Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Biomarker Related Abstracts

24 Encoded Nanospheres for the Fast Ratiometric Detection of Cystic Fibrosis

Authors: Iván Castelló, Georgiana Stoica, Emilio Palomares, Fernando Bravo


We present herein two colour encoded silica nanospheres (2nanoSi) for the fluorescence quantitative ratiometric determination of trypsin in humans. The system proved to be a faster (minutes) method, with two times higher sensitivity than the state-of-the-art biomarkers based sensors for cystic fibrosis (CF), allowing the quantification of trypsin concentrations in a wide range (0-350 mg/L). Furthermore, as trypsin is directly related to the development of cystic fibrosis, different human genotypes, i.e. healthy homozygotic (> 80 mg/L), CF homozygotic (< 50 mg/L), and heterozygotic (> 50 mg/L), respectively, can be determined using our 2nanoSi nanospheres.

Keywords: Quantum Dots, Biomarker, Cystic Fibrosis, trypsin, homozygote, heterozygote

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23 Proteomics Application in Disease Diagnosis and Reproduction İmprovement in Cow

Authors: Abdollah Sobhani, Hossein Vaseghi-Dodaran


Proteomics is defined as the study of the component of a cell, tissue and biological fluid. This technique has the potential to identify protein biomarkers of a disease states. In this study which was performed on bovine ovarian follicular cysts (BOFC), eight proteins are over expressed in BOFC that these proteins could be useful biomarkers for BOFC. The difference between serum proteome pattern cows affected by postpartum endometritis with healthy cows revealed that concentrations orosomucoid was decreased in endometritis. The comparison proteome of brucella abortus between laboratory adapted strains and clinical isolates could be useful to better understand this disease and vaccine development. Proteomics experiments identified new proteins and pathways that may be important in future hypothesis-driven studies of glucocorticoid-induced immunosuppression. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of effective parameters on male fertility is essential for obtaining high reproductive efficiency by decreasing cost and time. The investigations on proteome of high fertility spermatozoa indicated that expression of some proteins such as casein kinase 2 (CKII) prime poly peptide and tyrosine kinase in high fertility spermatozoa was higher compared to low fertility spermatozoa. Also, some evidence has indicated that variation in protein types and amounts in seminal fluid regulates fertility indexes in dairy bull. In conclusion, proteomics is a useful technique for discovering drugs, vaccine development, and diagnosis disease by biomarkers and improvement of reproduction efficiency.

Keywords: Proteomics, Biomarker, Reproduction, Immunity

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22 Identification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Supervised Learning Algorithms

Authors: Sagri Sharma


Analysis of diseases integrating multi-factors increases the complexity of the problem and therefore, development of frameworks for the analysis of diseases is an issue that is currently a topic of intense research. Due to the inter-dependence of the various parameters, the use of traditional methodologies has not been very effective. Consequently, newer methodologies are being sought to deal with the problem. Supervised Learning Algorithms are commonly used for performing the prediction on previously unseen data. These algorithms are commonly used for applications in fields ranging from image analysis to protein structure and function prediction and they get trained using a known dataset to come up with a predictor model that generates reasonable predictions for the response to new data. Gene expression profiles generated by DNA analysis experiments can be quite complex since these experiments can involve hypotheses involving entire genomes. The application of well-known machine learning algorithm - Support Vector Machine - to analyze the expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously in a timely, automated and cost effective way is thus used. The objectives to undertake the presented work are development of a methodology to identify genes relevant to Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) from gene expression dataset utilizing supervised learning algorithms and statistical evaluations along with development of a predictive framework that can perform classification tasks on new, unseen data.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Biomarker, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, support vector machine, gene expression datasets, supervised learning algorithms

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21 Optical Coherence Tomography in Parkinson’s Disease: A Potential in-vivo Retinal α-Synuclein Biomarker in Parkinson’s Disease

Authors: Jessica Chorostecki, Aashka Shah, Fen Bao, Ginny Bao, Edwin George, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Veronica Gorden, Christina Caon, Elliot Frohman


Background: Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a neuro degenerative disorder associated with the loss of dopaminergic cells and the presence α-synuclein (AS) aggregation in of Lewy bodies. Both dopaminergic cells and AS are found in the retina. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution in-vivo examination of retinal structure injury in neuro degenerative disorders including PD. Methods: We performed a cross-section OCT study in patients with definite PD and healthy controls (HC) using Spectral Domain SD-OCT platform to measure the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness and total macular volume (TMV). We performed intra-retinal segmentation with fully automated segmentation software to measure the volume of the RNFL, ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and the outer nuclear layer (ONL). Segmentation was performed blinded to the clinical status of the study participants. Results: 101 eyes from 52 PD patients (mean age 65.8 years) and 46 eyes from 24 HC subjects (mean age 64.1 years) were included in the study. The mean pRNFL thickness was not significantly different (96.95 μm vs 94.42 μm, p=0.07) but the TMV was significantly lower in PD compared to HC (8.33 mm3 vs 8.58 mm3 p=0.0002). Intra-retinal segmentation showed no significant difference in the RNFL volume between the PD and HC groups (0.95 mm3 vs 0.92 mm3 p=0.454). However, GCL, IPL, INL, and ONL volumes were significantly reduced in PD compared to HC. In contrast, the volume of OPL was significantly increased in PD compared to HC. Conclusions: Our finding of the enlarged OPL corresponds with mRNA expression studies showing localization of AS in the OPL across vertebrate species and autopsy studies demonstrating AS aggregation in the deeper layers of retina in PD. We propose that the enlargement of the OPL may represent a potential biomarker of AS aggregation in PD. Longitudinal studies in larger cohorts are warranted to confirm our observations that may have significant implications in disease monitoring and therapeutic development.

Keywords: Biomarker, Retina, Optical Coherence Tomography, parkinson's disease, alpha-synuclein

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20 Rasagiline Improves Metabolic Function and Reduces Tissue Injury in the Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal In-Vivo Advanced MRI Study

Authors: Omar Khan, Fen Bao, Edwin George, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Veronica Gorden, Christina Caon, Shana Krstevska, NP-C, Carla Santiago, Imad Zak


Objective: To quantify cellular injury in the substantia nigra (SN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to examine the effect of rasagiline of tissue injury in the SN in patients with PD. Background: N-acetylaspartate (NAA) quantified with MRS is a reliable marker of neuronal metabolic function. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) obtained with DTI, characterize tissue alignment and integrity. Rasagline, has been shown to exert anti-apototic effect. We applied these advanced MRI techniques to examine: (i) the effect of rasagiline on cellular injury and metabolism in patients with early PD, and (ii) longitudinal changes seen over time in PD. Methods: We conducted a prospective longitudinal study in patients with mild PD, naive to dopaminergic treatment. The imaging protocol included multi-voxel proton-MRS and DTI of the SN, acquired on a 3T scanner. Scans were performed at baseline and month 3, during which the patient was on no treatment. At that point, rasagiline 1 mg orally daily was initiated and MRI scans are were obtained at 6 and 12 months after starting rasagiline. The primary objective was to compare changes during the 3-month period of “no treatment” to the changes observed “on treatment” with rasagiline at month 12. Age-matched healthy controls were also imaged. Image analysis was performed blinded to treatment allocation and period. Results: 25 patients were enrolled in this study. Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in the NAA “on treatment” period (-3.04 % vs +10.95 %, p= 0.0006). Compared to the period of “no treatment”, there was significant increase in following 12 month in the FA “on treatment” (-4.8% vs +15.3%, p<0.0001). The MD increased during “no treatment” and decreased in “on treatment” (+2.8% vs -7.5%, p=0.0056). Further analysis and clinical correlation are ongoing. Conclusions: Advanced MRI techniques quantifying cellular injury in the SN in PD is a feasible approach to investigate dopaminergic neuronal injury and could be developed as an outcome in exploratory studies. Rasagiline appears to have a stabilizing effect on dopaminergic cell loss and metabolism in the SN in PD, that warrants further investigation in long-term studies.

Keywords: Biomarker, MRI, parkinson's disease, substantia nigra, neuronal loss

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19 Depositional Environment and Source Potential of Devonian Source Rock, Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia

Authors: M. Saidi, A. Belhaj Mohamed, S. Mahmoudi, F. Rezgui


Depositional environment and source potential of the different organic rich levels of Devonian age (up to 990m thick) from the onshore EC-1 well (Southern Tunisia) were investigated using different geochemical techniques (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC-MS) of over than 130 cutting samples. The obtained results including Rock Eval Pyrolysis data and biomarker distribution (terpanes, steranes and aromatics) have been used to describe the depositional environment and to assess the thermal maturity of the Devonian organic matter. These results show that the Emsian deposits exhibit poor to fair TOC contents. The associated organic matter is composed of mixed kerogen (type II/III), as indicated by the predominance of C29 steranes over C27 and C28 homologous, that was deposited in a slightly reduced environment favoring organic matter preservation. Thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TNR and MPI-1 values shows a mature stage of organic matter. The Middle Devonian (Eifelian) shales are rich in type II organic matter that was deposited in an open marine depositional environment. The TOC values are high and vary between 2 and 7 % indicating good to excellent source rock. The relatively high IH values (reaching 547 mg HC/g TOC) and the low values of t19/t23 ratio (down to 0.2) confirm the marine origin of the organic matter (type II). During the Upper Devonian, the organic matter was deposited under variable redox conditions, oxic to suboxic which is clearly indicated by the low C35/C34 hopanes ratio, immature to marginally mature with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 Ro and Tmax value of 426°C-436 °C and the TOC values range between 0.8% to 4%.

Keywords: Biomarker, source rock, depositional environment, devonian

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18 Update on Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), Types, Origin, Molecular Pathogenesis, and Biomarkers

Authors: Salina Yahya Saddick


Ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to the lack of highly sensitive and specific screening tools for detection of early-stage disease. The OSE provides the progenitor cells for 90% of human ovarian cancers. Recent morphologic, immunohistochemical and molecular genetic studies have led to the development of a new paradigm for the pathogenesis and origin of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) based on a ualistic model of carcinogenesis that divides EOC into two broad categories designated Types I and II which are characterized by specific mutations, including KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2, CTNNB1, PTEN PIK3CA, ARID1A, and PPPR1A, which target specific cell signaling pathways. Type 1 tumors rarely harbor TP53. type I tumors are relatively genetically stable and typically display a variety of somatic sequence mutations that include KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, PIK3CA CTNNB1 (the gene encoding beta catenin), ARID1A and PPP2R1A but very rarely TP53 . The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis postulates that the tumorigenic potential of CSCs is confined to a very small subset of tumor cells and is defined by their ability to self-renew and differentiate leading to the formation of a tumor mass. Potential protein biomarker miRNA, are promising biomarkers as they are remarkably stable to allow isolation and analysis from tissues and from blood in which they can be found as free circulating nucleic acids and in mononuclear cells. Recently, genomic anaylsis have identified biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for ovarian cancer namely, FGF18 which plays an active role in controlling migration, invasion, and tumorigenicity of ovarian cancer cells through NF-κB activation, which increased the production of oncogenic cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes update information on epithelial ovarian cancers and point out to the most recent ongoing research.

Keywords: Biomarker, genomic analysis, epithelial ovarian cancers, somatic sequence mutations, cancer stem cell (CSC), potential protein, FGF18 biomarker

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17 Biogeochemical Study of Polycuclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Its Physiological Response in Mudskippre (B. dussumieri) along the North western Coasts of the Persian Gulf

Authors: Ali Mashinchian Moradi, Mahmood Sinaei


Study on the biomarkers to assess health status of marine ecosystems has an important value in biomonitoring of marine environment. Accordingly, accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment, water and tissues (liver and gill) of mudskipper (Boleophthalmus dussmieri) and some physiological responses like lysosomal membrane change in haemocytes and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver were measured in mudskippers. Samples were collected from five sites along the noth western cost of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentration was measured by HPLC method. The activity of GST enzyme was analysed by spectrophotometric method. Total PAH concentration in coastal seawater, sediments, liver and gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 ug/L, 113.550-3384.34 ng/g dw, 3.99-46.64 ng/g dw and 3.11-17.This study showed that PAH concentrations in this region are not higher than available standards. The findings revile that lysosomal membrane destabilization and liver GST activities are highly sensitive to PAHs in mudskipper, B. dussumieri. Sediment PAH concentrations were strongly correlated with biomarkers, indicating PAHs were biologically available to fish. Thus, mudskipper perceived to be good sentinel organism for PAH pollution biomonitoring.

Keywords: Biomarker, PAHs, Persian Gulf, mudskipper

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16 Glyco-Biosensing as a Novel Tool for Prostate Cancer Early-Stage Diagnosis

Authors: Pavel Damborsky, Martina Zamorova, Jaroslav Katrlik


Prostate cancer is annually the most common newly diagnosed cancer among men. An extensive number of evidence suggests that traditional serum Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) assay still suffers from a lack of sufficient specificity and sensitivity resulting in vast over-diagnosis and overtreatment. Thus, the early-stage detection of prostate cancer (PCa) plays undisputedly a critical role for successful treatment and improved quality of life. Over the last decade, particular altered glycans have been described that are associated with a range of chronic diseases, including cancer and inflammation. These glycans differences enable a distinction to be made between physiological and pathological state and suggest a valuable biosensing tool for diagnosis and follow-up purposes. Aberrant glycosylation is one of the major characteristics of disease progression. Consequently, the aim of this study was to develop a more reliable tool for early-stage PCa diagnosis employing lectins as glyco-recognition elements. Biosensor and biochip technology putting to use lectin-based glyco-profiling is one of the most promising strategies aimed at providing fast and efficient analysis of glycoproteins. The proof-of-concept experiments based on sandwich assay employing anti-PSA antibody and an aptamer as a capture molecules followed by lectin glycoprofiling were performed. We present a lectin-based biosensing assay for glycoprofiling of serum biomarker PSA using different biosensor and biochip platforms such as label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and microarray with fluorescent label. The results suggest significant differences in interaction of particular lectins with PSA. The antibody-based assay is frequently associated with the sensitivity, reproducibility, and cross-reactivity issues. Aptamers provide remarkable advantages over antibodies due to the nucleic acid origin, stability and no glycosylation. All these data are further step for construction of highly selective, sensitive and reliable sensors for early-stage diagnosis. The experimental set-up also holds promise for the development of comparable assays with other glycosylated disease biomarkers.

Keywords: Biomarker, Prostate Cancer, Glycosylation, lectin

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15 Proteomic Analysis of Excretory Secretory Antigen (ESA) from Entamoeba histolytica HM1: IMSS

Authors: N. Othman, J. Ujang, M. N. Ismail, R. Noordin, B. H. Lim


Amoebiasis is caused by the Entamoeba histolytica and still endemic in many parts of the tropical region, worldwide. Currently, there is no available vaccine against amoebiasis. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop a vaccine. The excretory secretory antigen (ESA) of E. histolytica is a suitable biomarker for the vaccine candidate since it can modulate the host immune response. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the proteome of the ESA towards finding suitable biomarker for the vaccine candidate. The non-gel based and gel-based proteomics analyses were performed to identify proteins. Two kinds of mass spectrometry with different ionization systems were utilized i.e. LC-MS/MS (ESI) and MALDI-TOF/TOF. Then, the functional proteins classification analysis was performed using PANTHER software. Combination of the LC -MS/MS for the non-gel based and MALDI-TOF/TOF for the gel-based approaches identified a total of 273 proteins from the ESA. Both systems identified 29 similar proteins whereby 239 and 5 more proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF/TOF, respectively. Functional classification analysis showed the majority of proteins involved in the metabolic process (24%), primary metabolic process (19%) and protein metabolic process (10%). Thus, this study has revealed the proteome the E. histolytica ESA and the identified proteins merit further investigations as a vaccine candidate.

Keywords: Proteomics, Biomarker, E. histolytica, ESA

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14 Identification of a Panel of Epigenetic Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Blood of Individuals with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Katarzyna Lubecka, Kirsty Flower, Megan Beetch, Lucinda Kurzava, Hannah Buvala, Samer Gawrieh, Suthat Liangpunsakul, Tracy Gonzalez, George McCabe, Naga Chalasani, James M. Flanagan, Barbara Stefanska


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most prevalent type of primary liver cancer, is the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Late onset of clinical symptoms in HCC results in late diagnosis and poor disease outcome. Approximately 85% of individuals with HCC have underlying liver cirrhosis. However, not all cirrhotic patients develop cancer. Reliable early detection biomarkers that can distinguish cirrhotic patients who will develop cancer from those who will not are urgently needed and could increase the cure rate from 5% to 80%. We used Illumina-450K microarray to test whether blood DNA, an easily accessible source of DNA, bear site-specific changes in DNA methylation in response to HCC before diagnosis with conventional tools (pre-diagnostic). Top 11 differentially methylated sites were selected for validation by pyrosequencing. The diagnostic potential of the 11 pyrosequenced probes was tested in blood samples from a prospective cohort of cirrhotic patients. We identified 971 differentially methylated CpG sites in pre-diagnostic HCC cases as compared with healthy controls (P < 0.05, paired Wilcoxon test, ICC ≥ 0.5). Nearly 76% of differentially methylated CpG sites showed lower levels of methylation in cases vs. controls (P = 2.973E-11, Wilcoxon test). Classification of the CpG sites according to their location relative to CpG islands and transcription start site revealed that those hypomethylated loci are located in regulatory regions important for gene transcription such as CpG island shores, promoters, and 5’UTR at higher frequency than hypermethylated sites. Among 735 CpG sites hypomethylated in cases vs. controls, 482 sites were assigned to gene coding regions whereas 236 hypermethylated sites corresponded to 160 genes. Bioinformatics analysis using GO, KEGG and DAVID knowledgebase indicate that differentially methylated CpG sites are located in genes associated with functions that are essential for gene transcription, cell adhesion, cell migration, and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Taking into account the magnitude of the difference, statistical significance, location, and consistency across the majority of matched pairs case-control, we selected 11 CpG loci corresponding to 10 genes for further validation by pyrosequencing. We established that methylation of CpG sites within 5 out of those 10 genes distinguish cirrhotic patients who subsequently developed HCC from those who stayed cancer free (cirrhotic controls), demonstrating potential as biomarkers of early detection in populations at risk. The best predictive value was detected for CpGs located within BARD1 (AUC=0.70, asymptotic significance ˂0.01). Using an additive logistic regression model, we further showed that 9 CpG loci within those 5 genes, that were covered in pyrosequenced probes, constitute a panel with high diagnostic accuracy (AUC=0.887; 95% CI:0.80-0.98). The panel was able to distinguish pre-diagnostic cases from cirrhotic controls free of cancer with 88% sensitivity at 70% specificity. Using blood as a minimally invasive material and pyrosequencing as a straightforward quantitative method, the established biomarker panel has high potential to be developed into a routine clinical test after validation in larger cohorts. This study was supported by Showalter Trust, American Cancer Society (IRG#14-190-56), and Purdue Center for Cancer Research (P30 CA023168) granted to BS.

Keywords: Biomarker, Early Detection, Hepatocellular Carcinoma, DNA Methylation

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13 Biosensor Design through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: Wenjun Zhang, Yunqing Du, Ming L. Wang, Steven W. Cranford


The beginning of 21st century has witnessed new advancements in the design and use of new materials for biosensing applications, from nano to macro, protein to tissue. Traditional analytical methods lack a complete toolset to describe the complexities introduced by living systems, pathological relations, discrete hierarchical materials, cross-phase interactions, and structure-property dependencies. Materiomics – via systematic molecular dynamics (MD) simulation – can provide structure-process-property relations by using a materials science approach linking mechanisms across scales and enables oriented biosensor design. With this approach, DNA biosensors can be utilized to detect disease biomarkers present in individuals’ breath such as acetone for diabetes. Our wireless sensor array based on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) has successfully detected trace amount of various chemicals in vapor differentiated by pattern recognition. Here, we present how MD simulation can revolutionize the way of design and screening of DNA aptamers for targeting biomarkers related to oral diseases and oral health monitoring. It demonstrates great potential to be utilized to build a library of DNDA sequences for reliable detection of several biomarkers of one specific disease, and as well provides a new methodology of creating, designing, and applying of biosensors.

Keywords: Biomarker, Biosensor, Dna, molecular dynamics simulation

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12 Evaluation of the Role of Circulating Long Non-Coding RNA H19 as a Promising Biomarker in Plasma of Patients with Gastric Cancer

Authors: Doaa Hashad, Amany Elbanna, Abeer Ibrahim, Gihan Khedr


Background: H19 is one of the long non coding RNAs (LncRNA) that is related to the progression of many diseases including cancers. This work was carried out to study the level of the long non-coding RNA; H119, in plasma of patients with gastric cancer (GC) and to assess its significance in their clinical management. Methods: A total of sixty-two participants were enrolled in the present study. The first group included thirty-two GC patients, while the second group was formed of thirty age and sex matched healthy volunteers serving as a control group. Plasma samples were used to assess H19 gene expression using real time quantitative PCR technique. Results: H19 expression was up-regulated in GC patients with positive correlation to TNM cancer stages. Conclusions: Up-regulation of H19 is closely associated with gastric cancer and correlates well with tumor staging. Convenient, efficient quantification of H19 in plasma using real time PCR technique implements its role as a potential noninvasive prognostic biomarker in gastric cancer, that predicts patient’s outcome and most importantly as a novel target in gastric cancer treatment with better performance achieved on using both CEA and H19 simultaneously.

Keywords: Cancer, Biomarker, gastric, LncRNA

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11 Risk Factors and Biomarkers for the Recurrence of Ovarian Endometrioma: About the Immunoreactivity of Progesterone Receptor Isoform B and Nuclear Factor Kappa B.

Authors: Ae Ra Han, Taek Hoo Lee, Sun Zoo Kim, Hwa Young Lee


Introduction: Ovarian endometrioma is one of the important causes of poor ovarian reserve and up to half of them have recurred. However, the treatment for recurrence prevention has limited efficiency and repeated surgical management makes worsen the ovarian reserve. To find better management for recurrence prevention, we investigated risk factors and biomarkers for the recurrence of ovarian endometrioma. Methods: The medical records of women with the history of surgical dissection for ovarian endometrioma were collected. After exclusion of the cases with concurrent hysterectomy, been menopaused during follow-up, incomplete medical record, and loss of follow-up, a total of 134 women were enrolled. Immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor isoform B (PR-B) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) was done with the fixed tissue blocks of their endometriomas which were collected at the time of surgery. Results: Severity of dysmenorrhea and co-existence of adenomyosis had significant correlation with recurrence of endometrioma. Increased PR-B (P = .041) and decreased NFκB (P = .036) immunoreactivity were found in recurrent group. Serum CA-125 level at the time of recurrence was higher than the highest level of CA-125 during follow-up in unrecurred group (55.6 vs. 21.3 U/mL, P = .014). Conclusion: We found that the severity of dysmenorrhea and coexistence of adenomyosis are risk factors for recurrence of ovarian endometrioma, and serial follow-up of CA-125 is effective to detect and prevent the recurrence. However, to determine the possibility of immunoreactivity of PR-B and NFκB as biomarkers for ovarian endometrioma, further studies of various races and large numbers with prospective design are needed.

Keywords: Biomarker, Endometriosis, Recurrence, risk factor

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10 Histological Characteristics of the Organs of Adult Zebrafish as a Biomarker for the Study of New Drugs with Effect on the Snake Venom of Bothrops alternatus

Authors: Jose Carlos Tavares Carvalho, Hady Keita, Giovanna Rocha Santana, Igor Victor Ferreira Dos Santos, Jesus Rafael Rodriguez Amado, Ariadna Lafourcade Prada, Adriana Maciel Ferreira, Helison Oliveira


Summary: As animal model, zebrafish can be a good opportunity to establish a profile of tissue alteration caused by Bothrops alternatus venom and to screen new anti-venom drugs. Objective: To establish tissue biomarkers from zebrafish injected by snake venom and elucidate the use of glucocorticoids in ophidic accidents. Materials and Methods: The Danio rerio fish were randomly divided into four groups: control group, venom group, Dexamethasone1h before venom injected group and Dexamethasone 1 h after venom injected group. The concentration of Bothrops alternatus venom was 0.13 mg/ml and the fish received 20µl/Fish. The Body weight measurement and histological characteristics of gills, kidneys, liver, and intestine were determinate. Results: Physical analysis shows necrosis accompanied by inflammation in animals receiving the Bothrops alternatus venom. Significant difference was observed in the variation of weight between the control group, and the groups received the venom (t student test, p < 0.05). The average histological alterations index of gill, liver, kidney or intestine was statistically higher in animals received the venom (t Student test, p < 0.05). The alterations were lower in the groups that received Dexamethasone 1h before and after venom injected compared to the group that received only the venom. Dexamethasone 1h before venom injected group had minor histopathological alterations. Conclusion: The organs of zebrafish may be a tissue biomarker of alterations from Bothrops alternatus venom and dexamethasone reduced the damage caused by this venom in the organs studied, which may suggest the use of zebrafish as animal model for research related to screening new drug against snake venom.

Keywords: Biomarker, drugs, zebrafish, snake venom

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9 Nano-Plasmonic Diagnostic Sensor Using Ultraflat Single-Crystalline Au Nanoplate and Cysteine-Tagged Protein G

Authors: Hwang Ahreum, Kang Taejoon, Kim Bongsoo


Nanosensors for high sensitive detection of diseases have been widely studied to improve the quality of life. Here, we suggest robust nano-plasmonic diagnostic sensor using cysteine tagged protein G (Cys3-protein G) and ultraflat, ultraclean and single-crystalline Au nanoplates. Protein G formed on an ultraflat Au surface provides ideal background for dense and uniform immobilization of antibodies. The Au is highly stable in diverse biochemical environment and can immobilize antibodies easily through Au-S bonding, having been widely used for various biosensing applications. Especially, atomically smooth single-crystalline Au nanomaterials synthesized using chemical vapor transport (CVT) method are very suitable to fabricate reproducible sensitive sensors. As the C-reactive protein (CRP) is a nonspecific biomarker of inflammation and infection, it can be used as a predictive or prognostic marker for various cardiovascular diseases. Cys3-protein G immobilized uniformly on the Au nanoplate enable CRP antibody (anti-CRP) to be ordered in a correct orientation, making their binding capacity be maximized for CRP detection. Immobilization condition for the Cys3-protein G and anti-CRP on the Au nanoplate is optimized visually by AFM analysis. Au nanoparticle - Au nanoplate (NPs-on-Au nanoplate) assembly fabricated from sandwich immunoassay for CRP can reduce zero-signal extremely caused by nonspecific bindings, providing a distinct surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement still in 10-18 M of CRP concentration. Moreover, the NP-on-Au nanoplate sensor shows an excellent selectivity against non-target proteins with high concentration. In addition, comparing with control experiments employing a Au film fabricated by e-beam assisted deposition and linker molecule, we validate clearly contribution of the Au nanoplate for the attomolar sensitive detection of CRP. We expect that the devised platform employing the complex of single-crystalline Au nanoplates and Cys3-protein G can be applied for detection of many other cancer biomarkers.

Keywords: Biomarker, SERS, protein G, Au nanoplate, diagnostic sensor

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8 Evaluation of Serine and Branched Chain Amino Acid Levels in Depression and the Beneficial Effects of Exercise in Rats

Authors: V. A. Doss, R. Sowndarya, K. Juila Rose Mary


Objective: Amino acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. The objective of the present study was to identify the amino acids as possible metabolite biomarkers for depression using GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) before and after exercise regimen in brain samples of depression induced animal models. Methods: Depression-like behaviour was induced by Chronic Unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Severity of depression was measured by forced swim test (FST) and sucrose consumption test (SCT). Swimming protocol was followed for 4 weeks of exercise treatment. Brain obtained from depressed and exercise treated rats were used for the metabolite analysis by GCMS. Subsequent statistical analysis obtained by ANOVA followed by post hoc test revealed significant metabolic changes. Results: Amino acids such as alanine, glycine, serine, glutamate, homocysteine, proline and branched chain aminoacids (BCAs) Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine were determined in brain samples of control, depressed and exercised groups. Among these amino acids, the levels of D-Serine and branched chain amino acids were found to be decreased in depression induced rats. After four weeks of swimming exercise regimen, there were improvements in the levels of serine and Branched chain amino acids. Conclusion: We suggest that Serine and BCAs may be investigated as potential metabolite markers using GCMS and their beneficial metabolic changes in Exercise.

Keywords: Exercise, Biomarker, Metabolomics, Depression, forced swim test, GCMs, amino acid metabolites

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7 Estimating the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve from Clustered Data and Case-Control Studies

Authors: Shari Messinger, Yalda Zarnegarnia


Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have been widely used in medical research to illustrate the performance of the biomarker in correctly distinguishing the diseased and non-diseased groups. Correlated biomarker data arises in study designs that include subjects that contain same genetic or environmental factors. The information about correlation might help to identify family members at increased risk of disease development, and may lead to initiating treatment to slow or stop the progression to disease. Approaches appropriate to a case-control design matched by family identification, must be able to accommodate both the correlation inherent in the design in correctly estimating the biomarker’s ability to differentiate between cases and controls, as well as to handle estimation from a matched case control design. This talk will review some developed methods for ROC curve estimation in settings with correlated data from case control design and will discuss the limitations of current methods for analyzing correlated familial paired data. An alternative approach using Conditional ROC curves will be demonstrated, to provide appropriate ROC curves for correlated paired data. The proposed approach will use the information about the correlation among biomarker values, producing conditional ROC curves that evaluate the ability of a biomarker to discriminate between diseased and non-diseased subjects in a familial paired design.

Keywords: Biomarker, correlation, ROC curve, familial paired design

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6 Comparison of Extracellular miRNA from Different Lymphocyte Cell Lines and Isolation Methods

Authors: Christelle E. Chua, Alicia L. Ho


The development of a panel of differential gene expression signatures has been of interest in the field of biomarker discovery for radiation exposure. In the absence of the availability of exposed human subjects, lymphocyte cell lines have often been used as a surrogate to human whole blood, when performing ex vivo irradiation studies. The extent of variation between different lymphocyte cell lines is currently unclear, especially with regard to the expression of extracellular miRNA. This study compares the expression profile of extracellular miRNA isolated from different lymphocyte cell lines. It also compares the profile of miRNA obtained when different exosome isolation kits are used. Lymphocyte cell lines were created using lymphocytes isolated from healthy adult males of similar racial descent (Chinese American and Chinese Singaporean) and immortalised with Epstein-Barr virus. The cell lines were cultured in exosome-free cell culture media for 72h and the cell culture supernatant was removed for exosome isolation. Two exosome isolation kits were used. Total exosome isolation reagent (TEIR, ThermoFisher) is a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based exosome precipitation kit, while ExoSpin (ES, Cell Guidance Systems) is a PEG-based exosome precipitation kit that includes an additional size exclusion chromatography step. miRNA from the isolated exosomes were isolated using miRNEASY minikit (Qiagen) and analysed using nCounter miRNA assay (Nanostring). Principal component analysis (PCA) results suggested that the overall extracellular miRNA expression profile differed between the lymphocyte cell line originating from the Chinese American donor and the cell line originating from the Chinese Singaporean donor. As the gender, age and racial origins of both donors are similar, this may suggest that there are other genetic or epigenetic differences that account for the variation in extracellular miRNA gene expression in lymphocyte cell lines. However, statistical analysis showed that only 3 miRNA genes had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05, suggesting that the differences may not be of that great a significance as to impact overall conclusions drawn from different cell lines. Subsequent analysis using cell lines from other donors will give further insight into the reproducibility of results when difference cell lines are used. PCA results also suggested that the method of exosome isolation impacted the expression profile. 107 miRNA had a fold difference > 2 at p < 0.05. This suggests that the inclusion of an additional size exclusion chromatography step altered the subset of the extracellular vesicles that were isolated. In conclusion, these results suggest that extracellular miRNA can be isolated and analysed from exosomes derived from lymphocyte cell lines. However, care must be taken in the choice of cell line and method of exosome isolation used.

Keywords: Biomarker, extracellular miRNA, isolation methods, lymphocyte cell line

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5 The Predictive Significance of Metastasis Associated in Colon Cancer-1 (MACC1) in Primary Breast Cancer

Authors: Jasminka Mujic, Karin Milde-Langosch, Volkmar Mueller, Mirza Suljagic, Tea Becirevic, Jozo Coric, Daria Ler


MACC1 (metastasis associated in colon cancer-1) is a prognostic biomarker for tumor progression, metastasis, and survival of a variety of solid cancers. MACC1 also causes tumor growth in xenograft models and acts as a master regulator of the HGF/MET signaling pathway. In breast cancer, the expression of MACC1 determined by immunohistochemistry was significantly associated with positive lymph node status and advanced clinical stage. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the prognostic or predictive value of MACC1 expression in breast cancer using western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. The results of our study have shown that high MACC1 expression in breast cancer is associated with shorter disease-free survival, especially in node-negative tumors. The MACC1 might be a suitable biomarker to select patients with a higher probability of recurrence which might benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Our results support a biologic role and potentially open the perspective for the use of MACC1 as predictive biomarker for treatment decision in breast cancer patients.

Keywords: Biomarker, Breast Cancer, HGF/MET, MACC1

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4 Potential Impacts of Maternal Nutrition and Selection for Residual Feed Intake on Metabolism and Fertility Parameters in Angus Bulls

Authors: Aidin Foroutan, David S. Wishart, Leluo L. Guan, Carolyn Fitzsimmons


Maximizing efficiency and growth potential of beef cattle requires not only genetic selection (i.e. residual feed intake (RFI)) but also adequate nutrition throughout all stages of growth and development. Nutrient restriction during gestation has been shown to negatively affect post-natal growth and development as well as fertility of the offspring. This, when combined with RFI may affect progeny traits. This study aims to investigate the impact of selection for divergent genetic potential for RFI and maternal nutrition during early- to mid-gestation, on bull calf traits such as fertility and muscle development using multiple ‘omics’ approaches. Comparisons were made between High-diet vs. Low-diet and between High-RFI vs. Low-RFI animals. An epigenetics experiment on semen samples identified 891 biomarkers associated with growth and development. A gene expression study on Longissimus thoracis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, liver, and testis identified 4 genes associated with muscle development and immunity of which Myocyte enhancer factor 2A [MEF2A; induces myogenesis and control muscle differentiation] was the only differentially expressed gene identified in all four tissues. An initial metabolomics experiment on serum samples using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified 4 metabolite biomarkers related to energy and protein metabolism. Once all the biomarkers are identified, bioinformatics approaches will be used to create a database covering all the ‘omics’ data collected from this project. This database will be broadened by adding other information obtained from relevant literature reviews. Association analyses with these data sets will be performed to reveal key biological pathways affected by RFI and maternal nutrition. Through these association studies between the genome and metabolome, it is expected that candidate biomarker genes and metabolites for feed efficiency, fertility, and/or muscle development are identified. If these gene/metabolite biomarkers are validated in a larger animal population, they could potentially be used in breeding programs to select superior animals. It is also expected that this work will lead to the development of an online tool that could be used to predict future traits of interest in an animal given its measurable ‘omics’ traits.

Keywords: Biomarker, Omics, maternal nutrition, residual feed intake

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3 The Response of Soil Biodiversity to Agriculture Practice in Rhizosphere

Authors: Yan Wang, Gang Wang, Guowei Chen


Soil microbial diversity is one of the important parameters to assess the soil fertility and soil health, even stability of the ecosystem. In this paper, we aim to reveal the soil microbial difference in rhizosphere and root zone, even to pick the special biomarkers influenced by the long term tillage practices, which included four treatments of no-tillage, ridge tillage, continuous cropping with corn and crop rotation with corn and soybean. Here, high-throughput sequencing was performed to investigate the difference of bacteria in rhizosphere and root zone. The results showed a very significant difference of species richness between rhizosphere and root zone soil at the same crop rotation system (p < 0.01), and also significant difference of species richness was found between continuous cropping with corn and corn-soybean rotation treatment in the rhizosphere statement, no-tillage and ridge tillage in root zone soils. Implied by further beta diversity analysis, both tillage methods and crop rotation systems influence the soil microbial diversity and community structure in varying degree. The composition and community structure of microbes in rhizosphere and root zone soils were clustered distinctly by the beta diversity (p < 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size (LEfSe) analysis of total taxa in rhizosphere picked more than 100 bacterial taxa, which were significantly more abundant than that in root zone soils, whereas the number of biomarkers was lower between the continuous cropping with corn and crop rotation treatment, the same pattern was found at no-tillage and ridge tillage treatment. Bacterial communities were greatly influenced by main environmental factors in large scale, which is the result of biological adaptation and acclimation, hence it is beneficial for optimizing agricultural practices.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Biomarker, Rhizosphere, tillage methods

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2 Oil-Oil Correlation Using Polar and Non-Polar Fractions of Crude Oil: A Case Study in Iranian Oil Fields

Authors: Morteza Taherinezhad, Ahmad Reza Rabbani, Morteza Asemani, Rudy Swennen


Oil-oil correlation is one of the most important issues in geochemical studies that enables to classify oils genetically. Oil-oil correlation is generally estimated based on non-polar fractions of crude oil (e.g., saturate and aromatic compounds). Despite several advantages, the drawback of using these compounds is their susceptibility of being affected by secondary processes. The polar fraction of crude oil (e.g., asphaltenes) has similar characteristics to kerogen, and this structural similarity is preserved during migration, thermal maturation, biodegradation, and water washing. Therefore, these structural characteristics can be considered as a useful correlation parameter, and it can be concluded that asphaltenes from different reservoirs with the same genetic signatures have a similar origin. Hence in this contribution, an integrated study by using both non-polar and polar fractions of oil was performed to use the merits of both fractions. Therefore, five oil samples from oil fields in the Persian Gulf were studied. Structural characteristics of extracted asphaltenes were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Graphs based on aliphatic and aromatic compounds (predominant compounds in asphaltenes structure) and sulphoxide and carbonyl functional groups (which are representatives of sulphur and oxygen abundance in asphaltenes) were used for comparison of asphaltenes structures in different samples. Non-polar fractions were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of asphaltenes showed the studied oil samples comprise two oil families with distinct genetic characteristics. The first oil family consists of Salman and Reshadat oil samples, and the second oil family consists of Resalat, Siri E, and Siri D oil samples. To validate our results, biomarker parameters were employed, and this approach completely confirmed previous results. Based on biomarker analyses, both oil families have a marine source rock, whereby marl and carbonate source rocks are the source rock for the first and the second oil family, respectively.

Keywords: Biomarker, Petroleum Geochemistry, non-polar fraction, oil-oil correlation, polar fraction

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1 Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-21 as High Potential Prostate Cancer Biomarker

Authors: Regina R. Gunawan, Indwiani Astuti, H. Raden Danarto


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. Cancer is caused by mutations that alter the function of normal human genes and give rise to cancer genes. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA that regulates the gen through complementary bond towards mRNA target and cause mRNA degradation. miRNA works by either promoting or suppressing cell proliferation. miRNA level expression in cancer may offer another value of miRNA as a biomarker in cancer diagnostic. miRNA-21 is believed to have a role in carcinogenesis by enhancing proliferation, anti-apoptosis, cell cycle progression and invasion of tumor cells. Hsa-miR-21-5p marker has been identified in Prostate Cancer (PCa) and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) patient’s urine. This research planned to explore the diagnostic performance of miR-21 to differentiate PCa and BPH patients. In this study, urine samples were collected from 20 PCa patients and 20 BPH patients. miR-21 relative expression against the reference gene was analyzed and compared between the two. miRNA expression was analyzed using the comparative quantification method to find the fold change. miR-21 validity in identifying PCa patients was performed by quantifying the sensitivity and specificity with the contingency table. miR-21 relative expression against miR-16 in PCa patient and in BPH patient has 12,98 differences in fold change. From a contingency table of Cq expression of miR-21 in identifying PCa patients from BPH patient, Cq miR-21 has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity. miR-21 relative expression can be used in discriminating PCa from BPH by using a urine sample. Furthermore, the expression of miR-21 has higher sensitivity compared to PSA (Prostate specific antigen), therefore miR-21 has a high potential to be analyzed and developed more.

Keywords: Biomarker, Prostate Cancer, miRNA-21, benign prostate hyperplasia

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