Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

biodegradable Related Abstracts

22 Solid Waste Management through Mushroom Cultivation: An Eco Friendly Approach

Authors: Mary Josephine


Waste of certain process can be the input source of other sectors in order to reduce environmental pollution. Today there are more and more solid wastes are generated, but only very small amount of those are recycled. So, the threatening of environmental pressure to public health is very serious. The methods considered for the treatment of solid waste are biogas tanks or processing to make animal feed and fertilizer, however, they did not perform well. An alternative approach is growing mushrooms on waste residues. This is regarded as an environmental friendly solution with potential economic benefit. The substrate producers do their best to produce quality substrate at low cost. Apart from other methods, this can be achieved by employing biologically degradable wastes used as the resource material component of the substrate. Mushroom growing is a significant tool for the restoration, replenishment and remediation of Earth’s overburdened ecosphere. One of the rational methods of waste utilization involves locally available wastes. The present study aims to find out the yield of mushroom grown on locally available waste for free and to conserve our environment by recycling wastes.

Keywords: Remediation, Environment, biodegradable, mushroom

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21 Preparation and Evaluation of Zidovudine Nanoparticles

Authors: D. R. Rama Brahma Reddy, A. Vijaya Sarada Reddy


Nanoparticles represent a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted drug release. They are specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target tissue. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate polymethacrylic acid nanoparticles containing Zidovudine in different drug to polymer ratio by nanoprecipitation method. SEM indicated that nanoparticles have a discrete spherical structure without aggregation. The average particle size was found to be 120 ± 0.02 - 420 ± 0.05 nm. The particle size of the nanoparticles was gradually increased with increase in the proportion of polymethacrylic acid polymer. The drug content of the nanoparticles was increasing on increasing polymer concentration up to a particular concentration. No appreciable difference was observed in the extent of degradation of product during 60 days in which, nanoparticles were stored at various temperatures. FT-IR studies indicated that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and stability of drug. The in-vitro release behavior from all the drug loaded batches was found to be zero order and provided sustained release over a period of 24 h. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawbacks and limitations of Zidovudine sustained release formulations and could possibility be advantageous in terms of increased bio availability of Zidovudine.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, biodegradable, zidovudine, polymethacrylic acid

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20 Biodegradability and Thermal Properties of Polycaprolactone/Starch Nanocomposite as a Biopolymer

Authors: Emad A. Jaffar Al-Mulla


In this study, a biopolymer-based nanocomposite was successfully prepared through melt blending technique. Two biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone and starch, environmental friendly and obtained from renewable, easily available raw materials, have been chosen. Fatty hydrazide, synthesized from palm oil, has been used as a surfactant to modify montmorillonite (natural clay) for preparation of polycaprolactone/starch nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize nanocomposite formation. Compatibility of the blend was improved by adding 3% weight modified clay. Higher biodegradability and thermal stability of nanocomopeite were also observed compared to those of the polycaprolactone/starch blend. This product will solve the problem of plastic waste, especially disposable packaging, and reduce the dependence on petroleum-based polymers and surfactants.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Starch, biodegradable, polycaprolactone

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19 Development of Biodegradable Wound Healing Patch of Curcumin

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari


The objective of the present research work is to develop a topical biodegradable dermal patch based formulation to aid accelerated wound healing. It is always better for patient compliance to be able to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and overall therapeutic efficacy. In present study optimized formulation using biodegradable components was obtained evaluating polymers and excipients (HPMC K4M, Ethylcellulose, Povidone, Polyethylene glycol and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity, and strength. Molten gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in acidic medium was mixed with stirring to Gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added with the aid of DCM and Methanol in an optimized ratio of 60:40 to get homogenous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in the final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23°C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2°C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2°C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2°C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12h and matched the biodegradation rate as tested in vivo with correlation factor R2>0.9. In in vivo study administration of one dose in equivalent quantity per 2 days was applied topically. The data demonstrated a significant improvement with percentage wound contraction in contrast to control and plain drug respectively in given period. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and in vivo performance.

Keywords: Polymers, Wound Healing, biodegradable, patch

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18 Preparation of Nanocomposites Based on Biodegradable Polycaprolactone by Melt Mixture

Authors: Mohamed Amine Zenasni, Bahia Meroufel, André Merlin, Said Benfarhi, Stéphane Molina, Béatrice George


The introduction of nano-fillers into polymers field lead to the creation of the nano composites. This creation is starting up a new revolution into the world of materials. Nano composites are similar to traditional composite of a polymer blend and filler with at least one nano-scopic dimension. In our project, we worked with nano composites of biodegradable polymer: polycaprolactone, combined with nano-clay (Maghnite) and with different nano-organo-clays. These nano composites have been prepared by melt mixture method. The advantage of this polymer is its degradability and bio compatibility. A study of the relationship between development, micro structure and physico chemical properties of nano composites, clays modified with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and Hexadecyltriméthy ammonium bromide (CTAB) and untreated clays were made. Melt mixture method is most suitable methods to get a better dispersion named exfoliation.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biodegradable, polycaprolactone, maghnite, melt mixture, APTES, CTAB

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17 Study of the Influence of the Different Treatments in Almond Shell-Based Masterbatches

Authors: A. Ibáñez, A. Martínez, A. Sánchez, M. A. León


This article is focused on the development of a series of biodegradable and eco-friendly masterbatches based on polylactic acid (PLA) filled with almond shell to study the influence of almond shell in the properties of injected biodegradable parts. These innovative masterbatches have 20 wt % of the almond shell. Different treatments were carried out with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and maleic anhydride (MA) to obtain better interfacial bonding between fibre and matrix. The masterbatches were produced by varying the fibre treatments (type of treatment, concentration and temperature). The masterbatches have been injected to obtain standardised test samples in order to study mechanical properties. The results show that, the some of the treated fibres present slightly higher flexural modulus and impact strength than untreated fibres. This study is part of a LIFE project (MASTALMOND) aimed to create and test at preindustrial level new coloured masterbatches based on biodegradable polymers and containing in its formulation a high percentage of almond shell, a natural waste material, which firstly will permit to cover technical requirements of two traditional industrial sectors: toy and furniture, although the results achieved could be extended to other industrial sectors.

Keywords: biodegradable, injection moulding, additivation, almond shell, masterbatch, PLA

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16 Eco-Nanofiltration Membranes: Nanofiltration Membrane Technology Utilization-Based Fiber Pineapple Leaves Waste as Solutions for Industrial Rubber Liquid Waste Processing and Fertilizer Crisis in Indonesia

Authors: Andi Setiawan, Annisa Ulfah Pristya


Indonesian rubber plant area reached 2.9 million hectares with productivity reached 1.38 million. High rubber productivity is directly proportional to the amount of waste produced rubber processing industry. Rubber industry would produce a negative impact on the rubber industry in the form of environmental pollution caused by waste that has not been treated optimally. Rubber industrial wastewater containing high-nitrogen compounds (nitrate and ammonia) and phosphate compounds which cause water pollution and odor problems due to the high ammonia content. On the other hand, demand for NPK fertilizers in Indonesia continues to increase from year to year and in need of ammonia and phosphate as raw material. Based on domestic demand, it takes a year to 400,000 tons of ammonia and Indonesia imports 200,000 tons of ammonia per year valued at IDR 4.2 trillion. As well, the lack of phosphoric acid to be imported from Jordan, Morocco, South Africa, the Philippines, and India as many as 225 thousand tons per year. During this time, the process of wastewater treatment is generally done with a rubber on the tank to contain the waste and then precipitated, filtered and the rest released into the environment. However, this method is inefficient and thus require high energy costs because through many stages before producing clean water that can be discharged into the river. On the other hand, Indonesia has the potential of pineapple fruit can be harvested throughout the year in all of Indonesia. In 2010, production reached 1,406,445 tons of pineapple in Indonesia or about 9.36 percent of the total fruit production in Indonesia. Increased productivity is directly proportional to the amount of pineapple waste pineapple leaves are kept continuous and usually just dumped in the ground or disposed of with other waste at the final disposal. Through Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane-Based Fiber Pineapple leaves Waste so that environmental problems can be solved efficiently. Nanofiltration is a process that uses pressure as a driving force that can be either convection or diffusion of each molecule. Nanofiltration membranes that can split water to nano size so as to separate the waste processed residual economic value that N and P were higher as a raw material for the manufacture of NPK fertilizer to overcome the crisis in Indonesia. The raw materials were used to manufacture Eco-Nanofiltration Membrane is cellulose from pineapple fiber which processed into cellulose acetate which is biodegradable and only requires a change of the membrane every 6 months. Expected output target is Green eco-technology so with nanofiltration membranes not only treat waste rubber industry in an effective, efficient and environmentally friendly but also lowers the cost of waste treatment compared to conventional methods.

Keywords: Fertilizers, Rubber, biodegradable, pineapple, cellulose diacetate

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15 Novel Wound Healing Biodegradable Patch of Bioactive

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari


The present research was aimed to develop a biodegradable dermal patch formulation for wound healing in a novel, sustained and systematic manner. The goal is to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and thereby enhance therapeutic performance. In present study optimized formulation was designed using component polymers and excipients (e.g. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity and strength. Gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in suitable medium was mixed with stirring to gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added in optimized ratio to get homogeneous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12 h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2 > 0.9. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: Polymer, Bioactive, biodegradable, patch

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14 Investigation of Film and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)

Authors: Reyhan Özdoğan, Özgür Ceylan, Mehmet Arif Kaya, Mithat Çelebi


Food packaging is important for the food industry. Bioplastics have been used as food packaging materials. According to the European Bioplastics organization, bioplastics can be defined as plastics based on renewable resources (bio-based) or as plastics which are biodegradable and/or compostable. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) has an industrially importance of bioplastic polymers. PLA is a family of biodegradable thermoplastic polyester made from renewable resources. It is produced by conversion of corn, or other carbohydrate sources, into dextrose, followed by fermentation into lactic acid through direct polycondensation of lactic acid monomers or through ring-opening polymerization of lactide. The processing possibilities of this transparent material are very wide, ranging from injection molding and extrusion over cast film extrusion to blow molding and thermoforming. In this study, PLA films were prepared by solution casting method. PLAs which are different molecular weights were plasticized with glycerol and the morphology of films was monitored by optical microscopy. Properties of mechanical and film of PLA were researched with the mechanical testing machine.

Keywords: Morphology, Bioplastics, biodegradable, poly(lactic acid), solution casting

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13 Antimicrobial Nanocompositions Made of Amino Acid Based Biodegradable Polymers

Authors: Nino Kupatadze, Mzevinar Bedinashvili, Tamar Memanishvili, Manana Gurielidze, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava


Bacteria easily colonize the surfaces of tissues, surgical devices (implants, orthopedics, catheters, etc.), and instruments causing surgical device related infections. Therefore, the battle against bacteria and the prevention of surgical devices from biofilm formation is one of the main challenges of biomedicine today. Our strategy to the solution of this problem consists in using antimicrobial polymeric coatings as effective “shields” to protect surfaces from bacteria’s colonization and biofilm formation. As one of the most promising approaches look be the use of antimicrobial bioerodible polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). We assume that the combination of an erodible polymer with a strong bactericide should put obstacles to bacteria to occupy the surface and to form biofilm. It has to be noted that this kind of nanocomposites are also promising as wound dressing materials to treat infected superficial wounds. Various synthetic and natural polymers were used for creating biocomposites containing AgNPs as both particles' stabilizers and matrices forming elastic films at surfaces. One of the most effective systems to fabricate AgNPs is an ethanol solution of polyvinylpyrrolidone(PVP) with dissolved AgNO3–ethanol serves as a AgNO3 reductant and PVP as AgNPs stabilizer (through the interaction of nanoparticles with nitrogen atom of the amide group). Though PVP is biocompatible and film-forming polymer, it is not a good candidate to design either "biofilm shield" or wound dressing material because of a high solubility in water – though the solubility of PVP provides the desirable release of AgNPs from the matrix, but the coating is easily washable away from the surfaces. More promising as matrices look water insoluble but bioerodible polymers that can provide the release of AgNPs and form long-lasting coatings at the surfaces. For creating bioerodible water-insoluble antimicrobial coatings containing AgNPs, we selected amino acid based biodegradable polymers(AABBPs)–poly(ester amide)s, poly(ester urea)s, their copolymers containing amide and related groups capable to stabilize AgNPs. Among a huge variety of AABBPs reported we selected the polymers soluble in ethanol. For preparing AgNPs containing nanocompositions AABBPs and AgNO3 were dissolved in ethanol and subjected to photochemical reduction using daylight-irradiation. The formation of AgNPs was observed visually by coloring the solutions in brownish-red. The obtained AgNPs were characterized by UV-spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy(TEM), and dynamic light scattering(DLS). According to the UV and TEM data, the photochemical reduction resulted presumably in spherical AgNPs with rather high contribution of the particles below 10 nm that are known as responsible for the antimicrobial activity. DLS study showed that average size of nanoparticles formed after photo-reduction in ethanol solution ranged within 50 nm. The in vitro antimicrobial activity study of the new nanocomposite material is in progress now.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Polymer, Silver Nanoparticles, biodegradable

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12 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta


Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: biodegradable, Android application, non-biodegradable, waste segregation

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11 Development of Biodegradable Plastic as Mango Fruit Bag

Authors: Andres M. Tuates Jr., Ofero A. Caparino


Plastics have achieved a dominant position in agriculture because of their transparency, lightness in weight, impermeability to water and their resistance to microbial attack. However, this generates a higher quantity of wastes that are difficult to dispose of by farmers. To address these problems, the project aim to develop and evaluate the biodegradable film for mango fruit bag during development. The PBS and starch were melt-blended in a twin-screw extruder and then blown into film extrusion machine. The physic-chemical-mechanical properties of biodegradable fruit bag were done following standard methods of test. Field testing of fruit bag was also conducted to evaluate its durability and efficiency field condition. The PHilMech-FiC fruit bag is made of biodegradable material measuring 6 x 8 inches with a thickness of 150 microns. The tensile strength is within the range of LDPE while the elongation is within the range of HDPE. It is projected that after thirty-six (36) weeks, the film will be totally degraded. Results of field testing show that the quality of harvested fruits using PHilMech-FiC biodegradable fruit bag in terms of percent marketable, non-marketable and export, peel color at the ripe stage, flesh color, TSS, oBrix, percent edible portion is comparable with the existing bagging materials such as Chinese brown paper bag and old newspaper.

Keywords: Chemical, Mechanical Properties, biodegradable, Pbs, cassava starch

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10 Hydrogels Beads of Alginate/Seaweed Powder for Plants Nutrition

Authors: Brenda O. Mazzola, Adriel Larsen, Romina P. Ollier, Leandro N. Ludueña, Vera A. Alvarez, Jimena S. Gonzalez


Seaweed is a natural renewable resource with great potential that is not being used by the domestic industry. Here, it was used a kind of invasive algae U. Pinnatifida that causes serious ecological damage on the Argentinian coasts. Alginate is one of the most widely used materials for encapsulation, and has the advantage that is a natural polysaccharide derived from a marine plant. It can form thermally stable hydrogel in the presence of calcium cation. In addition, the hydrogel can be easily produced into particulate form by using simple and gentle method. The aim of this work was to obtain and to characterize novel compounds (alginate/seaweed powder) for the soil nutrition. Alginate water solutions were prepared by concentrations of 20, 30, 40 and 50 g/L, in those solutions 10g/L of seaweed powder was added. Then the dispersions were transferred from a beaker to the atomizer by a peristaltic pump (with 0.05 to 0.1 L/h flow). A tank was filled with 1 L of calcium chloride solution (4 g/L), and the solution was agitated with a magnetic stirrer. The beads were analyzed by means TGA, FTIR and swelling determinations. In addition, the improvements in the soil were qualitative measured. It was obtained beads with different diameters depend on the initial concentration and the flow used. A better dispersions of seaweed and optimal diameter for the plant nutrition applications were obtained for 40g/L concentration and 0.1 L/h flow. The beads show thermal stability and high swelling degree. It can be successfully obtained alginate beads with seaweed powder with a novelty application as plant nutrient.

Keywords: Characterization, Plant Nutrition, Hydrogel, Seaweed, biodegradable

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9 Highway Waste Management in Zambia Policy Preparedness and Remedies: The Case of Great East Road

Authors: Floyd Misheck Mwanza, Paul Boniface Majura


The paper looked at highways/ roadside waste generation, disposal and the consequent environmental impacts. The dramatic increase in vehicular and paved roads in the recent past in Zambia, has given rise to the indiscriminate disposal of litter that now poses a threat to health and the environment. Primary data was generated by carrying out oral interviews and field observations for holistic and in–depth assessment of the environment and the secondary data was obtained from desk review method, information on effects of roadside wastes on environment were obtained from relevant literatures. The interviews were semi structured and a purposive sampling method was adopted and analyzed descriptively. The results of the findings showed that population growth and unplanned road expansion has exceeded the expected limit in recent time with resultant poor system of roadside wastes disposal. Roadside wastes which contain both biodegradable and non-biodegradable roadside wastes are disposed at the shoulders of major highways in temporary dumpsites and are never collected by a road development agency (RDA). There is no organized highway to highway or street to street collection of the wastes in Zambia by the key organization the RDA. The study revealed that roadside disposal of roadside wastes has serious impacts on the environment. Some of these impacts include physical nuisance of the wastes to the environment, the waste dumps also serve as hideouts for rodents and snakes which are dangerous. Waste are blown around by wind making the environment filthy, most of the wastes are also been washed by overland flow during heavy downpour to block drainage channels and subsequently lead to flooding of the environment. Most of the non- biodegradable wastes contain toxic chemicals which have serious implications on the environmental sustainability and human health. The paper therefore recommends that Government/ RDA should come up with proper orientation and environmental laws should be put in place for the general public and also to provide necessary facilities and arrange for better methods of collection of wastes.

Keywords: Environment, Impacts, Disposal, biodegradable

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8 Synthesis and Characterization of Biodegradable Elastomeric Polyester Amide for Tissue Engineering Applications

Authors: Abdulrahman T. Essa, Ahmed Aied, Omar Hamid, Felicity R. A. J. Rose, Kevin M. Shakesheff


Biodegradable poly(ester amide)s are promising polymers for biomedical applications such as drug delivery and tissue engineering because of their optimized chemical and physical properties. In this study, we developed a biodegradable polyester amide elastomer poly(serinol sebacate) (PSS) composed of crosslinked networks based on serinol and sebacic acid. The synthesized polymers were characterized to evaluate their chemical structures, mechanical properties, degradation behaviors and in vitro cytocompatibility. Analysis of proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the structure of the polymer. The PSS exhibit excellent solubility in a variety of solvents such as methanol, dimethyl sulfoxide and dimethylformamide. More importantly, the mechanical properties of PSS could be tuned by changing the curing conditions. In addition, the 3T3 fibroblast cells cultured on the PSS demonstrated good cell attachment and high viability.

Keywords: Biomaterial, Mechanical Properties, biodegradable, elastomer, poly(serinol sebacate)

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7 An Evaluation of the Impact of Epoxidized Neem Seed Azadirachta indica Oil on the Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene

Authors: Salihu Takuma


Neem seed oil has high contents of unsaturated fatty acids which can be converted to epoxy fatty acids. The vegetable oil – based epoxy material are sustainable, renewable and biodegradable materials replacing petrochemical – based epoxy materials in some applications. Polystyrene is highly brittle with limited mechanical applications. Raw neem seed oil was obtained from National Research Institute for Chemical Technology (NARICT), Zaria, Nigeria. The oil was epoxidized at 60 0C for three (3) hours using formic acid generated in situ. The epoxidized oil was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The disappearance of C = C stretching peak around 3011.7 cm-1and formation of a new absorption peak around 943 cm-1 indicate the success of epoxidation. The epoxidized oil was blended with pure polystyrene in different weight percent compositions using solution casting in chloroform. The tensile properties of the blends demonstrated that the addition of 5 wt % ENO to PS led to an increase in elongation at break, but a decrease in tensile strength and modulus. This is in accordance with the common rule that plasticizers can decrease the tensile strength of the polymer.

Keywords: Sustainable, Epoxidation, biodegradable, elongation at break, epoxy fatty acids, tensile strength and modulus

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6 Sterilization Effects of Low Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Solution on 3D Printed Biodegradable Polyurethane Nanocomposite Scaffold for Heart Valve Regeneration

Authors: S. E. Mohmad-Saberi, W. Song, N. Oliver, M. Adrian, T.C. Hsu, A. Darbyshire


Biodegradable polyurethane (PU) has emerged as a potential material to promote repair and regeneration of damaged/diseased tissues in heart valve regeneration due to its excellent biomechanical profile. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is vital since they are more sensitive and more critical of porous structures compared to bulk ones. In this study, the effects of low concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) solution sterilization has been investigated to determine whether the procedure would be efficient and non-destructive to porous three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric nanocomposite, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-terminated poly (ethylene-diethylene glycol succinate-sebacate) urea-urethane (POSS-EDSS-PU) scaffold. All the samples were tested for sterility following sterilization using phosphate buffer saline (PBS) as control and 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution. The samples were incubated in tryptic soy broth for the cultivation of microorganisms under agitation at 37˚C for 72 hours. The effects of the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution sterilization were evaluated in terms of morphology, chemical and mechanical properties using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and tensile tester apparatus. Toxicity effects of the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution decontamination were studied by in vitro cytotoxicity test, where the cellular responses of human dermal fibroblast (HDF) were examined. A clear, uncontaminated broth using 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution method indicated efficient sterilization after 3 days, while the non-sterilized control shows clouding broth indicated contamination. The morphology of 3D POSS-EDSS-PU scaffold appeared to have similar morphology after sterilization with 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution regarding of pore size and surface. FTIR results show that the sterilized samples and non-sterilized control share the same spectra pattern, confirming no significant alterations over the surface chemistry. For the mechanical properties of the H₂O₂ solution-treated scaffolds, the tensile strain was not significantly decreased, however, become significantly stiffer after the sterilization. No cytotoxic effects were observed after the 5 % v/v H₂O₂ solution sterilization as confirmed by cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results suggest that low concentration of 5 % v/v hydrogen peroxide solution can be used as an alternative method for sterilizing biodegradable 3D porous scaffold with micro/nano-architecture without structural deformation. This study provides the understanding of the sterilization effects on biomechanical profile and cell proliferation of 3D POSS-EDSS-PU scaffolds.

Keywords: biodegradable, sterilization, hydrogen peroxide solution, POSS-EDSS-PU

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5 Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. M. Malagon Escandon, J. A. Arenas Alatorre, C. P. Chaires Rosas, N. A. Vazquez Torres, B. Hernandez Tellez, G. Pinon Zarate, M. Herrera Enriquez, A. E. Castell Rodriguez


The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.

Keywords: Bone, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, Bioactive, biodegradable, extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds

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4 Preparation of Biodegradable Methacrylic Nanoparticles by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization for Drugs Loading: The Case of Acetylsalicylic Acid

Authors: J. Roberto Lopez, Hened Saade, Graciela Morales, Javier Enriquez, Raul G. Lopez


Implementation of systems based on nanostructures for drug delivery applications have taken relevance in recent studies focused on biomedical applications. Although there are several nanostructures as drugs carriers, the use of polymeric nanoparticles (PNP) has been widely studied for this purpose, however, the main issue for these nanostructures is the size control below 50 nm with a narrow distribution size, due to they must go through different physiological barriers and avoid to be filtered by kidneys (< 10 nm) or the spleen (> 100 nm). Thus, considering these and other factors, it can be mentioned that drug-loaded nanostructures with sizes varying between 10 and 50 nm are preferred in the development and study of PNP/drugs systems. In this sense, the Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization (SHP) offers the possibility to obtain PNP in the desired size range. Considering the above explained, methacrylic copolymer nanoparticles were obtained under SHP. The reactions were carried out in a jacketed glass reactor with the required quantities of water, ammonium persulfate as initiator, sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate as surfactants, methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as monomers with molar ratio of 2/1, respectively. The monomer solution was dosed dropwise during reaction at 70 °C with a mechanical stirring of 650 rpm. Nanoparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) were loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) by a chemical adsorption technique. The purified latex was put in contact with a solution of ASA in dichloromethane (DCM) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 wt-%, at 35°C during 12 hours. According to the boiling point of DCM, as well as DCM and water densities, the loading process is completed when the whole DCM is evaporated. The hydrodynamic diameter was measured after polymerization by quasi-elastic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, before and after loading procedures with ASA. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of PNP loaded with ASA were measured by infrared spectroscopy, differential scattering calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the molar mass distributions of polymers were determined in a gel permeation chromatograph apparatus. The load capacity and efficiency were determined by gravimetric analysis. The hydrodynamic diameter results for methacrylic PNP without ASA showed a narrow distribution with an average particle size around 10 nm and a composition methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid molar ratio equal to 2/1, same composition of Eudragit S100, which is a commercial compound widely used as excipient. Moreover, the latex was stabilized in a relative high solids content (around 11 %), a monomer conversion almost 95 % and a number molecular weight around 400 Kg/mol. The average particle size in the PNP/aspirin systems fluctuated between 18 and 24 nm depending on the initial percentage of aspirin in the loading process, being the drug content as high as 24 % with an efficiency loading of 36 %. These average sizes results have not been reported in the literature, thus, the methacrylic nanoparticles here reported are capable to be loaded with a considerable amount of ASA and be used as a drug carrier.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, biodegradable, aspirin, Eudragit S100, methacrylic nanoparticles

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3 Effect of the pH on the Degradation Kinetics of Biodegradable Mg-0.8Ca Orthopedic Implants

Authors: A. Mohamed, A. El-Aziz


The pH of the body plays a great role in the degradation kinetics of biodegradable Mg-Ca orthopedic implants. At the location of fracture, the pH of the body becomes no longer neutral which draws the attention towards studying a range of different pH values of the body fluid. In this study, the pH of Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS) was modified by phosphate buffers into an aggressive acidic pH 1.8, a slightly acidic pH 5.3 and an alkaline pH 8.1. The biodegradation of Mg-0.8Ca implant was tested in those three different media using immersion test and electrochemical polarization means. It was proposed that the degradation rate has increased with decreasing the pH of HBSS. The immersion test revealed weight gain for all the samples followed by weight loss as the immersion time increased. The highest weight gain was pronounced for the acidic pH 1.8 and the least weight gain was observed for the alkaline pH 8.1. This was in agreement with the electrochemical polarization test results where the degradation rate was found to be high (7.29 ± 2.2 mm/year) in the aggressive acidic solution of pH 1.8 and relatively minimum (0.31 ± 0.06 mm/year) in the alkaline medium of pH 8.1. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the pH of HBSS has reached a steady state of an alkaline pH (~pH 11) at the end of the two-month immersion period regardless of the initial pH of the solution. Finally, the corrosion products formed on the samples’ surface were investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses that revealed the formation of magnesium and calcium phosphates with different morphologies according to the pH.

Keywords: Orthopedics, biodegradable, electrochemical polarization means, immersion test, simulated body fluid

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2 Sustainable Antimicrobial Biopolymeric Food & Biomedical Film Engineering Using Bioactive AMP-Ag+ Formulations

Authors: Eduardo Lanzagorta Garcia, Chaitra Venkatesh, Romina Pezzoli, Laura Gabriela Rodriguez Barroso, Declan Devine, Margaret E. Brennan Fournet


New antimicrobial interventions are urgently required to combat rising global health and medical infection challenges. Here, an innovative antimicrobial technology, providing price competitive alternatives to antibiotics and readily integratable with currently technological systems is presented. Two cutting edge antimicrobial materials, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and uncompromised sustained Ag+ action from triangular silver nanoplates (TSNPs) reservoirs, are merged for versatile effective antimicrobial action where current approaches fail. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exist widely in nature and have recently been demonstrated for broad spectrum of activity against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. TSNP’s are highly discrete, homogenous and readily functionisable Ag+ nanoreseviors that have a proven amenability for operation within in a wide range of bio-based settings. In a design for advanced antimicrobial sustainable plastics, antimicrobial TSNPs are formulated for processing within biodegradable biopolymers. Histone H5 AMP was selected for its reported strong antimicrobial action and functionalized with the TSNP (AMP-TSNP) in a similar fashion to previously reported TSNP biofunctionalisation methods. A synergy between the propensity of biopolymers for degradation and Ag+ release combined with AMP activity provides a novel mechanism for the sustained antimicrobial action of biopolymeric thin films. Nanoplates are transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. Extrusion is used in combination with calendering rolls to create thin polymerc film where the nanoplates are embedded onto the surface. The resultant antibacterial functional films are suitable to be adapted for food packing and biomedical applications. TSNP synthesis were synthesized by adapting a previously reported seed mediated approach. TSNP synthesis was scaled up for litre scale batch production and subsequently concentrated to 43 ppm using thermally controlled H2O removal. Nanoplates were transferred from aqueous phase to an organic solvent in order to facilitate integration within hydrophobic polymers. This was acomplised by functionalizing the TSNP with thiol terminated polyethylene glycol and using centrifugal force to transfer them to chloroform. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and Polylactic acid (PLA) were individually processed through extrusion, TSNP and AMP-TSNP solutions were sprayed onto the polymer immediately after exiting the dye. Calendering rolls were used to disperse and incorporate TSNP and TSNP-AMP onto the surface of the extruded films. Observation of the characteristic blue colour confirms the integrity of the TSNP within the films. Antimicrobial tests were performed by incubating Gram + and Gram – strains with treated and non-treated films, to evaluate if bacterial growth was reduced due to the presence of the TSNP. The resulting films successfully incorporated TSNP and AMP-TSNP. Reduced bacterial growth was observed for both Gram + and Gram – strains for both TSNP and AMP-TSNP compared with untreated films indicating antimicrobial action. The largest growth reduction was observed for AMP-TSNP treated films demonstrating the additional antimicrobial activity due to the presence of the AMPs. The potential of this technology to impede bacterial activity in food industry and medical surfaces will forge new confidence in the battle against antibiotic resistant bacteria, serving to greatly inhibit infections and facilitate patient recovery.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Antimicrobial, Polymer, Peptide, biodegradable

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1 Meticulous Doxorubicin Release from pH-Responsive Nanoparticles Entrapped within an Injectable Thermoresponsive Depot

Authors: Huayang Yu, Nicola Ingram, David C. Green, Paul D. Thornton


The dual stimuli-controlled release of doxorubicin from gel-embedded nanoparticles is reported. Non-cytotoxic polymer nanoparticles are formed from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) that, uniquely, contain a central ester link. This connection renders the nanoparticles pH-responsive, enabling extensive doxorubicin release in acidic solutions (pH 6.5), but not in solutions of physiological pH (pH 7.4). Doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles were found to be stable for at least 31 days and lethal against the three breast cancer cell lines tested. Furthermore, doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles could be incorporated within a thermoresponsive poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel depot, which forms immediately upon injection of poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) into aqueous solution. The combination of the poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) gel and poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(benzyl glutamate) nanoparticles yields an injectable doxorubicin delivery system that facilities near-complete drug release when maintained at elevated temperatures (37 °C) in acidic solution (pH 6.5). In contrast, negligible payload release occurs when the material is stored at room temperature in a non-acidic solution (pH 7.4). The system has great potential as a vehicle for the prolonged, site-specific release of chemotherapeutics.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, Polymer, Thermoresponsive, biodegradable

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