Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Biomechanics Related Abstracts

34 Effect of Core Stability Exercises on Trunk Proprioception in Healthy Adult Individuals

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Omaima E. S. Mohammed, Amal A. M. El Borady

Abstract:

Background: Core stability training has recently attracted attention for improving muscle performance. Purpose: This study investigated the effect of beginners' core stability exercises on trunk active repositioning error at 30° and 60° trunk flexion. Methods: Forty healthy males participated in the study. They were divided into two equal groups; experimental “group I” and control “group II”. Their mean age, weight and height were 19.35±1.11 vs 20.45±1.64 years, 70.15±6.44 vs 72.45±6.91 kg and 174.7±7.02 vs 176.3±7.24 cm for group I vs group II. Data were collected using the Biodex Isokinetic system at an angular velocity of 60º/s. The participants were tested twice; before and after a 6-week period during which group I performed a core stability training program. Results: The Mixed 3-way ANOVA revealed significant increases (p<0.05) in the absolute error (AE) at 30˚ compared with 60˚ flexion in the pre-test condition of group I and II and the post-test condition of group II. Moreover, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in the post-test condition compared with the pre-test in group I at both 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for group II. Finally, there were significant decreases (p<0.05) in the AE in group I compared with group II in the post-test condition at 30˚ and 60˚ flexion with no significant differences for the pre-test condition Interpretation/Conclusion: The improvement in trunk proprioception indicated by the decrease in the active repositioning error in the experimental group recommends including core stability training in the exercise programs that aim to improve trunk proprioception.

Keywords: Biomechanics, core stability, isokinetic, trunk proprioception

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33 Spino-Pelvic Alignment with SpineCor Brace Use in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

Authors: Amira A. A. Abdallah, Eman A. Embaby, Reham H. Diab

Abstract:

Background: The effectiveness of bracing on preventing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in idiopathic scoliosis has been extensively studied especially in the frontal plane. Yet, there is lack of knowledge regarding the effect of soft braces on spino-pelvic alignment in the sagittal plane. Achieving harmonious sagittal plane spino-pelvic balance is critical for the preservation of physiologic posture and spinal health. Purpose: This study examined the kyphotic angle, lordotic angle and pelvic inclination in the sagittal plane and trunk imbalance in the frontal plane before and after a six-month rehabilitation period. Methods: Nineteen patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. They were divided into two groups; experimental and control. The experimental group (group I) used the SpineCor brace in addition to a rehabilitation exercise program while the control group (group II) had the exercise program only. The mean ±SD age, weight and height were 16.89±2.15 vs. 15.3±2.5 years; 59.78±6.85 vs. 62.5±8.33 Kg and 162.78±5.76 vs. 159±5.72 cm for group I vs. group II. Data were collected using for metric Π system. Results: Mixed design MANOVA showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) decreases in all the tested variables after the six-month period compared with “before” in both groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the kyphotic angle in group I compared with group II after the six-month period. Interpretation and conclusion: SpineCor brace is beneficial in reducing spino-pelvic alignment deterioration in both sagittal and frontal planes.

Keywords: Biomechanics, adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, SpineCor, spino-pelvic alignment

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32 Anthropometric Profile as a Factor of Impact on Employee Productivity in Manufacturing Industry of Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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31 Anthropometric Analysis for the Design of Workstations in the Interior Spaces of the Manufacturing Industry in Tijuana, Mexico

Authors: J. A. López, J. E. Olguín, C. W. Camargo, G. A. Quijano, R. Martínez

Abstract:

This paper presents an anthropometric study conducted to 300 employees in a maquiladora industry that belongs to the cluster of medical products as part of a research project to pretend simulate workplace conditions under which operators conduct their activities. This project is relevant because traditionally performed a study to design ergonomic workspaces according to anthropometric profile of users, however, this paper demonstrates the importance of making decisions when the infrastructure cannot be adapted for economic whichever put emphasis on user activity.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Design, Ergonomics, Productivity, Anthropometry

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30 Development and Validation of Work Movement Task Analysis: Part 1

Authors: Mohd Zubairy Bin Shamsudin

Abstract:

Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSDs) is one of the occupational health problems encountered by workers over the world. In Malaysia, there is increasing in trend over the years, particularly in the manufacturing sectors. Current method to observe workplace WMSDs is self-report questionnaire, observation and direct measurement. Observational method is most frequently used by the researcher and practitioner because of the simplified, quick and versatile when it applies to the worksite. However, there are some limitations identified e.g. some approach does not cover a wide spectrum of biomechanics activity and not sufficiently sensitive to assess the actual risks. This paper elucidates the development of Work Movement Task Analysis (WMTA), which is an observational tool for industrial practitioners’ especially untrained personnel to assess WMSDs risk factors and provide a basis for suitable intervention. First stage of the development protocol involved literature reviews, practitioner survey, tool validation and reliability. A total of six themes/comments were received in face validity stage. New revision of WMTA consisted of four sections of postural (neck, back, shoulder, arms, and legs) and associated risk factors; movement, load, coupling and basic environmental factors (lighting, noise, odorless, heat and slippery floor). For inter-rater reliability study shows substantial agreement among rater with K = 0.70. Meanwhile, WMTA validation shows significant association between WMTA score and self-reported pain or discomfort for the back, shoulder&arms and knee&legs with p<0.05. This tool is expected to provide new workplace ergonomic observational tool to assess WMSDs for the next stage of the case study.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Assessment, Musculoskeletal Disorders, observational tools

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29 Suggestion of Two-Step Traction Therapy for Safer and More Effective Conservative Treatment for Low Back Pain

Authors: Won Man Park, Dae Kyung Choi, Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim

Abstract:

Traction therapy has been used in the treatment of spinal pain for decades. However, a case study reported the occurrence of large disc protrusion during motorized traction therapy. In this study, we hypothesized that additional local decompression with a global axial traction could be helpful for risk reduction of intervertebral disc damage. A validated three dimensional finite element model of the lumbar spine was used. Two-step traction therapy using the axial global traction (the first step) with 1/3 body weight and the additional local decompression (the second step) with 7 mm translation of L4 spinal bone was determined for the traction therapy. During two-step traction therapy, the sacrum was constrained in all translational directions. Reduced lordosis angle by the global axial traction recovered with the additional local decompression. Stress on fibers of the annulus fibrosus by the axial global traction decreased with the local decompression by 17%~96% in the posterior region of intervertebral disc. Stresses on ligaments except anterior longitudinal ligaments in all motion segments decreased till 4.9 mm~5.6 mm translation of L4 spinal bone. The results of this study showed that the additional local decompression is very useful for reducing risk of damage in the intervertebral disc and ligaments caused by the global axial traction force. Moreover, the local decompression could be used to enhance reduction of intradiscal pressure.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite Element Analysis, lumbar spine, traction-therapy

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28 Finite Element Method as a Solution Procedure for Problems in Tissue Biomechanics

Authors: Momoh Omeiza Sheidu

Abstract:

Finite element method as a method of providing solutions to problems in computational bio mechanics provides a framework for modeling the function of tissues that integrates structurally from cell to organ system and functionally across the physiological processes that affect tissue mechanics or are regulated by mechanical forces. In this paper, we present an integrative finite element strategy for solution to problems in tissue bio mechanics as a case study.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Modeling, Computational Biomechanics, finite element

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27 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun

Abstract:

This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: Biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

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26 A Study of Kinematical Parameters I9N Instep Kicking in Soccer

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

Introduction: Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 3 and 5 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players. Methods: 24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 500 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders. Results and Discussion: Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact. Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Male, Female, Kinematics, soccer, instep kick

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25 Effects of Gender on Kinematics Kicking in Soccer

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo

Abstract:

Soccer is a game which draws more attention in different countries especially in Brazil. Kicking among different skills in soccer and soccer players is an excellent role for the success and preference of a team. The way of point gaining in this game is passing the ball over the goal lines which are gained by shoot skill in attack time and or during the penalty kicks.Regarding the above assumption, identifying the effective factors in instep kicking in different distances shoot with maximum force and high accuracy or pass and penalty kick, may assist the coaches and players in raising qualitative level of performing the skill.The aim of the present study was to study of a few kinematical parameters in instep kicking from 5 and 7 meter distance among the male and female elite soccer players.24 right dominant lower limb subjects (12 males and 12 females) among Tehran elite soccer players with average and the standard deviation (22.5 ± 1.5) & (22.08± 1.31) years, height of (179.5 ± 5.81) & (164.3 ± 4.09) cm, weight of (69.66 ± 4.09) & (53.16 ± 3.51) kg, %BMI (21.06 ± .731) & (19.67 ± .709), having playing history of (4 ± .73) & (3.08 ± .66) years respectively participated in this study. They had at least two years of continuous playing experience in Tehran soccer league.For sampling player's kick; Kinemetrix Motion analysis with three cameras with 1000 Hz was used. Five reflective markers were placed laterally on the kicking leg over anatomical points (the iliac crest, major trochanter, lateral epicondyle of femur, lateral malleolus, and lateral aspect of distal head of the fifth metatarsus). Instep kick was filmed, with one step approach and 30 to 45 degrees angle from stationary ball. Three kicks were filmed, one kick selected for further analyses. Using Kinemetrix 3D motion analysis software, the position of the markers was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the mean and standard deviation, while the analysis of variance, and independent t-test (P < 0.05) were used to compare the kinematic parameters between two genders.Among the evaluated parameters, the knee acceleration, the thigh angular velocity, the angle of knee proportionately showed significant relationship with consequence of kick. While company performance on 5m in 2 genders, significant differences were observed in internal – external displacement of toe, ankle, hip and the velocity of toe, ankle and the acceleration of toe and the angular velocity of pelvic, thigh and before time contact . Significant differences showed the internal – external displacement of toe, the ankle, the knee and the hip, the iliac crest and the velocity of toe, the ankle and acceleration of ankle and angular velocity of the pelvic and the knee.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Kinematics, soccer, instep kicking

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24 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache

Abstract:

Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite Element Analysis, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, hip resurfacing

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23 Biomechanical Modeling, Simulation, and Comparison of Human Arm Motion to Mitigate Astronaut Task during Extra Vehicular Activity

Authors: S. N. Omkar, B. Vadiraj, B. Kapil Bharadwaj, Yash Vardhan Gupta

Abstract:

During manned exploration of space, missions will require astronaut crewmembers to perform Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for a variety of tasks. These EVAs take place after long periods of operations in space, and in and around unique vehicles, space structures and systems. Considering the remoteness and time spans in which these vehicles will operate, EVA system operations should utilize common worksites, tools and procedures as much as possible to increase the efficiency of training and proficiency in operations. All of the preparations need to be carried out based on studies of astronaut motions. Until now, development and training activities associated with the planned EVAs in Russian and U.S. space programs have relied almost exclusively on physical simulators. These experimental tests are expensive and time consuming. During the past few years a strong increase has been observed in the use of computer simulations due to the fast developments in computer hardware and simulation software. Based on this idea, an effort to develop a computational simulation system to model human dynamic motion for EVA is initiated. This study focuses on the simulation of an astronaut moving the orbital replaceable units into the worksites or removing them from the worksites. Our physics-based methodology helps fill the gap in quantitative analysis of astronaut EVA by providing a multisegment human arm model. Simulation work described in the study improves on the realism of previous efforts, incorporating joint stops to account for the physiological limits of range of motion. To demonstrate the utility of this approach human arm model is simulated virtually using ADAMS/LifeMOD® software. Kinematic mechanism for the astronaut’s task is studied from joint angles and torques. Simulation results obtained is validated with numerical simulation based on the principles of Newton-Euler method. Torques determined using mathematical model are compared among the subjects to know the grace and consistency of the task performed. We conclude that due to uncertain nature of exploration-class EVA, a virtual model developed using multibody dynamics approach offers significant advantages over traditional human modeling approaches.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Inverse Kinematics, extra vehicular activity, human body modeling

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22 Quantitative Analysis of Camera Setup for Optical Motion Capture Systems

Authors: J. T. Pitale, S. Ghassab, H. Ay, N. Berme

Abstract:

Biomechanics researchers commonly use marker-based optical motion capture (MoCap) systems to extract human body kinematic data. These systems use cameras to detect passive or active markers placed on the subject. The cameras use triangulation methods to form images of the markers, which typically require each marker to be visible by at least two cameras simultaneously. Cameras in a conventional optical MoCap system are mounted at a distance from the subject, typically on walls, ceiling as well as fixed or adjustable frame structures. To accommodate for space constraints and as portable force measurement systems are getting popular, there is a need for smaller and smaller capture volumes. When the efficacy of a MoCap system is investigated, it is important to consider the tradeoff amongst the camera distance from subject, pixel density, and the field of view (FOV). If cameras are mounted relatively close to a subject, the area corresponding to each pixel reduces, thus increasing the image resolution. However, the cross section of the capture volume also decreases, causing reduction of the visible area. Due to this reduction, additional cameras may be required in such applications. On the other hand, mounting cameras relatively far from the subject increases the visible area but reduces the image quality. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative methodology to investigate marker occlusions and optimize camera placement for a given capture volume and subject postures using three-dimension computer-aided design (CAD) tools. We modeled a 4.9m x 3.7m x 2.4m (LxWxH) MoCap volume and designed a mounting structure for cameras using SOLIDWORKS (Dassault Systems, MA, USA). The FOV was used to generate the capture volume for each camera placed on the structure. A human body model with configurable posture was placed at the center of the capture volume on CAD environment. We studied three postures; initial contact, mid-stance, and early swing. The human body CAD model was adjusted for each posture based on the range of joint angles. Markers were attached to the model to enable a full body capture. The cameras were placed around the capture volume at a maximum distance of 2.7m from the subject. We used the Camera View feature in SOLIDWORKS to generate images of the subject as seen by each camera and the number of markers visible to each camera was tabulated. The approach presented in this study provides a quantitative method to investigate the efficacy and efficiency of a MoCap camera setup. This approach enables optimization of a camera setup through adjusting the position and orientation of cameras on the CAD environment and quantifying marker visibility. It is also possible to compare different camera setup options on the same quantitative basis. The flexibility of the CAD environment enables accurate representation of the capture volume, including any objects that may cause obstructions between the subject and the cameras. With this approach, it is possible to compare different camera placement options to each other, as well as optimize a given camera setup based on quantitative results.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Gait Analysis, motion capture, cameras

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21 An Ergonomic Handle Design for Instruments in Laparoscopic Surgery

Authors: Ramon Sancibrian, Carlos Redondo-Figuero, Maria C. Gutierrez-Diez, Esther G. Sarabia, Maria A. Benito-Gonzalez, Jose C. Manuel-Palazuelos

Abstract:

In this paper, the design and evaluation of a handle for laparoscopic surgery is presented. The design of the handle is based on ergonomic principles and tries to avoid awkward postures for surgeons. The handle combines the so-called power-grip and accurate-grip in order to provide strength and accuracy in the performance of surgery. The handle is tested using both objective and subjective approaches. The objective approach uses motion capture techniques to obtain the angles of forearm, arm, wrist and hand. The muscular effort is obtained with electromyography electrodes. On the other hand, a subjective survey has been carried out using questionnaires. Results confirm that the handle is preferred by the majority of the surgeons.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Mechanical Design, Ergonomics, Laparoscopic Surgery

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20 Realistic Study Discover Some Posture Deformities According to Some Biomechanical Variables for Schoolchildren

Authors: Basman Abdul Jabbar

Abstract:

The researchers aimed to improve the importance of the good posture without any divisions & deformities. The importance of research lied in the discovery posture deformities early so easily treated before its transformation into advanced abnormalities difficult to treat and may need surgical intervention. Research problem was noting that some previous studies were based on the discovery of posture deformities, which was dependent on the (self-evaluation) which this type did not have accuracy to discover deformities. The Samples were (500) schoolchildren aged (9-11 years, males) at Baghdad al Karak. They were students at primary schools. The measure included all posture deformities. The researcher used video camera to analyze the posture deformities according to biomechanical variables by Kinovea software for motion analysis. The researcher recommended the need to use accurate scientific methods for early detection of posture deformities in children which contribute to the prevention and reduction of distortions.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Children, posture, deformities

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19 Optimization Parameters Using Response Surface Method on Biomechanical Analysis for Malaysian Soccer Players

Authors: A. R. Ismail, B. M. Deros, M. F. M. Ali

Abstract:

Soccer is very popular and ranked as the top sports in the world as well as in Malaysia. Although soccer sport in Malaysia is currently professionalized, but it’s plunging achievements within recent years continue and are not to be proud of. After review, the Malaysian soccer players are still weak in terms of kicking techniques. The instep kick is a technique, which is often used in soccer for the purpose of short passes and making a scoring. This study presents the 3D biomechanics analysis on a soccer player during performing instep kick. This study was conducted to determine the optimization value for approach angle, distance of supporting leg from the ball and ball internal pressure respect to the knee angular velocity of the ball on the kicking leg. Six subjects from different categories using dominant right leg and free from any injury were selected to take part in this study. Subjects were asked to perform one step instep kick according to the setting for the variables with different parameter. Data analysis was performed using 3 Dimensional “Qualisys Track Manager” system and will focused on the bottom of the body from the waist to the ankle. For this purpose, the marker will be attached to the bottom of the body before the kicking is perform by the subjects. Statistical analysis was conducted by using Minitab software using Response Surface Method through Box-Behnken design. The results of this study found the optimization values for all three parameters, namely the approach angle, 53.6º, distance of supporting leg from the ball, 8.84sm and ball internal pressure, 0.9bar with knee angular velocity, 779.27 degrees/sec have been produced.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Optimization, soccer, instep kick

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18 Computational and Experimental Study of the Mechanics of Heart Tube Formation in the Chick Embryo

Authors: Hadi S. Hosseini, Larry A. Taber

Abstract:

In the embryo, heart is initially a simple tubular structure that undergoes complex morphological changes as it transforms into a four-chambered pump. This work focuses on mechanisms that create heart tube (HT). The early embryo is composed of three relatively flat primary germ layers called endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Precardiac cells located within bilateral regions of the mesoderm called heart fields (HFs) fold and fuse along the embryonic midline to create the HT. The right and left halves of this plate fold symmetrically to bring their upper edges into contact along the midline, where they fuse. In a region near the fusion line, these layers then separate to generate the primitive HT and foregut, which then extend vertically. The anterior intestinal portal (AIP) is the opening at the caudal end of the foregut, which descends as the HT lengthens. The biomechanical mechanisms that drive this folding are poorly understood. Our central hypothesis is that folding is caused by differences in growth between the endoderm and mesoderm while subsequent extension is driven by contraction along the AIP. The feasibility of this hypothesis is examined using experiments with chick embryos and finite-element modeling (FEM). Fertilized white Leghorn chicken eggs were incubated for approximately 22-33 hours until appropriate Hamburger and Hamilton stage (HH5 to HH9) was reached. To inhibit contraction, embryos were cultured in media containing blebbistatin (myosin II inhibitor) for 18h. Three-dimensional models were created using ABAQUS (D. S. Simulia). The initial geometry consists of a flat plate including two layers representing the mesoderm and endoderm. Tissue was considered as a nonlinear elastic material with growth and contraction (negative growth) simulated using a theory, in which the total deformation gradient is given by F=F^*.G, where G is growth tensor and F* is the elastic deformation gradient tensor. In embryos exposed to blebbistatin, initial folding and AIP descension occurred normally. However, after HFs partially fused to create the upper part of the HT, fusion, and AIP descension stopped, and the HT failed to grow longer. These results suggest that cytoskeletal contraction is required only for the later stages of HT formation. In the model, a larger biaxial growth rate in the mesoderm compared to the endoderm causes the bilayered plate to bend ventrally, as the upper edge moves toward the midline, where it 'fuses' with the other half . This folding creates the upper section of the HT, as well as the foregut pocket bordered by the AIP. After this phase completes by stage HH7, contraction along the arch-shaped AIP pulls the lower edge of the plate downward, stretching the two layers. Results given by model are in reasonable agreement with experimental data for the shape of HT, as well as patterns of stress and strain. In conclusion, results of our study support our hypothesis for the creation of the heart tube.

Keywords: Biomechanics, FEM, heart tube formation, chick embryo

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17 The Effects of Seat Heights and Obesity on Lower-Limb Joint Kinematics during Sit-To-Stand Movement

Authors: Woojin Park, Seungwon Baek, Haeseok Jeong, Haehyun Lee

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to compare obese people to the non-obese in terms of joint kinematics in lower-limb body. The height of chairs was also considered as a design factor. Obese people had a difficulty in sit-to-stand (STS) tasks compared to the non-obese people. High chair heights can make STS task easy and it helps the obese to be more comfortable with STS task in particular. Subjects were instructed to wear inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors. They perform STS task using chairs of different heights. Joint kinematics and subjective ratings of discomfort were measured. Knee angles of the obese group were greater than that of the non-obese group in normal type. No significant difference in joint kinematics was found in high chair. Interaction effect was found between obesity and height of chair. The results verified the previous research that had suggested a biomechanical model of STS movement. The results can be applied to occupational design for the obese.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Obesity, electromyography, joint kinematics, sitting, sit-to-stand

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16 Comparison of the Effects of Rod Types of Rigid Fixation Devices on the Loads in the Lumbar Spine: A Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Changsoo Chon, Han Sung Kim, Bokku Kang

Abstract:

We developed new design of rod of pedicle screw system that is beneficial in maintaining the spacing between the vertebrae and assessed the performance of the posterior fixation screw systems by numerical analysis according to the range of motion (flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation) of the vertebral column after inserting the pedicle screws. The simulation results showed that the conventional rod was the most low equivalent stress value among implant units in the case of flexion, extension and lateral bending of the vertebrae. In all cases except the torsional rotation, the results showed that the stress level of the single and double rounded rod exceeded about 30% to 70% compare to the conventional rod. Therefore, this product is not suitable for actual application in the field yet and it seems that product design optimization is necessary. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE), Korea Institute for Advancement of Technology (KIAT) through the Encouragement Program for The Industries of Economic Cooperation Region.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite Element Method, lumber spine, internal fixation device

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15 Altered Lower Extremity Biomechanical Risk Factor Related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Athlete with Functional Ankle Instability

Authors: Mohammad Karimizadehardakani, Hooman Minoonejad, Reza Rajabi, Ali Sharifnejad

Abstract:

Background: Ankle sprain is one of the most important risk factor of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Also, functional ankle instability (FAI) population has alterations in lower extremity sagittal plane biomechanics during landing task. We want to examine whether biomechanical alterations demonstrated by FAI patients are associated with the mechanism of ACL injury during high risk and sport related tasks. Methods: Sixteen basketball player with FAI and 16 non-injured control performed a single-leg cross drop landing. Knee sagittal and frontal (ATSF) was calculated. Independent t-tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson correlation were used for analysis data. Result: Subject with FAI showed more peak ATFS, posterior ground reaction force (GRF) and less knee flexion, compared to the controls (P= 0.001, P= 0.004, P= 0.011). Knee flexion (r= −0.824, P = 0.011) and posterior GRF (r= 0.901, P = .001) were correlated with ATSF; Posterior GRF was factor that most explained the variance in ATSF (R2= 0.645; P = .001) in the FAI group. Conclusions: Result of our study showed there is a potential biomechanical relationship between the presence of FAI and risk factors associated with ACL injury mechanism.

Keywords: Biomechanics, risk factor, functional ankle instability, anterior cruciate ligament

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14 Variations in the 7th Lumbar (L7) Vertebra Length Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Sa`ad M. Ismail, Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies

Abstract:

The lumbosacral junction (where the 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) articulates with the sacrum) is a clinically important area in the dog. The 7th lumbar vertebra (L7) is normally shorter than other lumbar vertebrae, and it has been reported that variations in the L7 length may be associated with other abnormal anatomical findings. These variations included the reduction or absence of the portion of the median sacral crest. In this study, 53 greyhound cadavers were placed in right lateral recumbency, and two lateral radiographs were taken of the lumbosacral region for each greyhound. The length of the 6th lumbar (L6) vertebra and L7 were measured using radiographic measurement software and was defined to be the mean of three lines drawn from the caudal to the cranial edge of the L6 and L7 vertebrae (a dorsal, middle, and ventral line) between specific landmarks. Sacrocaudal fusion was found in 41.5% of the greyhounds. The mean values of the length of L6, L7, and the ratio of the L6/L7 length of the greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion were all greater than those with standard sacrums (three sacral vertebrae). There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the mean values of the length of L7 between the greyhounds without sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 29.64, SD ± 2.07) and those with sacrocaudal fusion (mean = 30.86, SD ± 1.80), but, there was no significant difference in the mean value of the length of the L6 measurement. Among different types of sacrocaudal fusion, the longest L7 was found in greyhounds with sacrum type D, intermediate length in those with sacrum type B, and the shortest was found in those with sacrums type C, and the mean values of the ratio of the L6/L7 were 1.11 (SD ± 0.043), 1.15, (SD ± 0.025), and 1.15 (SD ± 0.011) for the types B, C, and D respectively. No significant differences in the mean values of the length of L6 or L7 were found among the different types of sacrocaudal fusion. The occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion might affect direct anatomically connected structures such as the L7. The variation in the length of L7 between greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion and those without may reflect the possible sequences of the process of fusion. Variations in the length of the L7 vertebra in greyhounds may be associated with the occurrence of sacrocaudal fusion. The variation in the vertebral length may affect the alignment and biomechanical properties of the sacrum and may alter the loading. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or the surrounding anatomical structures.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Locomotion, greyhound, sacrocaudal fusion, ratio of the L6/L7 length

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13 Variations in the Angulation of the First Sacral Spinous Process Angle Associated with Sacrocaudal Fusion in Greyhounds

Authors: Hung-Hsun Yen, Christina M. Murray, Helen M. S. Davies, Sa'ad M. Ismail

Abstract:

In the dog, the median sacral crest is formed by the fusion of three sacral spinous processes. In greyhounds with standard sacrums, this fusion in the median sacral crest consists of the fusion of three sacral spinous processes while it consists of four in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion. In the present study, variations in the angulation of the first sacral spinous process in association with different types of sacrocaudal fusion in the greyhound were investigated. Sacrums were collected from 207 greyhounds (102 sacrums; type A (unfused) and 105 with different types of sacrocaudal fusion; types: B, C and D). Sacrums were cleaned by boiling and dried and then were placed on their ventral surface on a flat surface and photographed from the left side using a digital camera at a fixed distance. The first sacral spinous process angle (1st SPA) was defined as the angle formed between the cranial border of the cranial ridge of the first sacral spinous process and the line extending across the most dorsal surface points of the spinous processes of the S1, S2, and S3. Image-Pro Express Version 5.0 imaging software was used to draw and measure the angles. Two photographs were taken for each sacrum and two repeat measurements were also taken of each angle. The mean value of the 1st SPA in greyhounds with sacrocaudal fusion was less (98.99°, SD ± 11, n = 105) than those in greyhounds with standard sacrums (99.77°, SD ± 9.18, n = 102) but was not significantly different (P < 0.05). Among greyhounds with different types of sacrocaudal fusion the mean value of the 1st SPA was as follows: type B; 97.73°, SD ± 10.94, n = 39, type C: 101.42°, SD ± 10.51, n = 52, and type D: 94.22°, SD ± 11.30, n = 12. For all types of fusion these angles were significantly different from each other (P < 0.05). Comparing the mean value of the1st SPA in standard sacrums (Type A) with that for each type of fusion separately showed that the only significantly different angulation (P < 0.05) was between standard sacrums and sacrums with sacrocaudal fusion sacrum type D (only body fusion between the S1 and Ca1). Different types of sacrocaudal fusion were associated with variations in the angle of the first sacral spinous process. These variations may affect the alignment and biomechanics of the sacral area and the pattern of movement and/or the force produced by both hind limbs to the cranial parts of the body and may alter the loading of other parts of the body. We concluded that any variations in the sacrum anatomical features might change the function of the sacrum or surrounding anatomical structures during movement.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Locomotion, greyhound, sacrocaudal fusion, angulation of first sacral spinous process

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12 Biomechanical Evaluation of the Chronic Stroke with 3D-Printed Hand Device

Authors: Chen-Sheng Chen, Tsung-Yi Huang, Pi-Chang Sun

Abstract:

Chronic stroke patients often have complaints about hand dysfunction due to flexor hypertonia and extensor weakness, which makes it difficult to open their affected hand for functional grasp. Hand rehabilitation after stroke is essential for restoring functional independence. Constraint-induced movement therapy has shown to be a successful treatment for patients who have acquired certain level of wrist and finger extension. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of task-oriented approach incorporating 3D-printed dynamic hand device by evaluating hand functional performance. This study manufactured a hand device using 3d printer for chronic stroke. The experimental group engaged task-oriented approach with dynamic hand device, but the control group only received task-oriented approach. Outcome measurements include palmar pinch force (PPF), lateral pinch force (LPF), grip force (GF), and Box and Blocks Test (BBT). The results of study revealed the improvement of PPF in experimental group but not in control group. Meanwhile, improvement in LPF, GF and BBT can be found in both groups. This study demonstrates that the 3D-printed dynamic hand device is an effective therapeutic assistive device to improve pinch force, grasp force, and dexterity and facilitate motivation during home program in individuals with chronic stroke.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Stroke, hand orthosis

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11 Comparing the Knee Kinetics and Kinematics during Non-Steady Movements in Recovered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Badminton Players against an Uninjured Cohort: Case-Control Study

Authors: Anuj Pathare, Aleksandra Birn-Jeffery

Abstract:

Background: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament(ACL) helps stabilize the knee joint minimizing tibial anterior translation. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is common in racquet sports and often occurs due to sudden acceleration, deceleration or changes of direction. This mechanism in badminton most commonly occurs during landing after an overhead stroke. Knee biomechanics during dynamic movements such as walking, running and stair negotiation, do not return to normal for more than a year after an ACL reconstruction. This change in the biomechanics may lead to re-injury whilst performing non-steady movements during sports, where these injuries are most prevalent. Aims: To compare if the knee kinetics and kinematics in ACL injury recovered athletes return to the same level as those from an uninjured cohort during standard movements used for clinical assessment and badminton shots. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine: Knee valgus during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Degree of internal or external rotation during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump, net shot and drop shot; Maximum knee flexion during the single leg squat, vertical drop jump and net shot. Methods: This case-control study included 14 participants with three ACL injury recovered athletes and 11 uninjured participants. The participants performed various functional tasks including vertical drop jump, single leg squat; the forehand net shot and the forehand drop shot. The data was analysed using the two-way ANOVA test, and the reliability of the data was evaluated using the Intra Class Coefficient. Results: The data showed a significant decrease in the range of knee rotation in ACL injured participants as compared to the uninjured cohort (F₇,₅₅₆=2.37; p=0.021). There was also a decrease in the maximum knee flexion angles and an increase in knee valgus angles in ACL injured participants although they were not statistically significant. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the knee rotation angles in the ACL injured participants which could be a potential cause for re-injury in these athletes in the future. Although the results for decrease in maximum knee flexion angles and increase in knee valgus angles were not significant, this may be due to a limited sample of ACL injured participants; there is potential for it to be identified as a variable of interest in the rehabilitation of ACL injuries. These changes in the knee biomechanics could be vital in the rehabilitation of ACL injured athletes in the future, and an inclusion of sports based tasks, e.g., Net shot along with standard protocol movements for ACL assessment would provide a better measure of the rehabilitation of the athlete.

Keywords: Biomechanics, ACL, knee injury, racquet sport

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10 Human Bone Marrow Stem Cell Behavior on 3D Printed Scaffolds as Trabecular Bone Grafts

Authors: Zeynep Busra Velioglu, Deniz Pulat, Beril Demirbakan, Burak Ozcan, Ece Bayrak, Cevat Erisken

Abstract:

Bone tissue has the ability to perform a wide array of functions including providing posture, load-bearing capacity, protection for the internal organs, initiating hematopoiesis, and maintaining the homeostasis of key electrolytes via calcium/phosphate ion storage. The most common cause for bone defects is extensive trauma and subsequent infection. Bone tissue has the self-healing capability without a scar tissue formation for the majority of the injuries. However, some may result with delayed union or fracture non-union. Such cases include reconstruction of large bone defects or cases of compromised regenerative process as a result of avascular necrosis and osteoporosis. Several surgical methods exist to treat bone defects, including Ilizarov method, Masquelete technique, growth factor stimulation, and bone replacement. Unfortunately, these are technically demanding and come with noteworthy disadvantages such as lengthy treatment duration, adverse effects on the patient’s psychology, repeated surgical procedures, and often long hospitalization times. These limitations associated with surgical techniques make bone substitutes an attractive alternative. Here, it was hypothesized that a 3D printed scaffold will mimic trabecular bone in terms of biomechanical properties and that such scaffolds will support cell attachment and survival. To test this hypothesis, this study aimed at fabricating poly(lactic acid), PLA, structures using 3D printing technology for trabecular bone defects, characterizing the scaffolds and comparing with bovine trabecular bone. Capacity of scaffolds on human bone marrow stem cell (hBMSC) attachment and survival was also evaluated. Cubes with a volume of 1 cm³ having pore sizes of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.25 mm were printed. The scaffolds/grafts were characterized in terms of porosity, contact angle, compressive mechanical properties as well cell response. Porosities of the 3D printed scaffolds were calculated based on apparent densities. For contact angles, 50 µl distilled water was dropped over the surface of scaffolds, and contact angles were measured using ‘Image J’ software. Mechanical characterization under compression was performed on scaffolds and native trabecular bone (bovine, 15 months) specimens using a universal testing machine at a rate of 0.5mm/min. hBMSCs were seeded onto the 3D printed scaffolds. After 3 days of incubation with fully supplemented Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium, the cells were fixed using 2% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde mixture. The specimens were then imaged under scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was determined by using EZQuant dsDNA Quantitation kit. Fluorescence was measured using microplate reader Spectramax M2 at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 485nm and 535nm, respectively. Findings suggested that porosity of scaffolds with pore dimensions of 0.5mm, 1.0mm and 1.25mm were not affected by pore size, while contact angle and compressive modulus decreased with increasing pore size. Biomechanical characterization of trabecular bone yielded higher modulus values as compared to scaffolds with all pore sizes studied. Cells attached and survived in all surfaces, demonstrating higher proliferation on scaffolds with 1.25mm pores as compared with those of 1mm. Collectively, given lower mechanical properties of scaffolds as compared to native bone, and biocompatibility of the scaffolds, the 3D printed PLA scaffolds of this study appear as candidate substitutes for bone repair and regeneration.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Stem Cell, bone repair

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
9 Biomechanical Study of a Type II Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior Lesion in the Glenohumeral Joint Using Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Diego F. Villegas B.

Abstract:

The SLAP lesion (Superior Labral Anterior to Posterior) involves the labrum, causing pain and mobility problems in the glenohumeral joint. This injury is common in athletes practicing sports that requires throwing or those who receive traumatic impacts on the shoulder area. This paper determines the biomechanical behavior of soft tissues of the glenohumeral joint when type II SLAP lesion is present. This pathology is characterized for a tear in the superior labrum which is simulated in a 3D model of the shoulder joint. A 3D model of the glenohumeral joint was obtained using the free software Slice. Then, a Finite Element analysis was done using a general purpose software which simulates a compression test with external rotation. First, a validation was done assuming a healthy joint shoulder with a previous study. Once the initial model was validated, a lesion of the labrum built using a CAD software and the same test was done again. The results obtained were stress and strain distribution of the synovial capsule and the injured labrum. ANOVA was done for the healthy and injured glenohumeral joint finding significant differences between them. This study will help orthopedic surgeons to know the biomechanics involving this type of lesion and also the other surrounding structures affected by loading the injured joint.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite elements, glenohumeral joint, computational model, superior labral anterior to posterior lesion

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8 Design and Construction of a Device to Facilitate the Stretching of a Plantiflexors Muscles in the Therapy of Rehabilitation for Patients with Spastic Hemiplegia

Authors: Nathalia Andrea Calderon Lesmes, Eduardo Barragan Parada, Diego Fernando Villegas Bermudez

Abstract:

Spasticity in the plantiflexor muscles as a product of stroke (CVA-Cerebrovascular accident) restricts the mobility and independence of the affected people. Commonly, physiotherapists are in charge of manually performing the rehabilitation therapy known as Sustained Mechanical Stretching, rotating the affected foot of the patient in the sagittal plane. However, this causes a physical wear on the professional because it is a fatiguing movement. In this article, a mechanical device is developed to implement this rehabilitation therapy more efficiently. The device consists of a worm-crown mechanism that is driven by a crank to gradually rotate a platform in the sagittal plane of the affected foot, in order to achieve dorsiflexion. The device has a range of sagittal rotation up to 150° and has velcro located on the footplate that secures the foot. The design of this device was modeled by using CAD software and was checked structurally with a general purpose finite element software to be sure that the device is safe for human use. As a measurement system, a goniometer is used in the lateral part of the device and load cells are used to measure the force in order to determine the opposing torque exerted by the muscle. Load cells sensitivity is 1.8 ± 0.002 and has a repeatability of 0.03. Validation of the effectiveness of the device is measured by reducing the opposition torque and increasing mobility for a given patient. In this way, with a more efficient therapy, an improvement in the recovery of the patient's mobility and therefore in their quality of life can be achieved.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Rehabilitation, mechanical device, plantiflexor muscles, spastic hemiplegia, sustained mechanical stretching

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7 3D Biomechanical Analysis in Shot Put Techniques of International Throwers

Authors: Satpal Yadav, Ashish Phulkar, Krishna K. Sahu

Abstract:

Aim: The research aims at doing a 3 Dimension biomechanical analysis in the shot put techniques of International throwers to evaluate the performance. Research Method: The researcher adopted the descriptive method and the data was subjected to calculate by using Pearson’s product moment correlation for the correlation of the biomechanical parameters with the performance of shot put throw. In all the analyses, the 5% critical level (p ≤ 0.05) was considered to indicate statistical significance. Research Sample: Eight (N=08) international shot putters using rotational/glide technique in male category was selected as subjects for the study. The researcher used the following methods and tools to obtain reliable measurements the instrument which was used for the purpose of present study namely the tesscorn slow-motion camera, specialized motion analyzer software, 7.260 kg Shot Put (for a male shot-putter) and steel tape. All measurement pertaining to the biomechanical variables was taken by the principal investigator so that data collected for the present study was considered reliable. Results: The finding of the study showed that negative significant relationship between the angular velocity right shoulder, acceleration distance at pre flight (-0.70), (-0.72) respectively were obtained, the angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at flight (0.81), (0.75) and (0.71) respectively were obtained, the angular velocity right shoulder and acceleration distance at transition phase (0.77), (0.79) respectively were obtained and angular displacement of knee, angular velocity right shoulder, release velocity shot, angle of release, height of release, projected distance and measured distance as the values (0.76), (0.77), (-0.83), (-0.79), (-0.77), (0.99) and (1.00) were found higher than the tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance. On the other hand, there exists an insignificant relationship between the performance of shot put and acceleration distance [m], angular displacement shot, C.G at release and horizontal release distance on the technique of shot put.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Analysis, shot put, international throwers

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
6 Biomechanical Performance of the Synovial Capsule of the Glenohumeral Joint with a BANKART Lesion through Finite Element Analysis

Authors: Javier A. Maldonado E., Duvert A. Puentes T., Ivan Quintero., Diego F. Villegas

Abstract:

Mechanical Computation is a great tool to study the performance of complex models. An example of it is the study of the human body structure. This paper took advantage of different types of software to make a 3D model of the glenohumeral joint and apply a finite element analysis. The main objective was to study the change in the biomechanical properties of the joint when it presents an injury. Specifically, a BANKART lesion, which consists in the detachment of the anteroinferior labrum from the glenoid. Stress and strain distribution of the soft tissues were the focus of this study. First, a 3D model was made of a joint without any pathology, as a control sample, using segmentation software for the bones with the support of medical imagery and a cadaveric model to represent the soft tissue. The joint was built to simulate a compression and external rotation test using CAD to prepare the model in the adequate position. When the healthy model was finished, it was submitted to a finite element analysis and the results were validated with experimental model data. With the validated model, it was sensitized to obtain the best mesh measurement. Finally, the geometry of the 3D model was changed to imitate a BANKART lesion. Then, the contact zone of the glenoid with the labrum was slightly separated simulating a tissue detachment. With this new geometry, the finite element analysis was applied again, and the results were compared with the control sample created initially. With the data gathered, this study can be used to improve understanding of the labrum tears. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that the computational analysis are approximations and the initial data was taken from an in vitro assay.

Keywords: Biomechanics, Finite elements, glenohumeral joint, computational model, bankart lesion, labrum

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5 Design and Biomechanical Analysis of a Transtibial Prosthesis for Cyclists of the Colombian Team Paralympic

Authors: Jhonnatan Eduardo Zamudio Palacios, Oscar Leonardo Mosquera Dussan, Daniel Guzman Perez, Daniel Alfonso Botero Rosas, Oscar Fabian Rubiano Espinosa, Jose Antonio Garcia Torres, Ivan Dario Chavarro, Ivan Ramiro Rodriguez Camacho, Jaime Orlando Rodriguez

Abstract:

The training of cilsitas with some type of disability finds in the technological development an indispensable ally, generating every day advances to contribute to the quality of life allowing to maximize the capacities of the athletes. The performance of a cyclist depends on physiological and biomechanical factors, such as aerodynamic profile, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, pedaling systems, type of competition, among others. This study particularly focuses on the description of the dynamic model of a transtibial prosthesis for Paralympic cyclists. To make the model, two points are chosen: in the radius centers of rotation of the plate and pinion of the track bicycle. The parametric scheme of the track bike represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom due to the displacement in X - Y of each of the reference points of the angles of the curve profile β, cant of the velodrome α and the angle of rotation of the connecting rod φ. The force exerted on the crank of the bicycle varies according to the angles of the curve profile β, the velodrome cant of α and the angle of rotation of the crank φ. The behavior is analyzed through the Matlab R2015a software. The average strength that a cyclist exerts on the cranks of a bicycle is 1,607.1 N, the Paralympic cyclist must perform a force on each crank about 803.6 N. Once the maximum force associated with the movement has been determined, it is continued to the dynamic modeling of the transtibial prosthesis that represents a model of 6 degrees of freedom with displacement in X - Y in relation to the angles of rotation of the hip π, knee γ and ankle λ. Subsequently, an analysis of the kinematic behavior of the prosthesis was carried out by means of SolidWorks 2017 and Matlab R2015a, which was used to model and analyze the variation of the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the λ prosthesis. The reaction forces generated in the prosthesis were performed on the ankle of the prosthesis, performing the summation of forces on the X and Y axes. The same analysis was then applied to the tibia of the prosthesis and the socket. The reaction force of the parts of the prosthesis varies according to the hip angles π, knee γ and ankle of the prosthesis λ. Therefore, it can be deduced that the maximum forces experienced by the ankle of the prosthesis is 933.6 N on the X axis and 2.160.5 N on the Y axis. Finally, it is calculated that the maximum forces experienced by the tibia and the socket of the transtibial prosthesis in high performance competitions is 3.266 N on the X axis and 1.357 N on the Y axis. In conclusion, it can be said that the performance of the cyclist depends on several physiological factors, linked to biomechanics of training. The influence of biomechanical factors such as aerodynamics, bicycle measurements, connecting rod length, or non-circular pedaling systems on the cyclist performance.

Keywords: Biomechanics, dynamic model, transtibial prosthesis, paralympic cyclist

Procedia PDF Downloads 144