Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

biodistribution Related Abstracts

9 Development of 111In-DOTMP as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Erfani


The objective of this study is the preparation of 111In-DOTMP as a new bone imaging agent. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with DOTMP was carried out by adding 0.1 ml of the stock solution (50 mg/ml in 2 N NaoH) to the vial containing 1 mCi of 111In. pH of the mixture was adjusted to 7-8 by means of phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity of the complex at the optimized condition was higher than 98% (by using whatman No.1 paper in NH4OH:MeOH: H2O (0.2:2:4)). Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake. The ratio of bone to other soft tissue accumulation was significantly high which permit to observe high quality images. The results show that 111In-DOTMP can be used as a suitable tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, DOTMP, SPECT

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8 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Assessment of 111In-BPAMD as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Aghanejad, R. Enayati


Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease; however, their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 111In-BPAMD for diagnostic purposes. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with BPAMD was carried out by using acidic solution of 111InCl3 and BPAMD in absolute water. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, ligand concentration, pH, and time on the radiolabeled yield was studied. 111In-BPAMD was prepared successfully with the radiochemical purity of 95% at the optimized condition (100 µg of BPAMD, pH=5, and at 90°C for 1 h) which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and biodistribution was determined up to 72 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 111In-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, SPECT, BPAMD

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7 Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, M. Athari-Allaf


Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, biodistribution, Y-90, radiosynovectomy

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6 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki


Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Targeted drug delivery, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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5 Optimization and Evaluation of 177lu-Dotatoc as a Potential Agent for Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, F. Abbasi-Davani, MS. Mousavi-Daramoroudi


High expression of somatostatin receptors on a wide range of human tumours makes them as potential targets for peptide receptor radionuclide tomography. A series of octreotide analogues were synthesized while [DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) indicated advantageous properties in tumour models. In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% in 30 min at the optimized condition. Biological behavior of the complex was studied after intravenous injection into the Syrian rats. Major difference uptake was observed compared to 177LuCl3 solution especially in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal.

Keywords: biodistribution, octreotide, Syrian rats

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4 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani, N. Tadayon


In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: Imaging, biodistribution, PDTMP, Ga-68

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3 Time Dependent Biodistribution Modeling of 177Lu-DOTATOC Using Compartmental Analysis

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, M. Mousavi-Daramoroudi, F. Abbasi-Davani


In this study, 177Lu-DOTATOC was prepared under optimized conditions (radiochemical purity: > 99%, radionuclidic purity: > 99%). The percentage of injected dose per gram (%ID/g) was calculated for organs up to 168 h post injection. Compartmental model was applied to mathematical description of the drug behaviour in tissue at different times. The biodistribution data showed the significant excretion of the radioactivity from the kidneys. The adrenal and pancreas, as major expression sites for somatostatin receptor (SSTR), had significant uptake. A pharmacokinetic model of 177Lu-DOTATOC was presented by compartmental analysis which demonstrates the behavior of the complex.

Keywords: biodistribution, octreotide, ¹⁷⁷Lu, compartmental modeling

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2 Development of Ketorolac Tromethamine Encapsulated Stealth Liposomes: Pharmacokinetics and Bio Distribution

Authors: Yasmin Begum Mohammed


Ketorolac tromethamine (KTM) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to prostaglandin related inhibitory effect of drug. It is a non-selective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor. The drug is currently used orally and intramuscularly in multiple divided doses, clinically for the management arthritis, cancer pain, post-surgical pain, and in the treatment of migraine pain. KTM has short biological half-life of 4 to 6 hours, which necessitates frequent dosing to retain the action. The frequent occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peptic ulceration, and renal failure lead to the development of other drug delivery strategies for the appropriate delivery of KTM. The ideal solution would be to target the drug only to the cells or tissues affected by the disease. Drug targeting could be achieved effectively by liposomes that are biocompatible and biodegradable. The aim of the study was to develop a parenteral liposome formulation of KTM with improved efficacy while reducing side effects by targeting the inflammation due to arthritis. PEG-anchored (stealth) and non-PEG-anchored liposomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique followed by extrusion cycle and characterized for in vitro and in vivo. Stealth liposomes (SLs) exhibited increase in percent encapsulation efficiency (94%) and 52% percent of drug retention during release studies in 24 h with good stability for a period of 1 month at -20°C and 4°C. SLs showed about maximum 55% of edema inhibition with significant analgesic effect. SLs produced marked differences over those of non-SL formulations with an increase in area under plasma concentration time curve, t₁/₂, mean residence time, and reduced clearance. 0.3% of the drug was detected in arthritic induced paw with significantly reduced drug localization in liver, spleen, and kidney for SLs when compared to other conventional liposomes. Thus SLs help to increase the therapeutic efficacy of KTM by increasing the targeting potential at the inflammatory region.

Keywords: Ketorolac tromethamine, biodistribution, stealth liposomes, thin film hydration technique

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1 Ex-vivo Bio-distribution Studies of a Potential Lung Perfusion Agent

Authors: Shabnam Sarwar, Franck Lacoeuille, Nadia Withofs, Roland Hustinx


After the development of a potential surrogate of MAA, and its successful application for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism in artificially embolized rats’ lungs, this microparticulate system were radiolabelled with gallium-68 to synthesize 68Ga-SBMP with high radiochemical purity >99%. As a prerequisite step of clinical trials, 68Ga- labelled starch based microparticles (SBMP) were analysed for their in-vivo behavior in small animals. The purpose of the presented work includes the ex-vivo biodistribution studies of 68Ga-SBMP in order to assess the activity uptake in target organs with respect to time, excretion pathways of the radiopharmaceutical, %ID/g in major organs, T/NT ratios, in-vivo stability of the radiotracer and subsequently the microparticles in the target organs. Radiolabelling of starch based microparticles was performed by incubating it with 68Ga generator eluate (430±26 MBq) at room temperature and pressure without using any harsh reaction condition. For Ex-vivo biodistribution studies healthy White Wistar rats weighing between 345-460 g were injected intravenously 68Ga-SBMP 20±8 MBq, containing about 2,00,000-6,00,000 SBMP particles in a volume of 700µL. The rats were euthanized at predefined time intervals (5min, 30min, 60min and 120min) and their organ parts were cut, washed, and put in the pre-weighed tubes and measured for radioactivity counts through automatic Gamma counter. The 68Ga-SBMP produced >99% RCP just after 10-20 min incubation through a simple and robust procedure. Biodistribution of 68Ga-SBMP showed that initially just after 5 min post injection major uptake was observed in the lungs following by blood, heart, liver, kidneys, bladder, urine, spleen, stomach, small intestine, colon, skin and skeleton, thymus and at last the smallest activity was found in brain. Radioactivity counts stayed stable in lungs with gradual decrease with the passage of time, and after 2h post injection, almost half of the activity were seen in lungs. This is a sufficient time to perform PET/CT lungs scanning in humans while activity in the liver, spleen, gut and urinary system decreased with time. The results showed that urinary system is the excretion pathways instead of hepatobiliary excretion. There was a high value of T/NT ratios which suggest fine tune images for PET/CT lung perfusion studies henceforth further pre-clinical studies and then clinical trials should be planned in order to utilize this potential lung perfusion agent.

Keywords: biodistribution, starch based microparticles, gallium-68, target organs, excretion pathways

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