Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Biomaterials Related Abstracts

23 Hydrogel Hybridizing Temperature-Cured Dissolvable Gelatin Microspheres as Non-Anchorage Dependent Cell Carriers for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Dong-An Wang

Abstract:

All kinds of microspheres have been extensively employed as carriers for drug, gene and therapeutic cell delivery. Most therapeutic cell delivery microspheres rely on a two-step methodology: fabrication of microspheres and subsequent seeding of cells onto them. In this study, we have developed a novel one-step cell encapsulation technique using a convenient and instant water-in-oil single emulsion approach to form cell-encapsulated gelatin microspheres. This technology is adopted for hyaline cartilage tissue engineering, in which autologous chondrocytes are used as therapeutic cells. Cell viability was maintained throughout and after the microsphere formation (75-100 µm diameters) process that avoids involvement of any covalent bonding reactions or exposure to any further chemicals. Further encapsulation of cell-laden microspheres in alginate gels were performed under 4°C via a prompt process. Upon the formation of alginate constructs, they were immediately relocated into CO2 incubator where the temperature was maintained at 37°C; under this temperature, the cell-laden gelatin microspheres dissolved within hours to yield similarly sized cavities and the chondrocytes were therefore suspended within the cavities inside the alginate gel bulk. Hence, the gelatin cell-laden microspheres served two roles: as cell delivery vehicles which can be removable through temperature curing, and as porogens within an alginate hydrogel construct to provide living space for cell growth and tissue development as well as better permeability for mutual diffusions. These cell-laden microspheres, namely “temperature-cured dissolvable gelatin microsphere based cell carriers” (tDGMCs), were further encapsulated in a chondrocyte-laden alginate scaffold system and analyzed by WST-1, gene expression analyses, biochemical assays, histology and immunochemistry stains. The positive results consistently demonstrated the promise of tDGMC technology in delivering these non-anchorage dependent cells (chondrocytes). It can be further conveniently translated into delivery of other non-anchorage dependent cell species, including stem cells, progenitors or iPS cells, for regeneration of tissues in internal organs, such as engineered hepatogenesis or pancreatic regeneration.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Hydrogel, microsphere, porogen, anchorage dependence

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22 In Vivo Response of Scaffolds of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó, Karina Nogueira

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the introduction of the bioactive mesh (BM) scaffolds using a model of tibial bone defect implants in rats. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated a highly positive response of particulate bioactive materials in the morphological and biomechanical properties of the bone callus, the effects of material with superior bioactivity, present in form of meshes have not been studied yet. Eighty male Wistar rats with 3 mm tibial defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: intact group (IG) – tibia without any injury; bone defect day zero (0dD) – bone defects, sacrificed immediately after injury; bone defect control group (CG) – bone defects without any filler and bone defect filled with BM scaffold. The animals of BM and CG groups were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days post-injury to compare the temporal-special effects of the scaffolds on bone healing. The histological analysis revealed an organized newly formed bone at 30 and 45 days post-surgery in the BM. Also, this group presented an increased COX-2 expression on days 15 and 30 post-surgery. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that, BM presented a positive immunoexpression of RUNX-2 during all periods evaluated. The biomechanical analysis revealed that at 15 day after surgery, no significant statistically difference was observed between BM and CG and both groups had significantly higher values of maximal load compared to 0dG and significantly lower values than IG. On days 30 and 45 post-surgery, BM presented statistically lower values of maximal load compared to the CG. Nevertheless, at the same periods, BM did not show statistically significant difference compared to the IG maximal load values (p > 0, 05). Our results revealed that the implantation of the BM scaffolds was effective in stimulating newly bone formation.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Bone, Cartilage, Scaffolds

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21 Characterization of Martensitic Stainless Steel Japanese Grade AISI 420A

Authors: T. Z. Butt, T. A. Tabish, K. Anjum, H. Hafeez

Abstract:

A study of martensitic stainless steel surgical grade AISI 420A produced in Japan was carried out in this research work. The sample was already annealed at about 898˚C. The sample were subjected to chemical analysis, hardness, tensile and metallographic tests. These tests were performed on as received annealed and heat treated samples. In the annealed condition the sample showed 0HRC. However, on tensile testing, in annealed condition the sample showed maximum elongation. The heat treatment is carried out in vacuum furnace within temperature range 980-1035°C. The quenching of samples was carried out using liquid nitrogen. After hardening, the samples were subjected to tempering, which was carried out in vacuum tempering furnace at a temperature of 220˚C. The hardened samples were subjected to hardness and tensile testing. In hardness testing, the samples showed maximum hardness values. In tensile testing the sample showed minimum elongation. The sample in annealed state showed coarse plates of martensite structure. Therefore, the studied steels can be used as biomaterials.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Bioinstrumentation, Tensile Testing, martensitic steel, microsrtucture, hardening, tempering

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20 Characterization of Retinal Pigmented Cell Epithelium Cell Sheet Cultivated on Synthetic Scaffold

Authors: Tan Yong Sheng Edgar, Yeong Wai Yee

Abstract:

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading cause of blindness. It can cause severe visual loss due to damaged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). RPE is an important component of the retinal tissue. It functions as a transducing boundary for visual perception making it an essential factor for sight. The RPE also functions as a metabolically complex and functional cell layer that is responsible for the local homeostasis and maintenance of the extra photoreceptor environment. Thus one of the suggested method of treating such diseases would be regenerating these RPE cells. As such, we intend to grow these cells using a synthetic scaffold to provide a stable environment that reduces the batch effects found in natural scaffolds. Stiffness of the scaffold will also be investigated to determine the optimal Young’s modulus for cultivating these cells. The cells will be generated into a monolayer cell sheet and their functions such as formation of tight junctions and gene expression patterns will be assessed to evaluate the cell sheet quality compared to a native RPE tissue.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Characterization, Scaffold, RPE, colloids and nanomedicine

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19 Non-Cytotoxic Natural Sourced Inorganic Hydroxyapatite (HAp) Scaffold Facilitate Bone-like Mechanical Support and Cell Proliferation

Authors: Apurba Dey, Sudip Mondal, Biswanath Mondal, Sudit S. Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

Bioactive materials improve devices for a long lifespan but have mechanical limitations. Mechanical characterization is one of the very important characteristics to evaluate the life span and functionality of the scaffold material. After implantation of scaffold material the primary stage rejection of scaffold occurs due to non biocompatible effect of host body system. The second major problems occur due to the effect of mechanical failure. The mechanical and biocompatibility failure of the scaffold materials can be overcome by the prior evaluation of the scaffold materials. In this study chemically treated Labeo rohita scale is used for synthesizing hydroxyapatite (HAp) biomaterial. Thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) is carried out to ensure thermal stability. The chemical composition and bond structures of wet ball-milled calcined HAp powder is characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Fish scale derived apatite materials consists of nano-sized particles with Ca/P ratio of 1.71. The biocompatibility through cytotoxicity evaluation and MTT assay are carried out in MG63 osteoblast cell lines. In the cell attachment study, the cells are tightly attached with HAp scaffolds developed in the laboratory. The result clearly suggests that HAp material synthesized in this study do not have any cytotoxic effect, as well as it has a natural binding affinity for mammalian cell lines. The synthesized HAp powder further successfully used to develop porous scaffold material with suitable mechanical property of ~0.8GPa compressive stress, ~1.10 GPa a hardness and ~ 30-35% porosity which is acceptable for implantation in trauma region for animal model. The histological analysis also supports the bio-affinity of processed HAp biomaterials in Wistar rat model for investigating the contact reaction and stability at the artificial or natural prosthesis interface for biomedical function. This study suggests the natural sourced fish scale-derived HAp material could be used as a suitable alternative biomaterial for tissue engineering application in near future.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Scaffold, hydroxyapatite, mechanical property

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18 Effect of Polymer Molecular Structures on Properties of Dental Cement Restoratives

Authors: Dong Xie, Jun Zhao, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

One of the challenges in dental cement biomaterials is how to make a restorative with mechanical strengths and wear resistance that are comparable to contemporary dental resin composites. Currently none of the dental cement restoratives has been used in high stress-bearing sites due to their low mechanical strengths and poor wear-resistance. The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize the poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures, use these polymers to formulate a dental cement restorative, and study the effect of molecular structures on reaction kinetics, viscosity, and mechanical strengths of the formed polymers and cement restoratives. In this study, poly(alkenoic acid)s with different molecular structures were synthesized. The purified polymers were formulated with commercial Fuji II LC glass fillers to form the experimental cement restoratives. The reaction kinetics was studied via 1HNMR spectroscopy. The formed restoratives were evaluated using compressive strength, diametral tensile strength, flexural strength, hardness and wear-resistance tests. Specimens were conditioned in distilled water at 37 oC for 24 h prior to testing. Fuji II LC restorative was used as control. The results show that the higher the arm number and initiator concentration, the faster the reaction was. It was also found that the higher the arm number and branching that the polymer had, the lower the viscosity of the polymer in water and the lower the mechanical strengths of the formed restorative. The experimental restoratives were 31-53% in compressive strength, 37-55% in compressive modulus, 80-126% in diametral tensile strength, 76-94% in flexural strength, 4-21% in fracture toughness and 53-96% in hardness higher than Fuji II LC. For wear test, the experimental restoratives were only 5.4-13% of abrasive and 6.4-12% of attritional wear depths of Fuji II LC in each wear cycle. The aging study also showed that all the experimental restoratives increased their strength continuously during 30 days, unlike Fuji II LC. It is concluded that polymer molecular structures have significant and positive impact on mechanical properties of dental cement restoratives.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Polymers, Dental Materials, Strength

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17 Comparative Analysis between Corn and Ramon (Brosimum alicastrum) Starches to Be Used as Sustainable Bio-Based Plastics

Authors: C. R. Ríos-Soberanis, V. M. Moo-Huchin, R. J. Estrada-Leon, E. Perez-Pacheco

Abstract:

Polymers from renewable resources have attracted an increasing amount of attention over the last two decades, predominantly due to two major reasons: firstly environmental concerns, and secondly the realization that our petroleum resources are finite. Finding new uses for agricultural commodities is also an important area of research. Therefore, it is crucial to get new sources of natural materials that can be used in different applications. Ramon tree (Brosimum alicastrum) is a tropical plant that grows freely in Yucatan countryside. This paper focuses on the seeds recollection, processing and starch extraction and characterization in order to find out about its suitability as biomaterial. Results demonstrated that it has a high content of qualities to be used not only as comestible but also as an important component in polymeric blends.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Natural Resource, Characterization Techniques, Starch

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16 Poly(ε-caprolactone)/Halloysite Nanotube Nanocomposites Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Z. Terzopoulou, I. Koliakou, D. Bikiaris

Abstract:

Tissue engineering offers a new approach to regenerate diseased or damaged tissues such as bone. Great effort is devoted to eliminating the need of removing non-degradable implants at the end of their life span, with biodegradable polymers playing a major part. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is one of the best candidates for this purpose due to its high permeability, good biodegradability and exceptional biocompatibility, which has stimulated extensive research into its potential application in the biomedical fields. However, PCL degrades much slower than other known biodegradable polymers and has a total degradation of 2-4 years depending on the initial molecular weight of the device. This is due to its relatively hydrophobic character and high crystallinity. Consequently, much attention has been given to the tunable degradation of PCL to meet the diverse requirements of biomedicine. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biodegradable polyester that lacks bioactivity, so when used in bone tissue engineering, new bone tissue cannot bond tightly on the polymeric surface. Therefore, it is important to incorporate reinforcing fillers into PCL matrix in order to result in a promising combination of bioactivity, biodegradability, and strength. Natural clay halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were incorporated into PCL polymeric matrix, via in situ ring-opening polymerization of caprolactone, in concentrations 0.5, 1 and 2.5 wt%. Both unmodified and modified with aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTES) HNTs were used in this study. The effect of nanofiller concentration and functionalization with end-amino groups on the physicochemical properties of the prepared nanocomposites was studied. Mechanical properties were found enhanced after the incorporation of nanofillers, while the modification increased further the values of tensile and impact strength. Thermal stability of PCL was not affected by the presence of nanofillers, while the crystallization rate that was studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Polarized Light Optical Microscopy (POM) increased. All materials were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis in phosphate buffer in the presence of lipases. Due to the hydrophilic nature of HNTs, the biodegradation rate of nanocomposites was higher compared to neat PCL. In order to confirm the effect of hydrophilicity, contact angle measurements were also performed. In vitro biomineralization test confirmed that all samples were bioactive as mineral deposits were detected by X-ray diffractometry after incubation in SBF. All scaffolds were tested in relevant cell culture using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) to demonstrate their biocompatibility

Keywords: Biomaterials, Nanocomposites, Tissue Engineering, Scaffolds

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15 Hydroxyapatite Nanorods as Novel Fillers for Improving the Properties of PBSu

Authors: I. Koliakou, D. Bikiaris, M. Nerantzaki

Abstract:

This study evaluates the hypothesis that the incorporation of fibrous hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nHA) with high crystallinity and high aspect ratio, synthesized by hydrothermal method, into Poly(butylene succinate) (PBSu), improves the bioactivity of the aliphatic polyester and affects new bone growth inhibiting resorption and enhancing bone formation. Hydroxyapatite nanorods were synthesized using a simple hydrothermal procedure. First, the HPO42- -containing solution was added drop-wise into the Ca2+-containing solution, while the molar ratio of Ca/P was adjusted at 1.67. The HA precursor was then treated hydrothermally at 200°C for 72 h. The resulting powder was characterized using XRD, FT-IR, TEM, and EDXA. Afterwards, PBSu nanocomposites containing 2.5wt% (nHA) were prepared by in situ polymerization technique for the first time and were examined as potential scaffolds for bone engineering applications. For comparison purposes composites containing either 2.5wt% micro-Bioglass (mBG) or 2.5wt% mBG-nHA were prepared and studied, too. The composite scaffolds were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Mechanical testing (Instron 3344) and Contact Angle measurements were also carried out. Enzymatic degradation was studied in an aqueous solution containing a mixture of R. Oryzae and P. Cepacia lipases at 37°C and pH=7.2. In vitro biomineralization test was performed by immersing all samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 21 days. Biocompatibility was assessed using rat Adipose Stem Cells (rASCs), genetically modified by nucleofection with DNA encoding SB100x transposase and pT2-Venus-neo transposon expression plasmids in order to attain fluorescence images. Cell proliferation and viability of cells on the scaffolds were evaluated using fluoresce microscopy and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Finally, osteogenic differentiation was assessed by staining rASCs with alizarine red using cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) method. TEM image of the fibrous HAp nanoparticles, synthesized in the present study clearly showed the fibrous morphology of the synthesized powder. The addition of nHA decreased significantly the contact angle of the samples, indicating that the materials become more hydrophilic and hence they absorb more water and subsequently degrade more rapidly. In vitro biomineralization test confirmed that all samples were bioactive as mineral deposits were detected by X-ray diffractometry after incubation in SBF. Metabolic activity of rASCs on all PBSu composites was high and increased from day 1 of culture to day 14. On day 28 metabolic activity of rASCs cultured on samples enriched with bioceramics was significantly decreased due to possible differentiation of rASCs to osteoblasts. Staining rASCs with alizarin red after 28 days in culture confirmed our initial hypothesis as the presence of calcium was detected, suggesting osteogenic differentiation of rACS on PBSu/nHAp/mBG 2.5% and PBSu/mBG 2.5% composite scaffolds.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Scaffolds, poly(butylene succinate), hydroxyapatite nanorods

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14 Biomaterials Solutions to Medical Problems: A Technical Review

Authors: Ashish Thakur

Abstract:

This technical paper was written in view of focusing the biomaterials and its various applications in modern industries. Author tires to elaborate not only the medical, infect plenty of application in other industries. The scope of the research area covers the wide range of physical, biological and chemical sciences that underpin the design of biomaterials and the clinical disciplines in which they are used. A biomaterial is now defined as a substance that has been engineered to take a form which, alone or as part of a complex system, is used to direct, by control of interactions with components of living systems, the course of any therapeutic or diagnostic procedure. Biomaterials are invariably in contact with living tissues. Thus, interactions between the surface of a synthetic material and biological environment must be well understood. This paper reviews the benefits and challenges associated with surface modification of the metals in biomedical applications. The paper also elaborates how the surface characteristics of metallic biomaterials, such as surface chemistry, topography, surface charge, and wettability, influence the protein adsorption and subsequent cell behavior in terms of adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation at the biomaterial–tissue interface. The chapter also highlights various techniques required for surface modification and coating of metallic biomaterials, including physicochemical and biochemical surface treatments and calcium phosphate and oxide coatings. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials. In addition to this, chapter introduces nanomedicine and the use of both natural and synthetic polymeric biomaterials, focuses on specific current polymeric nanomedicine applications and research, and concludes with the challenges of nanomedicine research. Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. Osteoporosis is a worldwide disease with a very high prevalence in humans older than 50. The main clinical consequences are bone fractures, which often lead to patient disability or even death. A number of commercial biomaterials are currently used to treat osteoporotic bone fractures, but most of these have not been specifically designed for that purpose. Many drug- or cell-loaded biomaterials have been proposed in research laboratories, but very few have received approval for commercial use. Polymeric nanomaterial-based therapeutics plays a key role in the field of medicine in treatment areas such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. Advantages in the use of polymers over other materials for nanomedicine include increased functionality, design flexibility, improved processability, and, in some cases, biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Nanomedicine, tissue, Infections

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13 Suture Biomaterials Development from Natural Fibers: Muga Silk (Antheraea assama) and Ramie (Boehmeria nivea)

Authors: Raghuram Kandimalla, Sanjeeb Kalita, Bhaswati Choudhury, Jibon Kotoky

Abstract:

The quest for developing an ideal suture material prompted our interest to develop a novel suture with advantageous characteristics to market available ones. We developed novel suture biomaterial from muga silk (Antheraea assama) and ramie (Boehmeria nivea) plant fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) results revealed the physicochemical properties of the fibers which supports the suitability of fibers for suture fabrication. Tensile properties of the prepared sutures were comparable with market available sutures and it found to be biocompatible towards human erythrocytes and nontoxic to mammalian cells. The prepared sutures completely healed the superficial deep wound incisions within seven days in adult male wister rats leaving no rash and scar. Histopathology studies supports the wound healing ability of sutures, as rapid synthesis of collagen, connective tissue and other skin adnexal structures were observed within seven days of surgery. Further muga suture surface modified by exposing the suture to oxygen plasma which resulted in formation of nanotopography on suture surface. Broad spectrum antibiotic amoxicillin was functionalized on the suture surface to prepare an advanced antimicrobial muga suture. Surface hydrophilicity induced by oxygen plasma results in an increase in drug-impregnation efficiency of modified muga suture by 16.7%. In vitro drug release profiles showed continuous and prolonged release of amoxicillin from suture up to 336 hours. The advanced muga suture proves to be effective against growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas normal muga suture offers no antibacterial activity against both types of bacteria. In vivo histopathology studies and colony-forming unit count data revealed accelerated wound healing activity of advanced suture over normal one through rapid synthesis and proliferation of collagen, hair follicle and connective tissues.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Silk, sutures, Ramie

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12 Cold Spray Deposition of SS316L Powders on Al5052 Substrates and Their Potential Using for Biomedical Applications

Authors: B. Dikici, I. Ozdemir, M. Topuz

Abstract:

The corrosion behaviour of 316L stainless steel coatings obtained by cold spray method was investigated in this study. 316L powders were deposited onto Al5052 aluminum substrates. The coatings were produced using nitrogen (N2) process gas. In order to further improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of the coatings, heat treatment was applied at 250 and 750 °C. The corrosion performances of the coatings were compared using the potentiodynamic scanning (PDS) technique under in-vitro conditions (in Ringer’s solution at 37 °C). In addition, the hardness and porosity tests were carried out on the coatings. Microstructural characterization of the coatings was carried out by using scanning electron microscopy attached with energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. It was found that clean surfaces and a good adhesion were achieved for particle/substrate bonding. The heat treatment process provided both elimination of the anisotropy in the coating and resulting in healing-up of the incomplete interfaces between the deposited particles. It was found that the corrosion potential of the annealed coatings at 750 °C was higher than that of commercially 316 L stainless steel. Moreover, the microstructural investigations after the corrosion tests revealed that corrosion preferentially starts at inter-splat boundaries.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Corrosion, Heat Treatment, Cold Spray

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11 Synthesis of Antibacterial Bone Cement from Re-Cycle Biowaste Containing Methylmethacrylate (MMA) Matrix

Authors: Yuli Setiyorini, Sungging Pintowantoro, Rochman Rochim, Agung Purniawan

Abstract:

The bacterial infections are frequent and undesired occurrences after bone fracture treatment. One approach to reduce the incidence of bone fracture infection is the additional of microbial agents into bone cement. In this study, the synthesis of bone cement from re-cycles biowaste was successfully conducted completed with anti-bacterial function. The re-cycle of biowaste using microwave assisted was done in our previous studies in order to produce some of powder (calcium carbonate, carbonated-hydroxyapatite and chitosan). The ratio of these powder combined with methylmethacrylate (MMA) as the matrix in bone cement were investigated using XRD, FTIR, SEM-EDX, hardness test and anti-bacterial test, respectively. From the XRD, FTIR and EDX were resulted the formation of carbonated-hydroxyapatite, calcium carbonate and chitosan. The morphology was revealed porous structure both C2H3K1L and C2H1K3L, respectively. The antibacterial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) for 24 hours. The inhibition of S. aureus was clearly shown, the hollow zone was resulted in various distance 14.2mm, 7.5mm, and 7.7mm, respectively. The hardness test was depicted in various results, however, C2H1K3L can be achived 36.84HV which is closed to dry cancelous bone 35HV. In general, this study results was promising materials to use as bone cement materials.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Materials Processing, Microwave Processing, biowaste recycling

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10 The Solid-Phase Sensor Systems for Fluorescent and SERS-Recognition of Neurotransmitters for Their Visualization and Determination in Biomaterials

Authors: Irina Veselova, Maria Makedonskaya, Olga Eremina, Alexandr Sidorov, Eugene Goodilin, Tatyana Shekhovtsova

Abstract:

Such catecholamines as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are the principal neurotransmitters in the sympathetic nervous system. Catecholamines and their metabolites are considered to be important markers of socially significant diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, coronary heart disease, carcinogenesis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Currently, neurotransmitters can be studied via electrochemical and chromatographic techniques that allow their characterizing and quantification, although these techniques can only provide crude spatial information. Besides, the difficulty of catecholamine determination in biological materials is associated with their low normal concentrations (~ 1 nM) in biomaterials, which may become even one more order lower because of some disorders. In addition, in blood they are rapidly oxidized by monoaminooxidases from thrombocytes and, for this reason, the determination of neurotransmitter metabolism indicators in an organism should be very rapid (15—30 min), especially in critical states. Unfortunately, modern instrumental analysis does not offer a complex solution of this problem: despite its high sensitivity and selectivity, HPLC-MS cannot provide sufficiently rapid analysis, while enzymatic biosensors and immunoassays for the determination of the considered analytes lack sufficient sensitivity and reproducibility. Fluorescent and SERS-sensors remain a compelling technology for approaching the general problem of selective neurotransmitter detection. In recent years, a number of catecholamine sensors have been reported including RNA aptamers, fluorescent ribonucleopeptide (RNP) complexes, and boronic acid based synthetic receptors and the sensor operated in a turn-off mode. In this work we present the fluorescent and SERS turn-on sensor systems based on the bio- or chemorecognizing nanostructured films {chitosan/collagen-Tb/Eu/Cu-nanoparticles-indicator reagents} that provide the selective recognition, visualization, and sensing of the above mentioned catecholamines on the level of nanomolar concentrations in biomaterials (cell cultures, tissue etc.). We have (1) developed optically transparent porous films and gels of chitosan/collagen; (2) ensured functionalization of the surface by molecules-'recognizers' (by impregnation and immobilization of components of the indicator systems: biorecognizing and auxiliary reagents); (3) performed computer simulation for theoretical prediction and interpretation of some properties of the developed materials and obtained analytical signals in biomaterials. We are grateful for the financial support of this research from Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants no. 15-03-05064 a, and 15-29-01330 ofi_m).

Keywords: Biomaterials, Neurotransmitters, fluorescent and SERS-recognition, solid-phase turn-on sensor system

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9 Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium

Authors: Minjung Park, Jimin Park, Youngwoon Kim, Hyungseop Han, Myoungryul Ok, Hojeong Jeon, Hyunkwang Seok, Yuchan Kim

Abstract:

Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Corrosion, biodegradable magnesium, coenzyme

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8 Rapid and Easy Fabrication of Collagen-Based Biocomposite Scaffolds for 3D Cell Culture

Authors: Esra Turker, Umit Hakan Yildiz, Ahu Arslan Yildiz

Abstract:

The key of regenerative medicine is mimicking natural three dimensional (3D) microenvironment of tissues by utilizing appropriate biomaterials. In this study, a synthetic biodegradable polymer; poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLLCL) and a natural polymer; collagen was used to mimic the biochemical structure of the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), and by means of electrospinning technique the real physical structure of ECM has mimicked. PLLCL/Collagen biocomposite scaffolds enables cell attachment, proliferation and nutrient transport through fabrication of micro to nanometer scale nanofibers. Biocomposite materials are commonly preferred due to limitations of physical and biocompatible properties of natural and synthetic materials. Combination of both materials improves the strength, degradation and biocompatibility of scaffold. Literature studies have shown that collagen is mostly solved with heavy chemicals, which is not suitable for cell culturing. To overcome this problem, a new approach has been developed in this study where polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as co-electrospinning agent. PVP is preferred due to its water solubility, so PLLCL/collagen biocomposite scaffold can be easily and rapidly produced. Hydrolytic and enzymatic biodegradation as well as mechanical strength of scaffolds were examined in vitro. Cell adhesion, proliferation and cell morphology characterization studies have been performed as well. Further, on-chip drug screening analysis has been performed over 3D tumor models. Overall, the developed biocomposite scaffold was used for 3D tumor model formation and obtained results confirmed that developed model could be used for drug screening studies to predict clinical efficacy of a drug.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Electrospinning, Drug screening, Lab-On-A-Chip

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7 Development of Chitosan/Dextran Gelatin Methacrylate Core/Shell 3D Scaffolds and Protein/Polycaprolactone Melt Electrowriting Meshes for Tissue Regeneration Applications

Authors: A. Ali, J. D. Cabral, E. Murray, P. Turner, E. Hewitt, M. McConnell

Abstract:

Worldwide demand for organ replacement and tissue regeneration is progressively increasing. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting, where a physical construct is produced using computer-aided design, is a promising tool to advance the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields. In this paper we describe two different approaches to developing 3D bioprinted constructs for use in tissue regeneration. Bioink development is critical in achieving the 3D biofabrication of functional, regenerative tissues. Hydrogels, cross-linked macromolecules that absorb large amounts of water, have received widespread interest as bioinks due to their relevant soft tissue mechanics, biocompatibility, and tunability. In turn, not only is bioink optimisation crucial, but the creation of vascularized tissues remains a key challenge for the successful fabrication of thicker, more clinically relevant bioengineered tissues. Among the various methodologies, cell-laden hydrogels are regarded as a favorable approach; and when combined with novel core/shell 3D bioprinting technology, an innovative strategy towards creating new vessel-like structures. In this work, we investigate this cell-based approach by using human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) entrapped in a viscoelastic chitosan/dextran (CD)-based core hydrogel, printed simulataneously along with a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) shell. We have expanded beyond our previously reported FDA approved, commercialised, post-surgical CD hydrogel, Chitogel®, by functionalizing it with cell adhesion and proteolytic peptides in order to promote bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (immortalized BMSC cell line, hTERT) and HUVECs growth. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of these cell lines in a 3D bioprinted construct is demonstrated. Our studies show that particular peptide combinations crosslinked within the CD hydrogel was found to increase in vitro growth of BMSCs and HUVECs by more than two-fold. These gels were then used as a core bioink combined with the more mechanically robust, UV irradiated GelMA shell bioink, to create 3D regenerative, vessel-like scaffolds with high print fidelity. As well, microporous MEW scaffolds made from milk proteins blended with PCL were found to show promising bioactivity, exhibiting a significant increase in keratinocyte (HaCaTs) and fibroblast (normal human dermal fibroblasts, NhDFs) cell migration and proliferation when compared to PCL only scaffolds. In conclusion, our studies indicate that a peptide functionalized CD hydrogel bioink reinforced with a GelMA shell is biocompatible, biodegradable, and an appropriate cell delivery vehicle in the creation of regenerative 3D constructs. In addition, a novel 3D printing technique, melt electrowriting (MEW), which allows fabrication of micrometer fibre meshes, was used to 3D print polycaprolactone (PCL) and bioactive milk protein, lactorferrin (LF) and whey protein (WP), blended scaffolds for potential skin regeneration applications. MEW milk protein/PCL scaffolds exhibited high porosity characteristics, low overall biodegradation, and rapid protein release. Human fibroblasts and keratinocyte cells were seeded on to the scaffolds. Scaffolds containing high concentrations of LF and combined proteins (LF+WP) showed improved cell viability over time as compared to PCL only scaffolds. This research highlights two scaffolds made using two different 3D printing techniques using a combination of both natural and synthetic biomaterial components in order to create regenerative constructs as potential chronic wound treatments.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Hydrogels, Regenerative medicine

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6 Mode of Action of Surface Bound Antimicrobial Peptides Melimine and Mel4 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Mark Willcox, Muhammad Yasir, Debarun Dutta

Abstract:

Biomaterial-associated infections are a multi-billion dollar burden globally. Antimicrobial peptide-based coatings may be able to prevent such infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action surface bound peptides (AMPs) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6294. Melimine and Mel4 were covalently attached to glass coverslips using azido-benzoic acid. Attachment was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. P. aeruginosa was allowed to attach to AMP-coated glass for up to 6 hours. The effect of the surface-bound AMPs on bacterial cell membranes was evaluated using the dyes DiSC3-(5), Sytox green, SYTO 9 and propidium iodide with fluorescence microscopy. Release of cytoplasmic materials ATP and DNA/RNA were determined in the surrounding fluid. The amount of cell death was estimated by agar plate counts. The AMPs were successfully covalently bound to the glass as demonstrated by increases in %nitrogen of 3.6% (melimine) and 2.3% (Mel4) compared to controls. Immobilized peptides disrupted the cytoplasmic membrane potential of P. aeruginosa within 10 min. This was followed by the release of ATP after 2 h. Membrane permeabilization started at 3 h of contact with glass coated AMPs. There was a significant number of bacteria (59% for melimine; 36% for Mel-4) with damaged membranes after 4 h of contact. At the 6 h time point, release of DNA occurred with melimine releasing 2 times the amount of DNA/RNA than Mel4 surfaces (p < 0.05). Surface bound AMPs were able to disrupt cell membranes with subsequent release of cytoplasmic materials, and ultimately resulting in bacterial death.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Mode of Action, P. aeruginosa, immobilized antimicrobial peptides

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5 Obtaining High Purity Hydroxyapatite from Bovine Bone: Effect of Chemical and Thermal Treatments

Authors: Hernandez Pardo Diego F., Guiza Arguello Viviana R., Coy Echeverria Ana, Viejo Abrante Fernando

Abstract:

The biological hydroxyapatite obtained from bovine bone arouses great interest in its application as a material for bone regeneration due to its better bioactive behavior in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite. For this reason, the objective of the present investigation was to determine the effect of chemical and thermal treatments in obtaining biological bovine hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity. Two different chemical reagents were evaluated (NaOH and HCl) with the aim to remove the organic matrix of the bovine cortical bone. On the other hand, for analyzing the effect of thermal treatment temperature was ranged between 500 and 1000°C for a holding time of 4 hours. To accomplish the above, the materials before and after the chemical and thermal treatments were characterized by elemental compositional analysis (CHN), infrared spectroscopy by Fourier transform (FTIR), RAMAN spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results allowed to establish that NaOH is more effective in the removal of the organic matrix of the bone when compared to HCl, whereas a thermal treatment at 700ºC for 4 hours was enough to obtain biological hydroxyapatite of high purity and crystallinity.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Thermal treatment, hydroxyapatite, bovine bone

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4 Bio-Functional Polymeric Protein Based Materials Utilized for Soft Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Er-Yuan Chuang

Abstract:

Bio-mimetic matters have biological functionalities. This might be valuable in the development of versatile biomaterials. At biological fields, protein-based materials might be components to form a 3D network of extracellular biomolecules, containing growth factors. Also, the protein-based biomaterial provides biochemical and structural assistance of adjacent cells. In this study, we try to prepare protein based biomaterial, which was harvested from living animal. We analyzed it’s chemical, physical and biological property in vitro. Besides, in vivo bio-interaction of the prepared biomimetic matrix was tested in an animal model. The protein-based biomaterial has degradability and biocompatibility. This development could be used for tissue regenerations and be served as platform technologies.

Keywords: Biomaterials, in vitro study, protein based, in vivo study

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3 Systematic Analysis of Immune Response to Biomaterial Surface Characteristics

Authors: Florian Billing, Soren Segan, Meike Jakobi, Elsa Arefaine, Aliki Jerch, Xin Xiong, Matthias Becker, Thomas Joos, Burkhard Schlosshauer, Ulrich Rothbauer, Nicole Schneiderhan-Marra, Hanna Hartmann, Christopher Shipp

Abstract:

The immune response plays a major role in implant biocompatibility, but an understanding of how to design biomaterials for specific immune responses is yet to be achieved. We aimed to better understand how changing certain material properties can drive immune responses. To this end, we tested immune response to experimental implant coatings that vary in specific characteristics. A layer-by-layer approach was employed to vary surface charge and wettability. Human-based in vitro models (THP-1 macrophages and primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCS)) were used to assess immune responses using multiplex cytokine analysis, flow cytometry (CD molecule expression) and microscopy (cell morphology). We observed dramatic differences in immune response due to specific alterations in coating properties. For example altering the surface charge of coating A from anionic to cationic resulted in the substantial elevation of the pro-inflammatory molecules IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta, while the pro-wound healing factor VEGF was significantly down-regulated. We also observed changes in cell surface marker expression in relation to altered coating properties, such as CD16 on NK Cells and HLA-DR on monocytes. We furthermore observed changes in the morphology of THP-1 macrophages following cultivation on different coatings. A correlation between these morphological changes and the cytokine expression profile is ongoing. Targeted changes in biomaterial properties can produce vast differences in immune response. The properties of the coatings examined here may, therefore, be a method to direct specific biological responses in order to improve implant biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Coatings, Immune System, Implants

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2 Bacterial Cellulose/Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Composites for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Alina Maria Holban, Cristina Busuioc, Adrian Ionut Nicoara, Denisa Ionela Ene

Abstract:

At present, the development of materials with biomedical applications is a domain of interest that will produce a full series of benefits in engineering and medicine. In this sense, it is required to use a natural material, and this paper is focused on the development of a composite material based on bacterial cellulose – hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles with applications in hard tissue. Bacterial cellulose own features like biocompatibility, non-toxicity character and flexibility. Moreover, the bacterial cellulose can be conjugated with different forms of active silver to possess antimicrobial activity. Hydroxyapatite is well known that can mimic at a significant level the activity of the initial bone. The material was synthesized by using an ultrasound probe and finally characterized by several methods. Thereby, the morphological properties were analyzed by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Because the synthesized material has medical application in restore the tissue and to fight against microbial invasion, the samples were tested from the biological point of view by evaluating the biodegradability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and simulated body fluid (SBF) and moreover the antimicrobial effect was performed on Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and fungi Candida albicans. The results reveal that the obtained material has specific characteristics for bone regeneration.

Keywords: Biomaterials, hydroxyapatite, bacterial cellulose, scaffolds materials

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1 Efficient Production of Cell-Adhesive Motif From Human Fibronectin Domains to Design a Bio-Functionalized Scaffold for Tissue Engineering

Authors: Amina Ben Abla, Sylvie Changotade, Geraldine Rohman, Guilhem Boeuf, Cyrine Dridi, Ahmed Elmarjou, Florence Dufour, Didier Lutomski, Abdellatif Elm’semi

Abstract:

Understanding cell adhesion and interaction with the extracellular matrix is essential for biomedical and biotechnological applications, including the development of biomaterials. In recent years, numerous biomaterials have emerged and were used in the field of tissue engineering. Nevertheless, the lack of interaction of biomaterials with cells still limits their bio-integration. Thus, the design of bioactive biomaterials to improve cell attachment and proliferation is of growing interest. In this study, bio-functionalized material was developed combining a synthetic polymer scaffold surface with selected domains of type III human fibronectin (FNIII-DOM) to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Bioadhesive ligand includes cell-binding domains of human fibronectin, a major ECM protein that interacts with a variety of integrins cell-surface receptors, and ECM proteins through specific binding domains were engineered. FNIII-DOM was produced in bacterial system E. coli in 5L fermentor with a high yield level reaching 20mg/L. Bioactivity of the produced fragment was validated by studying cellular adhesion of human cells. The adsorption and immobilization of FNIII-DOM onto the polymer scaffold were evaluated in order to develop an innovative biomaterial.

Keywords: Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering, Fibronectin, cellular adhesion

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