Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

biocomposite Related Abstracts

13 Cellulose Acetate/Polyacrylic Acid Filled with Nano-Hydroxapatite Composites: Spectroscopic Studies and Search for Biomedical Applications

Authors: E. M. AbdelRazek, G. S. ElBahy, M. A. Allam, A. M. Abdelghany, A. M. Hezma


Polymeric biocomposite of hydroxyapatite/polyacrylic acid were prepared and their thermal and mechanical properties were improved by addition of cellulose acetate. FTIR spectroscopy technique and X-ray diffraction analysis were employed to examine the physical and chemical characteristics of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy shows a uniform distribution of HAp nano-particles through the polymeric matrix of two organic/inorganic composites weight ratios (60/40 and 70/30), at which the material crystallinity reaches a considerable value appropriate for the needed applications were studied and revealed that the HAp nano-particles are uniformly distributed in the polymeric matrix. Kinetic parameters were determined from the weight loss data using non isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Also, the main degradation steps were described and discussed. The mechanical properties of composites were evaluated by measuring tensile strength and elastic modulus. The data indicate that the addition of cellulose acetate can make homogeneous composites scaffold significantly resistant to higher stress. Elastic modulus of the composites was also improved by the addition of cellulose acetate, making them more appropriate for bioapplications.

Keywords: Infrared spectroscopy, Chemical Synthesis, Mechanical Properties, biocomposite

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12 Tensile Retention Properties of Thermoplastic Starch Based Biocomposites Modified with Glutaraldehyde

Authors: Jen-Taut Yeh, Yuan-jing Hou, Li Cheng, Ya Zhou Wang, Zhi Yu Zhang


Tensile retention properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) reinforced thermoplastic starch (TPS) resins were successfully improved by reacting with glutaraldehyde (GA) in their gelatinization processes. Small amounts of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) were blended with GA modified TPS resins to improve their processability. As evidenced by the newly developed ether (-C-O-C-) stretching bands on FT-IR spectra of TPS100BC0.02GAx series specimens, hydroxyl groups of TPS100BC0.02 resins were successfully reacted with the aldehyde groups of GA molecules during their modification processes. The retention values of tensile strengths (σf) of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens improved significantly and reached a maximal value as GA contents approached an optimal value at 0.5 part per hundred parts of TPS resin (PHR). By addition of 0.5 PHR GA in biocomposite specimens, the initial tensile strength and elongation at break values of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen improved to 24.6 MPa and 5.6%, respectively, which were slightly improved than those of (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. However, the retention values of tensile strengths of (TPS100BC0.02GA0.5)75PLA25 specimen reached around 82.5%, after placing the specimen under 20oC/50% relative humidity for 56 days, which were significantly better than those of the (TPS100BC0.02)75PLA25 specimen. In order to understand these interesting tensile retention properties found for (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens. Thermal analyses of initial and aged TPS100BC0.02, TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens were also performed in this investigation. Possible reasons accounting for the significantly improved tensile retention properties of TPS100BC0.02GAx and (TPS100BC0.02GAx)75PLA25 specimens are proposed.

Keywords: biocomposite, strength retention, thermoplastic starch, tensile retention

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11 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov


The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: Composite, Polyethylene, biocomposite, diffusion, vegetable filler

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10 Investigating the Minimum RVE Size to Simulate Poly (Propylene carbonate) Composites Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals as a Bio-Nanocomposite

Authors: Hamed Nazeri, Pierre Mertiny, Yongsheng Ma, Kajsa Duke


The background of the present study is the use of environment-friendly biopolymer and biocomposite materials. Among the recently introduced biopolymers, poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) has been gaining attention. This study focuses on the size of representative volume elements (RVE) in order to simulate PPC composites reinforced by cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as a bio-nanocomposite. Before manufacturing nanocomposites, numerical modeling should be implemented to explore and predict mechanical properties, which may be accomplished by creating and studying a suitable RVE. In other studies, modeling of composites with rod shaped fillers has been reported assuming that fillers are unidirectionally aligned. But, modeling of non-aligned filler dispersions is considerably more difficult. This study investigates the minimum RVE size to enable subsequent FEA modeling. The matrix and nano-fillers were modeled using the finite element software ABAQUS, assuming randomly dispersed fillers with a filler mass fraction of 1.5%. To simulate filler dispersion, a Monte Carlo technique was employed. The numerical simulation was implemented to find composite elastic moduli. After commencing the simulation with a single filler particle, the number of particles was increased to assess the minimum number of filler particles that satisfies the requirements for an RVE, providing the composite elastic modulus in a reliable fashion.

Keywords: nanocomposite, biocomposite, monte carlo method, representative volume element

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9 Theoretical Modeling of Mechanical Properties of Eco-Friendly Composites Derived from Sugar Palm

Authors: J. Sahari, S. M. Sapuan


Eco-friendly composites have been successfully prepared by using sugar palm tree as a sources. The effect of fibre content on mechanical properties of (SPF/SPS) biocomposites have been done and the experimentally tensile properties (tensile strength and modulus) of biocomposites have been compared with the existing theories of reinforcement. The biocomposites were prepared with different amounts of fibres (i.e. 10%, 20% and 30% by weight percent). The mechanical properties of plasticized SPS improved with the incorporation of fibres. Both approaches (experimental and theoretical) show that the young’s modulus of the biocomposites is consistently increased when the sugar palm fibre (SPF) are placed into the sugar palm starch matrix (SPS). Surface morphological study through scanning electron microscopy showed homogeneous distribution of fibres and matrix with good adhesion which play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of biocomposites. The observed deviations between the experimental and theoretical values are explained by the simplifying model assumptions applied for the configuration of the composites, in particular the sugar palm starch composites.

Keywords: Experimental, Mechanical, Theoretical, biocomposite, eco-friendly

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8 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari


In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Non-linear Analysis, cadmium, biocomposite, biosorption

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7 Production of Biocomposites Using Chars Obtained by Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes

Authors: Esra Yel, Tabriz Aslanov, Merve Sogancioglu, Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli


The disposal of waste plastics has become a major worldwide environmental problem. Pyrolysis of waste plastics is one of the routes to waste minimization and recycling that has been gaining interest. In pyrolysis, the pyrolysed material is separated into gas, liquid (both are fuel) and solid (char) products. All fractions have utilities and economical value depending upon their characteristics. The first objective of this study is to determine the co-pyrolysis product fractions of waste HDPE- (high density polyethylene) and LDPE (low density polyethylene)-olive pomace (OP) and to determine the qualities of the solid product char. Chars obtained at 700 °C pyrolysis were used in biocomposite preparation as additive. As the second objective, the effects of char on biocomposite quality were investigated. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700 °C with heating rates of 5 °C/min. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing of chars with bisphenol-F type epoxy resin in various wt%. Biocomposite properties were determined by measuring electrical conductivity, surface hardness, Young’s modulus and tensile strength of the composites. The best electrical conductivity results were obtained with HDPE-OP char. For HDPE-OP char and LDPE-OP char, compared to neat epoxy, the tensile strength values of the composites increased by 102% and 78%, respectively, at 10% char dose. The hardness measurements showed similar results to the tensile tests, since there is a correlation between the hardness and the tensile strength.

Keywords: pyrolysis, biocomposite, char, olive pomace

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6 Characterization of Biocomposites Based on Mussel Shell Wastes

Authors: Suheyla Kocaman, Gulnare Ahmetli, Alaaddin Cerit, Alize Yucel, Merve Gozukucuk


Shell wastes represent a considerable quantity of byproducts in the shellfish aquaculture. From the viewpoint of ecofriendly and economical disposal, it is highly desirable to convert these residues into high value-added products for industrial applications. So far, the utilization of shell wastes was confined at relatively lower levels, e.g. wastewater decontaminant, soil conditioner, fertilizer constituent, feed additive and liming agent. Shell wastes consist of calcium carbonate and organic matrices, with the former accounting for 95-99% by weight. Being the richest source of biogenic CaCO3, shell wastes are suitable to prepare high purity CaCO3 powders, which have been extensively applied in various industrial products, such as paper, rubber, paints and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, the shell waste could be further processed to be the filler of polymer composites. This paper presents a study on the potential use of mussel shell waste as biofiller to produce the composite materials with different epoxy matrices, such as bisphenol-A type, CTBN modified and polyurethane modified epoxy resins. Morphology and mechanical properties of shell particles reinforced epoxy composites were evaluated to assess the possibility of using it as a new material. The effects of shell particle content on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. It was shown that in all composites, the tensile strength and Young’s modulus values increase with the increase of mussel shell particles content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, while the elongation at break decreased, compared to pure epoxy resin. The highest Young’s modulus values were determined for bisphenol-A type epoxy composites.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, epoxy resin, biocomposite, mussel shell

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5 Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites

Authors: Ulku Soydal, Mustafa Esen Marti, Gulnare Ahmetli


In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.

Keywords: Properties, epoxy resin, biocomposite, lime waste

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4 High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite Nanorods and Carbon Nanofibers for Joint Replacements

Authors: Chengzhu Liao, Jianbo Zhang, Haiou Wang, Jing Ming, Huili Li, Yanyan Li, Hua Cheng, Sie Chin Tjong


Since Bonfield’s group’s pioneer work, there has been growing interest amongst the materials scientists, biomedical engineers and surgeons in the use of novel biomaterials for the treatment of bone defects and injuries. This study focuses on the fabrication, mechanical characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanorods (HANR) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). HANRs of 20 wt% and CNFs of 0.5-2 wt% were incorporated into HDPE to form biocomposites using traditional melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The mechanical measurements show that CNF additions greatly improve the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE and HDPE-20% nHA composites. Meanwhile, the nHA and CNF fillers were found to be effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of HDPE. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the HDPE/ CNF-nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such HDPE/ CNF-nHA hybrids are found to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic joint/bone replacements.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, hydroxyapatite, biocomposite, high density polyethylene, carbon nanofiber

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3 Hafnium and Samarium Hydroxyapatite Composites and Their Characterization

Authors: Meltem Nur Erdöl, Feyzanur Bayrak, Elif Emanetçi, Faik Nüzhet Oktar, Cevriye Kalkandelen, Oğuzhan Gündüz


Nowadays, the bioceramic graft applications are very important due to the fact that especially European population is getting much older. Consequently, healing approaches for some health problems become more important in the near future. For instance, osteoporosis is one of the reasons for serious hip fractures. Beside these, the traffic accidents playing role increasing of various hip fractures and other bone fractures. Naturally all these are leading the importance developing new bioceramic graft materials. Hydroxyapatite (HA) is one of the leading bioceramics on the market. Beside the high biocompatibility HA bioceramics unfortunately are weak materials for loaded areas. For improvement mechanical properties of HA material, some oxides and metallic powders can be added. In this study, some rare earth oxides like hafnium (IV) oxide (HfO₂) and samarium (III) oxide (Sm₂O₃) are added to HA for improvement of their material characteristics. Thus, compression, microhardness and theoretical density tests are performed. X-ray diffraction patterns are also investigated corresponding x-ray diffraction equipment. At the end, studies of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) are completed. All values were compared with past BHA and various composites.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, hydroxyapatite, biocomposite, hafnium oxide, samarium oxide

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2 Developing Indoor Enhanced Bio Composite Vertical Smart Farming System for Climbing Food Plant

Authors: S. Mokhtar, R. Ibrahim, K. Abdan, A. Rashidi


The population in the world are growing in very fast rate. It is expected that urban growth and development would create serious questions of food production and processing, transport, and consumption. Future smart green city policies are emerging to support new ways of visualizing, organizing and managing the city and its flows towards developing more sustainable cities in ensuring food security while maintaining its biodiversity. This is a survey paper analyzing the feasibility of developing a smart vertical farming system for climbing food plant to meet the need of food consumption in urban cities with an alternative green material. This paper documents our investigation on specific requirement for farming high valued climbing type food plant suitable for vertical farming, development of appropriate biocomposite material composition, and design recommendations for developing a new smart vertical farming system inside urban buildings. Results include determination of suitable specific climbing food plant species and material manufacturing processes for reinforcing natural fiber for biocomposite material. The results are expected to become recommendations for developing alternative structural materials for climbing food plant later on towards the development of the future smart vertical farming system. This paper contributes to supporting urban farming in cities and promotes green materials for preserving the environment. Hence supporting efforts in food security agenda especially for developing nations.

Keywords: Smart Farming, Vertical Farming, biocomposite, natural reinforce fiber

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1 Biodegradation Study of a Biocomposite Material Based on Sunflower Oil and Alfa Fibers as Natural Resources

Authors: Sihem Kadem, Ratiba Irinislimane, Naima Belhaneche


The natural resistance to biodegradation of polymeric materials prepared from petroleum-based source and the management of their wastes in the environment are the driving forces to replace them by other biodegradable materials from renewable resources. For that, in this work new biocomposites materials have been synthesis from sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and alfa plants (Stipatenacissima) as natural based resources. The sunflower oil (SFO) was chemically modified via epoxidation then acrylation reactions to obtain acrylated epoxidized sunflower oil resin (AESFO). The AESFO resin was then copolymerized with styrene as co-monomer in the presence of boron trifluoride (BF3) as cationic initiator and cobalt octoate (Co) as catalyst. The alfa fibers were treated with alkali treatment (5% NaOH) before been used as bio-reinforcement. Biocomposites were prepared by mixing the resin with untreated and treated alfa fibers at different percentages. A biodegradation study was carried out for the synthesized biocomposites in a solid medium (burial in the soil) by evaluated, first, the loss of mass, the results obtained were reached between 7.8% and 11% during one year. Then an observation under an optical microscope was carried out, after one year of burial in the soil, microcracks, brown and black spots were appeared on the samples surface. This results shows that the synthesized biocomposites have a great aptitude for biodegradation.

Keywords: Soil, biodegradation, biocomposite, sunflower oil, alfa fiber

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