Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Biofilm Formation Related Abstracts

6 Investigation of Biofilm Formation in Clinical Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Nermin Hande Avcioglu, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Klebsiella species which are natural colonizers of human upper respiratory and human gastrointestinal tracts are also responsible for every reoccurring nosocomial infections by means of having ability to form slimy layers known as biofilm on many surfaces. Therefore, in this study, investigation of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis and examination of each Klebsiella strains’ clinical information in the light of their biofilm formation results were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Klebsiella strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm formation levels of K. pneumoniae and K. rhinoscleromatis strains were different from each other. Additionally, in comparison to K. rhinoscleromatis strains, K. pneumoniae was observed to include higher amounts of strong biofilm forming strains. Besides, it was also seen that clinical information of patients from which strong biofilm forming Klebsiella strains were isolated were similar to each other. Our results indicate that there should be more precautions against K. pneumoniae which includes higher amount of strong biofilm forming strains.

Keywords: Biosystems Engineering, Biofilm Formation, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis

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5 Determination of Biofilm Formation in Different Clinical Candida Species and Investigation of Effects of Some Plant Substances on These Biofilms

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay

Abstract:

Candida species which often exist as commensal microorganisms in healthy individuals are major causes of important infections, especially in AIDS and immunocompromised patients, by means of their biofilm formation abilities. Therefore, in this study, determination of biofilm formation in different clinical strains of Candida species, investigation of strong biofilm forming Candida strains, examination of clinical information of each strong and weak biofilm forming Candida strains and investigation of some plant substances’ effects on biofilm formation of strong biofilm forming strains were aimed. In this respect, biofilm formation of Candida strains was analyzed via crystal violet binding assay. According to our results, biofilm levels of strains belong to different Candida species were different from each other. Additionally, it is also found that some plant substances effect biofilm formation. All these results indicate that, as well as C. albicans strains, other non-albicans Candida species also emerge as causative agents of infections and have biofilm formation abilities. In addition, usage of some plant substances in different concentrations may provide a new treatment against biofilm related Candida infections.

Keywords: Biosystems Engineering, Biofilm Formation, anti-biofilm, Candida species

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4 Constructed Wetlands: A Sustainable Approach for Waste Water Treatment

Authors: N. Ali, S. Ahmed, S. Khan, S. Sehar

Abstract:

In the last decade, the hunt for cost-effective, eco-friendly and energy sustainable technologies for waste water treatment are gaining much attention due to emerging water crisis and rapidly depleting existing water reservoirs all over the world. In this scenario, constructed wetland being a “green technology” could be a reliable mean for waste water treatment especially in small communities due to cost-effectiveness, ease in management, less energy consumption and sludge production. Therefore, a low cost, lab-scale sub-surface flow hybrid constructed wetland (SS-HCW) was established for domestic waste water treatment.It was observed that not only the presence but also choice of suitable vegetation along with hydraulic retention time (HRT) are key intervening ingredients which directly influence pollutant removals in constructed wetlands. Another important aspect of vegetation is that it may facilitate microbial attachment in rhizosphere, thus promote biofilm formation via microbial interactions. The major factors that influence initial aggregation and subsequent biofilm formation i.e. divalent cations (Ca2+) and extra cellular DNA (eDNA) were also studied in detail. The presence of Ca2+ in constructed wetland demonstrate superior performances in terms of effluent quality, i.e BOD5, COD, TDS, TSS, and PO4- than in absence of Ca2+. Finally, light and scanning electron microscopies coupled with EDS were carried out to get more insights into the mechanics of biofilm formation with or without Ca addition. Therefore, the same strategy can be implemented in other waste water treatment technologies.

Keywords: Waste Water Treatment, Waste water, Biofilm Formation, hybrid constructed wetland

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3 Identification and Characterization of Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein (CAPD) of Enterococcus faecium

Authors: Liaqat Ali, Hubert E. Blum, Türkân Sakinc

Abstract:

Enterococcus faecium is an emerging multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen increased dramatically worldwide and causing bacteremia, endocarditis, urinary tract and surgical site infections in immunocomprised patients. The capsular polysaccharides that contribute to pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system are also involved in hindering leukocyte killing of enterococci. The gene cluster (enterococcal polysaccharide antigen) of E. faecalis encoding homologues of many genes involved in polysaccharide biosynthesis. We identified two putative loci with 22 kb and 19 kb which contained 11 genes encoding for glycosyltransferases (GTFs); this was confirmed by using genome comparison of already sequenced strains that has no homology to known capsule genes and the epa-locus. The polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines have rapidly emerged as a suitable strategy to combat different pathogenic bacteria, therefore, we investigated a polysaccharide biosynthesis CapD protein in E. faecium contains 336 amino acids and had putative function for N-linked glycosylation. The deletion/knock-out capD mutant was constructed and complemented by homologues recombination method and confirmed by using PCR and sequencing. For further characterization and functional analysis, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Our ΔcapD mutant shows a strong hydrophobicity and all strains exhibited biofilm production. Subsequently, the opsonic activity was tested in an opsonophagocytic assay which shows increased in mutant compared complemented and wild type strains but more than two fold decreased in colonization and adherence was seen on surface of uroepithelial cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonialization was observed in capD mutant during animal bacteremia infection. Unlike other polysaccharides biosynthesis proteins, CapD does not seems to be a major virulence factor in enterococci but further experiments and attention is needed to clarify its function, exact mechanism and involvement in pathogenesis of enteroccocal nosocomial infections eventually to develop a vaccine/ or targeted therapy.

Keywords: Pathogenesis, Biofilm Formation, Polysaccharides, E. faecium

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2 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Gulcan Sahal, Isil Seyis Bilkay, Behzad Nasseri

Abstract:

Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: essential oils, Biofilm Formation, Nanofibers, anti-biofilm, proteus mirabilis

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1 Genome Sequencing and Analysis of the Spontaneous Nanosilver Resistant Bacterium Proteus mirabilis Strain scdr1

Authors: Amr Saeb, Khalid Al-Rubeaan, Mohamed Abouelhoda, Manojkumar Selvaraju, Hamsa Tayeb

Abstract:

Background: P. mirabilis is a common uropathogenic bacterium that can cause major complications in patients with long-standing indwelling catheters or patients with urinary tract anomalies. In addition, P. mirabilis is a common cause of chronic osteomyelitis in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients. Methodology: P. mirabilis SCDR1 was isolated from a diabetic ulcer patient. We examined P. mirabilis SCDR1 levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, the commercial nano-silver and silver containing bandages and commonly used antibiotics. We utilized next generation sequencing techniques (NGS), bioinformatics, phylogenetic analysis and pathogenomics in the identification and characterization of the infectious pathogen. Results: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is a multi-drug resistant isolate that also showed high levels of resistance against nano-silver colloids, nano-silver chitosan composite and the commercially available nano-silver and silver bandages. The P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome size is 3,815,621 bp with G+C content of 38.44%. P. mirabilis-SCDR1 genome contains a total of 3,533 genes, 3,414 coding DNA sequence genes, 11, 10, 18 rRNAs (5S, 16S, and 23S), and 76 tRNAs. Our isolate contains all the required pathogenicity and virulence factors to establish a successful infection. P. mirabilis SCDR1 isolate is a potential virulent pathogen that despite its original isolation site, wound, it can establish kidney infection and its associated complications. P. mirabilis SCDR1 contains several mechanisms for antibiotics and metals resistance including, biofilm formation, swarming mobility, efflux systems, and enzymatic detoxification. Conclusion: P. mirabilis SCDR1 is the spontaneous nano-silver resistant bacterial strain. P. mirabilis SCDR1 strain contains all reported pathogenic and virulence factors characteristic for the species. In addition, it possesses several mechanisms that may lead to the observed nano-silver resistance.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Resistance, phylogeny, Altruism, Genome Analysis, Biofilm Formation, Silver Nanoparticles, Xenobiotics, Resistome, Multi-Drug Resistance, diabetic foot ulcer, proteus mirabilis, next generation sequencing techniques, pathogenomics, multidrug resistance efflux, swarming mobility, glutathione S-transferase, copper/silver efflux system

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