 2013 and 2014. Batch of students who just passed the forensic medicine subject was included for study. Carefully designed questionnaire contained questions related to course content, teaching methodology and evaluation system along with provisions to mention merits and demerits of subject. The feedbacks in first round were analyzed and suggestions were implemented before conducting the second round of study. Overall evaluation of course was done as well as it was compared with other subjects of second MBBS. It was noted that Scores improved in 2nd survey thus stressing the importance of course evaluation and student feedback in teaching improvement.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, teaching methodology, system of evaluation, course content

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
8 Experimental and Theoratical Methods to Increase Core Damping for Sandwitch Cantilever Beam

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Moouyad Ibrahim Abbood

Abstract:

The purpose behind this study is to predict damping effect for steel cantilever beam by using two methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. First method is Matlab Program, this method depend on the Ross, Kerwin and Unger (RKU) model for passive viscoelastic damping. Second method is experimental lab (frequency domain method), in this method used the half-power bandwidth method and can be used to determine the system loss factors for damped steel cantilever beam. The RKU method has been applied to a cantilever beam because beam is a major part of a structure and this prediction may further leads to utilize for different kinds of structural application according to design requirements in many industries. In this method of damping a simple cantilever beam is treated by making sandwich structure to make the beam damp, and this is usually done by using viscoelastic material as a core to ensure the damping effect. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings. The main ideas of this thesis are to find the transition region for damped steel cantilever beam (4mm and 8mm thickness) from experimental lab and theoretical prediction (Matlab R2011a). Experimentally and theoretically proved that the transition region for two specimens occurs at modal frequency between mode 1 and mode 2, which give the best damping, maximum loss factor and maximum damping ratio, thus this type of viscoelastic material core (3M468) is very appropriate to use in automotive industry and in any mechanical application has modal frequency eventuate between mode 1 and mode 2.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, MATLAB, loss factor and frequency, domain method

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
7 Evaluation of Impact on Traffic Conditions Due to Electronic Toll Collection System Design in Thailand

Authors: Kankrong Suangka

Abstract:

This research explored behaviors of toll way users that impact their decision to use the Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC). It also went on to explore and evaluated the efficiency of toll plaza in terms of number of ETC booths in toll plaza and its lane location. The two main parameters selected for the scenarios analyzed were (1) the varying ration of ETC enabled users (2) the varying locations of the dedicated ETC lane. There were a total of 42 scenarios analyzed. Researched data indicated that in A.D.2013, the percentage of ETC user from the total toll user is 22%. It was found that the delay at the payment booth was reduced by increasing the ETC booth by 1 more lane under the condition that the volume of ETC users passing through the plaza less than 1,200 vehicles/hour. Meanwhile, increasing the ETC lanes by 2 lanes can accommodate an increased traffic volume to around 1,200 to 1,800 vehicles/hour. Other than that, in terms of the location of ETC lane, it was found that if for one ETC lane-plazas, installing the ETC lane at the far right are the best alternative. For toll plazas with 2 ETC lanes, the best layout is to have 1 lane in the middle and 1 lane at the far right. This layout shows the least delay when compared to other layouts. Furthermore, the results from this research showed that micro-simulator traffic models have potential for further applications and use in designing toll plaza lanes. Other than that, the results can also be used to analyze the system of the nearby area with similar traffic volume and can be used for further design improvements.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, the electronic toll collection system, average queuing delay, toll plaza configuration

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
6 Prevalence of Seropositivity for Cytomegalovirus in Patients with Hereditary Bleeding Diseases in West Azerbaijan of Iran

Authors: Zakieh Rostamzadeh, Zahra Shirmohammadi

Abstract:

Human cytomegalovirus is a species of the cytomegalovirus family of viruses, which in turn is a member of the viral family known as herpesviridae or herpesviruses. Although they may be found throughout the body, HCMV infections are frequently associated with the salivary glands. HCMV infection is typically unnoticed in healthy people, but can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised such as HIV-infected persons, organ transplant recipients, or newborn infants. After infection, HCMV has an ability to remain latent within the body over long periods. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes infection in immunocompromised, hemophilia patients and those who received blood transfusion frequently. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibodies in hemophilia patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out in Urmia, North West of Iran. The study population comprised a sample of 50 hemophilic patients born after 1985 and have received blood factors in West Azerbaijan. The exclusion criteria include: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling. All samples were evaluated with the method of ELISA, with a certain kind of kit and by a certain laboratory. Results: Fifty hemophiliacs from 250 patients registered with Urmia Hemophilia Society were enrolled in the study including 43 (86%) male, and 7 (14%) female. The mean age of patients was 10.3 years, range 3 to 25 years. None of patients had risk factors mentioned above. Among our studied population, 34(68%) had hemophilia A, 1 (2%) hemophilia B, 8 (16%) VWF, 3(6%) factor VII deficiency, 1 (2%) factor V deficiency, 1 (2%) factor X deficiency, 1 (2%). Sera of 50 Hemodialysis patients were investigated for CMV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM. % 91.89 patients were anti-CMV IgG positive and %40.54 was seropositive for anti-CMV IgM. 37.8% patient had serological evidence of reactivation and 2.7% of patients had the primary infection. Discussion: There was no relationship between the antibody titer and: drug abusing, high risk sexual contacts, vertical transmission of mother to fetus and suspicious needling.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, cytomegalovirus, immunocompromise

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
5 Nonlinear Waves in Two-Layer Systems with Heat Release/Consumption at the Interface

Authors: Ilya Simanovskii

Abstract:

Nonlinear convective flows developed under the joint action of buoyant and thermo-capillary effects in a two-layer system with periodic boundary conditions on the lateral walls have been investigated. The influence of an interfacial heat release on oscillatory regimes has been studied. The computational regions with different lengths have been considered. It is shown that the development of oscillatory instability can lead to the appearance of different no steady flows.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Interface, instabilities, two-layer systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
4 Solar Heating System to Promote the Disinfection of Water

Authors: Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford, Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale

Abstract:

It presents a heating system using low cost alternative solar collectors to promote the disinfection of water in low income communities that take water contaminated by bacteria. The system consists of two solar collectors, with total area of 4 m² and was built using PET bottles and cans of beer and soft drinks. Each collector is made up of 8 PVC tubes, connected in series and work in continuous flow. It will determine the flux the most appropriate to generate the temperature to promote the disinfection. It will be presented results of the efficiency and thermal loss of system and results of analysis of water after undergoing the process of heating.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Biomedicine, Disinfection of water, solar heating system, poor communities

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training

Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James

Abstract:

With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Cosmology, photo-elicitation, personal training

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
2 Dangerous Words: A Moral Economy of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland

Authors: Robin Root

Abstract:

A fundamental premise of medical anthropology is that clinical phenomena are simultaneously cultural, political, and economic: none more so than the linked acronyms HIV/AIDS. For the medical researcher, HIV/AIDS signals an epidemiological pandemic and a pathophysiology. For persons diagnosed with an HIV-related condition, the acronym often conjures dread, too often marking and marginalizing the afflicted irretrievably. Critical medical anthropology is uniquely equipped to theorize the linkages that bind individual and social wellbeing to global structural and culture-specific phenomena. This paper reports findings from an anthropological study of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland, site of the highest HIV prevalence in the world. The project, initiated in 2005, has documented experiences of HIV/AIDS, religiosity, and treatment and care as well as drought and famine. Drawing on interviews with Swazi religious and traditional leaders about their experiences of leadership amidst worsening economic conditions, environmental degradation, and an ongoing global health crisis, the paper provides uncommon insights for global health practitioners whose singular paradigm for designing and delivering interventions is biomedically-based. In contrast, this paper details the role of local leaders in mediating extreme social suffering and resilience in ways that medical science cannot model but which radically impact how sickness is experienced and health services are delivered and accessed. Two concepts help to organize the paper’s argument. First, a ‘moral economy of language’ is central to showing up the implicit ‘technologies of knowledge’ that inhere in scientific and religious discourses of HIV/AIDS; people draw upon these discourses strategically to navigate highly vulnerable conditions. Second, Paulo Freire’s ethnographic focus on a culture’s 'dangerous words' opens up for examination how ‘sex’ is dangerous for religion and ‘god’ is dangerous for science. The paper interrogates hegemonic and ‘lived’ discourses, both biomedical and religious, and contributes to an important literature on the moral economies of health, a framework of explication and, importantly, action appropriate to a wide-range of contemporary global health phenomena. The paper concludes by asserting that it is imperative that global health planners reflect upon and ‘check’ their hegemonic policy platforms by, one, collaborating with local authoritative agents of ‘what sickness means and how it is best treated,’ and, two, taking account of the structural barriers to achieving good health.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Religion, HIV/AIDS, Qualitative Research, Africa

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1 Witchcraft Belief and HIV/AIDS in Edo State, Nigeria: Implications for Health-Care

Authors: Celestina Omoso Isiramen

Abstract:

The influence of witchcraft belief on disease causation, cure and public health system in Nigeria cannot be underrated. This paper investigated the nexus between witchcraft phenomenon and health-seeking behaviour of HIV sufferers in Edo state, Nigeria. Survey methodology was adopted and stratified random sampling technique was employed in the selection of 600 sample group spread into 200 HIV sufferers, 200 spiritual healers and 200 bio-medics from the three Senatorial districts of the state. Data were collected through the use of structured questionnaire and in-dept interview and analyzed using simple percentage and frequency. Major findings were: belief in witchcraft significantly influenced the people’s perception of HIV causation and wellness and this impacted adversely on public health-care. Poverty, ignorance and dearth of retroviral drugs enhanced the people’s recourse to spiritual healers. Collaboration between spiritual healing techniques and biomedicine was recommended as panacea for curbing HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. It concluded that socio-economic problems must be addressed while the importance of integrating the values of spiritual healing into biomedicine cannot be overstressed.

Keywords: Biomedicine, Health Care, HIV/AIDS, Spirituality, witchcraft

Procedia PDF Downloads 10