Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Biocompatibility Related Abstracts

26 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee


Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

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25 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

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24 Preparation and Application of Biocompatible Nanobioactive Glass as Therapeutic Agents for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: P. Shrivastava, S. Vijayalakshmi, A. K. Singh, S. Dalai, R. Teotia, P. Sharma, J. Bellare


This paper focuses on the synthesis and application of nanobioactive glass for bone regeneration studies. Nanobioactive glass has been synthesized by sol gel method having a combination of silicon, calcium and phosphorous in the molar ratio of 75:21:4. The prepared particles were analyzed for surface morphology by FEG SEM and FEG TEM. Physiochemical properties were investigated using ICP AES, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. To ascertain their use for therapeutic use, biocompatibility evaluation of the particles was done by performing soaking studies in SBF and in vitro cell culture studies on MG63 cell lines. Cell morphology was observed by FE SEM and phase contrast microscopy. Nanobioactive glasses (NBG) thus prepared were of 30-200 nm in size, which makes them suitable for nano-biomedical applications. The spherical shape of the particles imparts high surface to volume ratio, promoting fast growth of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is the mineral component of bone. As evaluated by in vitro cell culture studies the NBG was found to enhance the surface activation which enhances osteoblast adhesion. This is an essential parameter to improve bone tissue integration, thereby making nanobioactive glass therapeutically suitable for correcting bone defects.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Bone Tissue Engineering, hydroxyapatite, nanobioactive glass

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23 Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoparticles for Delivery of Oligonucleotides

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana, Dharm Veer Kohli, Suresh Prasad Vyas


Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self-assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, the particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Oligonucleotide, chitosan nanoparticles, LMW-chitosan, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency

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22 Effect of Ti, Nb, and Zr Additives on Biocompatibility of Injection Molded 316L Stainless Steel for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Busra Gundede, Ozal Mutlu, Nagihan Gulsoy


Background: Over the years, material research has led to the development of numerous metals and alloys for using in biomedical applications. One of the major tasks of biomaterial research is the functionalization of the material surface to improve the biocompatibility according to a specific application. 316L and 316L alloys are excellent for various bio-applications. This research was investigated the effect of titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb), and zirconium (Zr) additives on injection molded austenitic grade 316L stainless steels in vitro biocompatibility. For this purpose, cytotoxic tests were performed to evaluate the potential biocompatibility of the specimens. Materials and Methods: 3T3 fibroblast were cultivated in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and %1 penicillin-streptomycin at 37°C with 5% CO2 and 95%humidity. Trypsin/EDTA solution was used to remove cells from the culture flask. Cells were reseeded at a density of 1×105cell in 25T flasks. The medium change took place every 3 days. The trypan blue assay was used to determine cell viability. Cell viability is calculated as the number of viable cells divided by the total number of cells within the grids on the cell counter machine counted the number of blue staining cells and the number of total cells. Cell viability should be at least 95% for healthy log-phase cultures. MTT assay was assessed for 96-hours. Cells were cultivated in 6-well flask within 5 ml DMEM and incubated as same conditions. 0,5mg/ml MTT was added for 4-hours and then acid-isoprohanol was added for solubilize to formazan crystals. Cell morphology after 96h was investigated by SEM. The medium was removed, samples were washed with 0.15 M PBS buffer and fixed for 12h at 4- 8°C with %2,5 gluteraldehyte. Samples were treated with 1% osmium tetroxide. Samples were then dehydrated and dried, mounted on appropriate stubs with colloidal silver and sputter-coated with gold. Images were collected using a scanning electron microscope. ROS assay is a cell viability test for in vitro studies. Cells were grown for 96h, ROS solution added on cells in 6 well plate flask and incubated for 1h. Fluorescence signal indicates ROS generation by cells. Results: Trypan Blue exclusion assay results were 96%, 92%, 95%, 90%, 91% for negative control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Results were found nearly similar to each other when compared with control group. Cell viability from MTT analysis was found to be 100%, 108%, 103%, 107%, and 105% for the control group, 316L, 316L-Ti, 316L-Nb and 316L-Zr, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that all test groups were same as the control group in ROS assay. SEM images demonstrated that the attachment of 3T3 cells on biomaterials. Conclusion: We, therefore, concluded that Ti, Nb and Zr additives improved physical properties of 316L stainless. In our in vitro experiments showed that these new additives did not modify the cytocompatibility of stainless steel and these additives on 316L might be useful for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Cell Culture

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21 Mixed Monolayer and PEG Linker Approaches to Creating Multifunctional Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: D. Dixon, J. Nicol, J. A. Coulter, E. Harrison


The ease with which they can be functionalized, combined with their excellent biocompatibility, make gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) ideal candidates for various applications in nanomedicine. Indeed several promising treatments are currently undergoing human clinical trials (CYT-6091 and Auroshell). A successful nanoparticle treatment must first evade the immune system, then accumulate within the target tissue, before enter the diseased cells and delivering the payload. In order to create a clinically relevant drug delivery system, contrast agent or radiosensitizer, it is generally necessary to functionalize the AuNP surface with multiple groups; e.g. Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) for enhanced stability, targeting groups such as antibodies, peptides for enhanced internalization, and therapeutic agents. Creating and characterizing the biological response of such complex systems remains a challenge. The two commonly used methods to attach multiple groups to the surface of AuNPs are the creation of a mixed monolayer, or by binding groups to the AuNP surface using a bi-functional PEG linker. While some excellent in-vitro and animal results have been reported for both approaches further work is necessary to directly compare the two methods. In this study AuNPs capped with both PEG and a Receptor Mediated Endocytosis (RME) peptide were prepared using both mixed monolayer and PEG linker approaches. The PEG linker used was SH-PEG-SGA which has a thiol at one end for AuNP attachment, and an NHS ester at the other to bind to the peptide. The work builds upon previous studies carried out at the University of Ulster which have investigated AuNP synthesis, the influence of PEG on stability in a range of media and investigated intracellular payload release. 18-19nm citrate capped AuNPs were prepared using the Turkevich method via the sodium citrate reduction of boiling 0.01wt% Chloroauric acid. To produce PEG capped AuNPs, the required amount of PEG-SH (5000Mw) or SH-PEG-SGA (3000Mw Jenkem Technologies) was added, and the solution stirred overnight at room temperature. The RME (sequence: CKKKKKKSEDEYPYVPN, Biomatik) co-functionalised samples were prepared by adding the required amount of peptide to the PEG capped samples and stirring overnight. The appropriate amounts of PEG-SH and RME peptide were added to the AuNP to produce a mixed monolayer consisting of approximately 50% PEG and 50% RME. The PEG linker samples were first fully capped with bi-functional PEG before being capped with RME peptide. An increase in diameter from 18-19mm for the ‘as synthesized’ AuNPs to 40-42nm after PEG capping was observed via DLS. The presence of PEG and RME peptide on both the mixed monolayer and PEG linker co-functionalized samples was confirmed by both FTIR and TGA. Bi-functional PEG linkers allow the entire AuNP surface to be capped with PEG, enabling in-vitro stability to be achieved using a lower molecular weight PEG. The approach also allows the entire outer surface to be coated with peptide or other biologically active groups, whilst also offering the promise of enhanced biological availability. The effect of mixed monolayer versus PEG linker attachment on both stability and non-specific protein corona interactions was also studied.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, Biocompatibility, gold nanoparticles, PEG

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20 Arothron Stellatus Fish Skin Collagen Based Composite Biosheet Incorporated with Mupirocin as a Potential Dermal Substitute for Skin Tissue Regeneration

Authors: Giriprasath Ramanathan, Sivakumar Singaravelu, M. D. Raja, Uma Tirichurapalli Sivagnanam


Collagen is the abundant protein found in the skin of the animal body that has been designed to provide adequate structural support for the adhesion of cells. The dressing material widely used for tissue engineering and biomedical application has to posses good swelling and biological property for the absorption of exudates and cell proliferation. Acid solubilised collagen from the fish skin of the Arothron stellatus was extracted. The collagen with hydroxypropyl and carboxy methyl cellulose has the better biological property to enhance the healing efficiency. The inter property of collagen with interesting perspectives in the tissue engineering process leads to the development of biomaterial with natural polymer with biologically derived collagen. Keeping this as an objective, the composite biomaterial was fabricated to improve the wound healing and biological properties. In this study the collagen from Arothron stellatus fish skin (ACO) was uniformly blended separately with hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) as biosheets. The casted biosheets were impregnated with mupirocin to get rid of infection from the microbes. Further, the results obtained from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), tensile studies and biocompatibility of the biosheets were assessed. The swelling, porosity and degradation of the casted biosheets were studied to make the biosheets as a suitable wound dressing material. ACO-HPMC and ACO-CMC biosheets both showed good results, but ACO-HPMC biosheet showed better results than ACO-CMC and hence it can be used as a potential dermal substitute in skin tissue engineering.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, collagen, arothron stellatus, tensile strenght

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19 Formulation Development and Characterization of Oligonucleotide Containing Chitosan Nanoparticles

Authors: Gyati Shilakari Asthana, Abhay Asthana


Purpose: The therapeutic potential of oligonucleotide (ODN) is primarily dependent upon its safe and efficient delivery to specific cells overcoming degradation and maximizing cellular uptake in vivo. The present study is focused to design low molecular weight chitosan nanoconstructs to meet the requirements of safe and effectual delivery of ODNs. LMW-chitosan is a biodegradable, water soluble, biocompatible polymer and is useful as a non-viral vector for gene delivery due to its better stability in water. Methods: LMW chitosan ODN nanoparticles (CHODN NPs) were formulated by self assembled method using various N/P ratios (moles ratio of amine groups of CH to phosphate moieties of ODNs; 0.5:1, 1:1, 3:1, 5:1 and 7:1) of CH to ODN. The developed CHODN NPs were evaluated with respect to gel retardation assay, particle size, zeta potential and cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency. Results: Complete complexation of CH/ODN was achieved at the charge ratio of 0.5:1 or above and CHODN NPs displayed resistance against DNase I. On increasing the N/P ratio of CH/ODN, particle size of the NPs decreased whereas zeta potential (ZV) value increased. No significant toxicity was observed at all CH concentrations. The transfection efficiency was increased on increasing N/P ratio from 1:1 to 3:1, whereas it was decreased with further increment in N/P ratio upto 7:1. Maximum transfection of CHODN NPs with both the cell lines (Raw 267.4 cells and Hela cells) was achieved at N/P ratio of 3:1. The results suggest that transfection efficiency of CHODN NPs is dependent on N/P ratio. Conclusion: Thus the present study states that LMW chitosan nanoparticulate carriers would be acceptable choice to improve transfection efficiency in vitro as well as in vivo delivery of oligonucleotide.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Oligonucleotide, chitosan nanoparticles, LMW-chitosan, cytotoxicity study, transfection efficiency

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18 Reinforcement of Calcium Phosphate Cement with E-Glass Fibre

Authors: Kanchan Maji, Debasmita Pani, Sudip Dasgupta


Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) due to its high bioactivity and optimum bioresorbability shows excellent bone regeneration capability. Despite it has limited applications as bone implant due to its macro-porous microstructure causing its poor mechanical strength. The reinforcement of apatitic CPCs with biocompatible fibre glass phase is an attractive area of research to improve its mechanical strength. Here we study the setting behaviour of Si-doped and un-doped alpha tri-calcium phosphate (α-TCP) based CPC and its reinforcement with the addition of E-glass fibre. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate powders were prepared by solid state sintering of CaCO3, CaHPO4 and tetra ethyl ortho silicate (TEOS) was used as silicon source to synthesise Si doped α-TCP powders. Alpha tri-calcium phosphate based CPC hydrolyzes to form hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals having excellent osteoconductivity and bone-replacement capability thus self-hardens through the entanglement of HA crystals. Setting time, phase composition, hydrolysis conversion rate, microstructure, and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of un-doped CPC and Si-doped CPC were studied and compared. Both initial and final setting time of the developed cement was delayed because of Si addition. Crystalline phases of HA (JCPDS 9-432), α-TCP (JCPDS 29-359) and β-TCP (JCPDS 9-169) were detected in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern after immersion of CPC in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 0 hours to 10 days. The intensities of the α-TCP peaks of (201) and (161) at 2θ of 22.2°and 24.1° decreased when the time of immersion of CPC in SBF increased from 0 hours to 10 days, due to its transformation into HA. As Si incorporation in the crystal lattice stabilised the TCP phase, Si doped CPC showed a little slower rate of conversion into HA phase as compared to un-doped CPC. The SEM image of the microstructure of hardened CPC showed lower grain size of HA in un-doped CPC because of premature setting and faster hydrolysis of un-doped CPC in SBF as compared that in Si-doped CPC. Premature setting caused generation of micro and macro porosity in un-doped CPC structure which resulted in its lower mechanical strength as compared to that in Si-doped CPC. This lower porosity and greater compactness in the microstructure attributes to greater DTS values observed in Si-doped CPC. E-glass fibres of the average diameter of 12 μm were cut into approximately 1 mm in length and immersed in SBF to deposit carbonated apatite on its surface. This was performed to promote HA crystal growth and entanglement along the fibre surface to promote stronger interface between dispersed E-glass fibre and CPC matrix. It was found that addition of 10 wt% of E-glass fibre into Si-doped α-TCP increased the average DTS of CPC from 8 MPa to 15 MPa as the fibres could resist the propagation of crack by deflecting the crack tip. Our study shows that biocompatible E-glass fibre in optimum proportion in CPC matrix can enhance the mechanical strength of CPC without affecting its bioactivity.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, calcium phosphate cement, e-glass fibre, diametral tensile strength

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17 The Effect of Surface Modified Nano-Hydroxyapatite Incorporation into Polymethylmethacrylate Cement on Biocompatibility and Mechanical Properties

Authors: Yu-Shan Wu, Po-Liang Lai, I-Ming Chu


Poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) is the most frequently used bone void filler for vertebral augmentation in osteoporotic fracture. PMMA bone cement not only exhibits strong mechanical properties but also can fabricate according to the shape of bone defect. However, the adhesion between the PMMA-based cement and the adjacent bone is usually weak and as PMMA bone cement is inherently bioinert. The combination of bioceramics and polymers as composites may increase cell adhesion and improve biocompatibility. The nano-hydroxyapatite(HAP) not only plays a significant role in maintaining the properties of the natural bone but also offers a favorable environment for osteoconduction, protein adhesion, and osteoblast proliferation. However, defects and cracks can form at the polymer/ceramics interface, resulting in uneven distribution of stress and subsequent inferior mechanical strength. Surface-modified HAP nano-crystals were prepared by chemically grafting poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) on surface-modified nano-HAP surface to increase the affinity of polymer/ceramic phases .Thus, incorporation of surface-modified nano-hydroxyapatite (EC-HAP) may not only improve the interfacial adhesion between cement and bone and between nanoparticles and cement, but also increase biocompatibility. In this research, PMMA mixing with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 wt% EC-HAP were examined. MC3T3-E1 cells were used for the biological evaluation of the response to the cements in vitro. Morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical properties of HAP/PMMA and EC-HAP/PMMA cement were investigated by compression test. Surface wettability of the cements was measured by contact angles.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Nano-Hydroxyapatite, polycaprolactone, PMMA, bone cement, surface grafting

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16 Effects of Li2O Doping on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Bovine Hydroxyapatite Composites (BHA)

Authors: Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Murat Karagoz, Fatih Dumludag, Oguzhan Gunduz, Faik Nuzhet Oktar


Hydroxyapatite (HA) materials have common use in bone repairing due to its ability to accelerate the bone growth around the implant. In spite of being a biocompatible and bioactive material, HA has a limited usage as an implant material because of its weak mechanical properties. HA based composites are required to improve the strength and toughness properties of the implant materials without compromising of biocompatibility. The excellent mechanical properties and higher biocompatibilities are expected from each of biomedical composites. In this study, HA composites were synthesized by using bovine bone reinforced doped with different amount of (wt.%) Li2O. The pressed pellets were sintered at various sintering temperatures between 1000ºC and 1300°C, and mechanical, electrical properties of the obtained products were characterized. In addition to that, in vitro stimulated body fluid (SBF) tests for these samples were conducted. The most suitable composite composition for biomedical applications was discussed among the composites studied.

Keywords: Biocomposites, Biocompatibility, Conductivity, electrical property, mechanical property, sintering temperature

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15 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Vera Lukasova, Eva Filova, Jana Dankova, Vera Sovkova, Matej Daniel, Michala Rampichova


Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, mesenchymal stem cells, Differentiation, beta titanium alloy

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14 Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohan Singh Mehata, R. K. Ratnesh


CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, core-shell quantum dots, photoluminescence and lifetime, sensing ability

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13 High Density Polyethylene Biocomposites Reinforced with Hydroxyapatite Nanorods and Carbon Nanofibers for Joint Replacements

Authors: Chengzhu Liao, Jianbo Zhang, Haiou Wang, Jing Ming, Huili Li, Yanyan Li, Hua Cheng, Sie Chin Tjong


Since Bonfield’s group’s pioneer work, there has been growing interest amongst the materials scientists, biomedical engineers and surgeons in the use of novel biomaterials for the treatment of bone defects and injuries. This study focuses on the fabrication, mechanical characterization and biocompatibility evaluation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) reinforced with hydroxyapatite nanorods (HANR) and carbon nanofibers (CNF). HANRs of 20 wt% and CNFs of 0.5-2 wt% were incorporated into HDPE to form biocomposites using traditional melt-compounding and injection molding techniques. The mechanical measurements show that CNF additions greatly improve the tensile strength and Young’s modulus of HDPE and HDPE-20% nHA composites. Meanwhile, the nHA and CNF fillers were found to be effective to improve dimensional and thermal stability of HDPE. The results of osteoblast cell cultivation and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) tests showed that the HDPE/ CNF-nHA nanocomposites are biocompatible. Such HDPE/ CNF-nHA hybrids are found to be potential biomaterials for making orthopedic joint/bone replacements.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, hydroxyapatite, biocomposite, high density polyethylene, carbon nanofiber

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12 Mesoporous Titania Thin Films for Gentamicin Delivery and Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 Immobilization

Authors: Ane Escobar, Paula Angelomé, Mihaela Delcea, Marek Grzelczak, Sergio Enrique Moya


The antibacterial capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of antibiotics that can be delivered to the media after the surgery. Mesoporous films have shown great potential in drug delivery for orthopedic applications, since pore size and thickness can be tuned to produce different surface area and free volume inside the material. This work shows the synthesis of mesoporous titania films (MTF) by sol-gel chemistry and evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) on top of glass substrates. Pores with a diameter of 12nm were observed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A film thickness of 100 nm was measured by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Gentamicin was used to study the antibiotic delivery from the film by means of High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The Staphilococcus aureus strand was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the penicillin loaded films toward inhibiting bacterial colonization. MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell proliferation experiments proved that MTFs have a good biocompatibility and are a suitable surface for MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation. Moreover, images taken by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy using labeled vinculin, showed good adhesion of the MC3T3-E1 cells to the MTFs, as well as complex actin filaments arrangement. In order to improve cell proliferation Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) was adsorbed on top of the mesoporous film. The deposition of the protein was proved by measurements in the contact angle, showing an increment in the hydrophobicity while the protein concentration is higher. By measuring the dehydrogenase activity in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured in dually functionalized mesoporous titatina films with gentamicin and BMP-2 is possible to find an improvement in cell proliferation. For this purpose, the absorption of a yellow-color formazan dye, product of a water-soluble salt (WST-8) reduction by the dehydrogenases, is measured. In summary, this study proves that by means of the surface modification of MTFs with proteins and loading of gentamicin is possible to achieve an antibacterial effect and a cell growth improvement.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Antibacterial, Implants, gentamicin, osteoblasts, cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, mesoporous titania films

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11 Chitosan Hydrogel Containing Nitric Oxide Donors with Potent Antibacterial Effect

Authors: Milena Trevisan Pelegrino, Bruna De Araujo Lima, Mônica H. M. Do Nascimento, Christiane B. Lombello, Marcelo Brocchi, Amedea B. Seabra


Nitric oxide (NO) is a small molecule involved in a wide range of physiological and pathophysiological processes, including vasodilatation, control of inflammatory pain, wound healing, and antibacterial activities. As NO is a free radical, the design of drugs that generates therapeutic amounts of NO in controlled spatial and time manners is still a challenge. In this study, the NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) was incorporated into the thermoresponsive Pluronic F-127 (PL) - chitosan (CS) hydrogel, in an easy and economically feasible methodology. CS is a polysaccharide with known antimicrobial and biocompatibility properties. Scanning electron microscopy, rheology and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for hydrogel characterization. The results demonstrated that the hydrogel has a smooth surface, thermoresponsive behavior, and good mechanical stability. The kinetics of NO release and GSNO diffusion from GSNO-containing PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a sustained NO/GSNO release, in concentrations suitable for biomedical applications, at physiological and skin temperatures. The GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel demonstrated a concentration-dependent toxicity to Vero cells, and antimicrobial activity to Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.5 µg·mL-1 of hydrogel, which correspondents to 1 mmol·L-1 of GSNO). Interesting, the concentration range in which the NO-releasing hydrogel demonstrated antibacterial effect was not found toxic to Vero mammalian cell. Thus, GSNO-PL/CS hydrogel is suitable biomaterial for topical NO delivery applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Antimicrobial, chitosan, S-nitrosothiols

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10 Biocompatibility and Electrochemical Assessment of Biomedical Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Jerman Madonsela, Wallace Matizamhuka, Akiko Yamamoto, Ronald Machaka, Brendon Shongwe


In this study, biocompatibility evaluation of nanostructured near beta Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn (Ti2448) alloy with non-toxic elements produced utilizing Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of very fine microsized powders attained through mechanical alloying was performed. The results were compared with pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) alloy. Cell proliferation test was performed using murine osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 at two cell densities; 400 and 4000 cells/mL for 7 days incubation. Pure titanium took a lead under both conditions suggesting that the presence of other oxide layers influence cell proliferation. No significant difference in cell proliferation was observed between Ti64 and Ti2448. Potentiodynamic measurement in Hanks, 0.9% NaCl and cell culture medium showed no distinct difference on the anodic polarization curves of the three alloys, indicating that the same anodic reaction occurred on their surface but with different rates. However, Ti2448 showed better corrosion resistance in cell culture medium with a slightly lower corrosion rate of 2.96 nA/cm2 compared to 4.86 nA/cm2 and 5.62 nA/cm2 of Ti and Ti64 respectively. Ti2448 adsorbed less protein as compared to Ti and Ti64 though no notable difference in surface wettability was observed.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Corrosion, osteoblast, surface wettability, protein adsorption

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9 Production, Characterisation, and in vitro Degradation and Biocompatibility of a Solvent-Free Polylactic-Acid/Hydroxyapatite Composite for 3D-Printed Maxillofacial Bone-Regeneration Implants

Authors: Carlos Amnael Orozco-Diaz, Robert David Moorehead, Gwendolen Reilly, Fiona Gilchrist, Cheryl Ann Miller


The current gold-standard for maxillofacial reconstruction surgery (MRS) utilizes auto-grafted cancellous bone as a filler. This study was aimed towards developing a polylactic-acid/hydroxyapatite (PLA-HA) composite suitable for fused-deposition 3D printing. Functionalization of the polymer through the addition of HA was directed to promoting bone-regeneration properties so that the material can rival the performance of cancellous bone grafts in terms of bone-lesion repair. This kind of composite enables the production of MRS implants based off 3D-reconstructions from image studies – namely computed tomography – for anatomically-correct fitting. The present study encompassed in-vitro degradation and in-vitro biocompatibility profiling for 3D-printed PLA and PLA-HA composites. PLA filament (Verbatim Co.) and Captal S hydroxyapatite micro-scale HA powder (Plasma Biotal Ltd) were used to produce PLA-HA composites at 5, 10, and 20%-by-weight HA concentration. These were extruded into 3D-printing filament, and processed in a BFB-3000 3D-Printer (3D Systems Co.) into tensile specimens, and were mechanically challenged as per ASTM D638-03. Furthermore, tensile specimens were subjected to accelerated degradation in phosphate-buffered saline solution at 70°C for 23 days, as per ISO-10993-13-2010. This included monitoring of mass loss (through dry-weighing), crystallinity (through thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis), molecular weight (through gel-permeation chromatography), and tensile strength. In-vitro biocompatibility analysis included cell-viability and extracellular matrix deposition, which were performed both on flat surfaces and on 3D-constructs – both produced through 3D-printing. Discs of 1 cm in diameter and cubic 3D-meshes of 1 cm3 were 3D printed in PLA and PLA-HA composites (n = 6). The samples were seeded with 5000 MG-63 osteosarcoma-like cells, with cell viability extrapolated throughout 21 days via resazurin reduction assays. As evidence of osteogenicity, collagen and calcium deposition were indirectly estimated through Sirius Red staining and Alizarin Red staining respectively. Results have shown that 3D printed PLA loses structural integrity as early as the first day of accelerated degradation, which was significantly faster than the literature suggests. This was reflected in the loss of tensile strength down to untestable brittleness. During degradation, mass loss, molecular weight, and crystallinity behaved similarly to results found in similar studies for PLA. All composite versions and pure PLA were found to perform equivalent to tissue-culture plastic (TCP) in supporting the seeded-cell population. Significant differences (p = 0.05) were found on collagen deposition for higher HA concentrations, with composite samples performing better than pure PLA and TCP. Additionally, per-cell-calcium deposition on the 3D-meshes was significantly lower when comparing 3D-meshes to discs of the same material (p = 0.05). These results support the idea that 3D-printable PLA-HA composites are a viable resorbable material for artificial grafts for bone-regeneration. Degradation data suggests that 3D-printing of these materials – as opposed to other manufacturing methods – might result in faster resorption than currently-used PLA implants.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Polymer Degradation, bone regeneration implants, in vitro testing, polymer-ceramic composites

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8 Preparation of Biodegradable Methacrylic Nanoparticles by Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization for Drugs Loading: The Case of Acetylsalicylic Acid

Authors: J. Roberto Lopez, Hened Saade, Graciela Morales, Javier Enriquez, Raul G. Lopez


Implementation of systems based on nanostructures for drug delivery applications have taken relevance in recent studies focused on biomedical applications. Although there are several nanostructures as drugs carriers, the use of polymeric nanoparticles (PNP) has been widely studied for this purpose, however, the main issue for these nanostructures is the size control below 50 nm with a narrow distribution size, due to they must go through different physiological barriers and avoid to be filtered by kidneys (< 10 nm) or the spleen (> 100 nm). Thus, considering these and other factors, it can be mentioned that drug-loaded nanostructures with sizes varying between 10 and 50 nm are preferred in the development and study of PNP/drugs systems. In this sense, the Semicontinuous Heterophase Polymerization (SHP) offers the possibility to obtain PNP in the desired size range. Considering the above explained, methacrylic copolymer nanoparticles were obtained under SHP. The reactions were carried out in a jacketed glass reactor with the required quantities of water, ammonium persulfate as initiator, sodium dodecyl sulfate/sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate as surfactants, methyl methacrylate and methacrylic acid as monomers with molar ratio of 2/1, respectively. The monomer solution was dosed dropwise during reaction at 70 °C with a mechanical stirring of 650 rpm. Nanoparticles of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) were loaded with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) by a chemical adsorption technique. The purified latex was put in contact with a solution of ASA in dichloromethane (DCM) at 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 or 0.6 wt-%, at 35°C during 12 hours. According to the boiling point of DCM, as well as DCM and water densities, the loading process is completed when the whole DCM is evaporated. The hydrodynamic diameter was measured after polymerization by quasi-elastic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, before and after loading procedures with ASA. The quantitative and qualitative analyses of PNP loaded with ASA were measured by infrared spectroscopy, differential scattering calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Also, the molar mass distributions of polymers were determined in a gel permeation chromatograph apparatus. The load capacity and efficiency were determined by gravimetric analysis. The hydrodynamic diameter results for methacrylic PNP without ASA showed a narrow distribution with an average particle size around 10 nm and a composition methyl methacrylate/methacrylic acid molar ratio equal to 2/1, same composition of Eudragit S100, which is a commercial compound widely used as excipient. Moreover, the latex was stabilized in a relative high solids content (around 11 %), a monomer conversion almost 95 % and a number molecular weight around 400 Kg/mol. The average particle size in the PNP/aspirin systems fluctuated between 18 and 24 nm depending on the initial percentage of aspirin in the loading process, being the drug content as high as 24 % with an efficiency loading of 36 %. These average sizes results have not been reported in the literature, thus, the methacrylic nanoparticles here reported are capable to be loaded with a considerable amount of ASA and be used as a drug carrier.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, biodegradable, aspirin, Eudragit S100, methacrylic nanoparticles

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7 Stimuli-Responsive Zwitterionic Dressings for Chronic Wounds Management

Authors: Konstans Ruseva, Kristina Ivanova, Katerina Todorova, Margarita Gabrashanska, Tzanko Tzanov, Elena Vassileva


Zwitterionic polymers (ZP) are well-known with their ultralow biofouling. They are successfully competing with poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), which are considered as the “golden standard” in this respect. These unique properties are attributed to their strong hydration capacity, defined by the dipole-dipole interactions, arising between the ZP pendant groups as well as to the dipoles interaction with water molecules. Beside, ZP are highly resistant to bacterial adhesion thus ensuring an excellent anti-biofilm formation ability. Moreover, ZP are able to respond upon external stimuli such as temperature, pH, salt concentration changes which in combination with their anti-biofouling effect render this type of polymers as materials with a high potential in biomedical applications. The present work is focused on the development of zwitterionic hydrogels for efficient treatment of highly exudating and hard-to-heal chronic wounds. To this purpose, two types of ZP networks with different crosslinking degree were synthesized - polysulfobetaine (PSB) and polycarboxybetaine (PCB) ones. They were characterized in terms of their physico-mechanical properties, e.g. microhardness, swelling ability, smart behaviour. Furthermore, the potential of ZP networks to resist biofilm formation towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was studied. Their ability to reduce the high levels of myeloperoxidase and metalloproteinase, two enzymes that are part of the chronic wounds enviroenment, was revealed. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxic assessment of PSB and PCB networks along with their in vivo performance in rats was also studied to reveal their high biocompatibility.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Wound Healing, absorption properties, enzymatic inhibition activity, zwitterionic polymers

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6 Apatite-Forming Ability of Doped-Ceria Coatings for Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Ayda Khosravanihaghighi, Pramod Koshy, Bill Walsh, Vedran Lovric, Charles Christopher Sorrell


There is an increasing demand for orthopedic implants owing to the increasing numbers of the aging population. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is a common material used for orthopedic implants owing to its advantageous properties in terms of good corrosion resistance, minimal elastic modulus mismatch with bone, bio-inertness, and high mechanical strength. However, it is important to improve the bioactivity and osseointegration of the titanium alloy and this can be achieved by coating the implant surface with suitable ceramic materials. In the present work, pure and doped-ceria (CeO₂) coatings were deposited by spin coating on the titanium alloy surface in order to enhance the biological interactions between the surface of the implant and the surrounding tissue. In order to examine the bone-binding ability of an implant, simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted in order to assess the capability of apatite layer formation on the surface and thus predict in vivo bone bioactivity. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to determine the extent of apatite formation. Preliminary tests showed that the CeO₂ coatings were biocompatible and that the extent of apatite formation and its characteristics can be enhanced by doping with suitable metal ions.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, ceria, apatite layer, orthopaedic implant, SBF, spin coater, Ti-implant

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5 Self-Organized TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ Nanotubes on β-Ti Alloy by Anodization

Authors: Muhammad Qadir, Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen


Surface properties such as topography and physicochemistry of metallic implants determine the cell behavior. The surface of titanium (Ti)-based implant can be modified to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility. In this study, a self-organized titania–niobium pentoxide–zirconia (TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂) nanotubular layer on β phase Ti35Zr28Nb alloy was fabricated via electrochemical anodization. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement techniques were used to investigate the nanotubes dimensions (i.e., the inner and outer diameters, and wall thicknesses), microstructural features and evolution of the hydrophilic properties. The in vitro biocompatibility of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes (NTs) was assessed by using osteoblast cells (SaOS2). Influence of anodization parameters on the morphology of TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs has been studied. The results indicated that the average inner diameter, outer diameter and the wall thickness of the TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ NTs were ranged from 25–70 nm, 45–90 nm and 5–13 nm, respectively, and were directly influenced by the applied voltage during anodization. The average inner and outer diameters of NTs increased with increasing applied voltage, and the length of NTs increased with increasing anodization time and water content of the electrolyte. In addition, the size distribution of the NTs noticeably affected the hydrophilic properties and enhanced the biocompatibility as compared with the uncoated substrate. The results of this study could be considered for developing nano-scale coatings for a wide range of biomedical applications.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, surface wettability, anodization, titanium alloy, TiO₂–Nb₂O₅–ZrO₂ nanotubes

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4 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen


Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Magnesium, rare earth elements, mechanical and biodegrade properties

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3 Biocompatibility Tests for Chronic Application of Sieve-Type Neural Electrodes in Rats

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Hong, Wonsuk Choi, Hyungdal Park, Jinseok Kim, Junesun Kim


Identifying the chronic functions of an implanted neural electrode is an important factor in acquiring neural signals through the electrode or restoring the nerve functions after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of the chronic implanted neural electrode into the sciatic nerve. To do this, a sieve-type neural electrode was implanted at proximal and distal ends of a transected sciatic nerve as an experimental group (Sieve group, n=6), and the end-to-end epineural repair was operated with the cut sciatic nerve as a control group (reconstruction group, n=6). All surgeries were performed on the sciatic nerve of the right leg in Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests were performed before and 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, and weekly days until 5 months following surgery. Changes in sensory function were assessed by measuring paw withdrawal responses to mechanical and cold stimuli. Motor function was assessed by motion analysis using a Qualisys program, which showed a range of motion (ROM) related to the joints. Neurofilament-heavy chain and fibronectin expression were detected 5 months after surgery. In both groups, the paw withdrawal response to mechanical stimuli was slightly decreased from 3 weeks after surgery and then significantly decreased at 6 weeks after surgery. The paw withdrawal response to cold stimuli was increased from 4 days following surgery in both groups and began to decrease from 6 weeks after surgery. The ROM of the ankle joint was showed a similar pattern in both groups. There was significantly increased from 1 day after surgery and then decreased from 4 days after surgery. Neurofilament-heavy chain expression was observed throughout the entire sciatic nerve tissues in both groups. Especially, the sieve group was showed several neurofilaments that passed through the channels of the sieve-type neural electrode. In the reconstruction group, however, a suture line was seen through neurofilament-heavy chain expression up to 5 months following surgery. In the reconstruction group, fibronectin was detected throughout the sciatic nerve. However, in the sieve group, the fibronectin was observed only in the surrounding nervous tissues of an implanted neural electrode. The present results demonstrated that the implanted sieve-type neural electrode induced a focal inflammatory response. However, the chronic implanted sieve-type neural electrodes did not cause any further inflammatory response following peripheral nerve injury, suggesting the possibility of the chronic application of the sieve-type neural electrodes. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program funded by the Ministry of Science (2016R1D1A1B03933986), and by the convergence technology development program for bionic arm (2017M3C1B2085303).

Keywords: Biocompatibility, motor functions, neural electrodes, peripheral nerve injury, sensory functions

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2 Chemical, Structural and Mechanical Optimization of Zr-Based Bulk Metallic Glass for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Eliott Guérin, Remi Daudin, Georges Kalepsi, Alexis Lenain, Sebastien Gravier, Benoit Ter-Ovanessian, Damien Fabregue, Jean-Jacques Blandin


Due to interesting compromise between mechanical and corrosion properties, Zr-based BMGs are attractive for biomedical applications. However, the enhancement of their glass forming ability (GFA) is often achieved by addition of toxic elements like Ni or Be, which is of course a problem for such applications. Consequently, the development of Ni-free Be-free Zr-based BMGs is of great interest. We have developed a Zr-based (Ni and Be-free) amorphous metallic alloy with an elastic limit twice the one of Ti-6Al-4V. The Zr56Co28Al16 composition exhibits a yield strength close to 2 GPa and low Young’s modulus (close to 90 GPa) [1-2]. In this work, we investigated Niobium (Nb) addition through substitution of Zr up to 8 at%. Cobalt substitution has already been reported [3], but we chose Zr substitution to preserve the glass forming ability. In this case, we show that the glass forming ability for 5 mm diameters rods is maintained up to 3 at% of Nb substitution using suction casting in cooper moulds. Concerning the thermal stability, we measure a strong compositional dependence on the glass transition (Tg). Using DSC analysis (heating rate 20 K/min), we show that the Tg rises from 752 K for 0 at% of Nb to 759 K for 3 at% of Nb. Yet, the thermal range between Tg and the crystallisation temperature (Tx) remains almost unchanged from 33 K to 35 K. Uniaxial compression tests on 2 mm diameter pillars and 3 points bending (3PB) tests on 1 mm thick plates are performed to study the Nb addition on the mechanical properties and the plastic behaviour. With these tests, an optimal Nb concentration is found, improving both plasticity and fatigue resistance. Through interpretations of DSC measurements, an attempt is made to correlate the modifications of the mechanical properties with the structural changes. The optimized chemical, structural and mechanical properties through Nb addition are encouraging to develop the potential of this BMG alloy for biomedical applications. For this purpose, we performed polarisation, immersion and cytotoxicity tests. The figure illustrates the polarisation response of Zr56Co28Al16, Zr54Co28Al16Nb2 and TA6V as a reference after 2h of open circuit potential. The results show that the substitution of Zr by a small amount of Nb significantly improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Medical, metallic glasses, amorphous metal, mechanical resistance

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1 Effect of Hot Extrusion on the Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn Alloys for Medical Application

Authors: V. E. Bazhenov, A. V. Li, A. A. Komissarov, A. V. Koltygin, S. A. Tavolzhanskii, O. O. Voropaeva, A. M. Mukhametshina, A. A. Tokar, V. A. Bautin


Magnesium-based alloys are considered as effective materials in the development of biodegradable implants. The magnesium alloys containing Mg, Zn, Ca as an alloying element are the subject of the particular interest. These elements are the nutrients for the human body, which provide their high biocompatibility. In this work, we investigated the effect of severe plastic deformation (SPD) on the mechanical and corrosion properties of Mg-Zn-Ca and Mg-Zn-Ca-Mn alloys containing from 2 to 4 wt.% Zn; 0.7 wt.% Ca and up to 1 wt.% Mn. Hot extrusion was used as a method of intensive plastic deformation. The temperature of hot extrusion was set to 220 °C and 300 °C. Metallographic analysis after hot extrusion shows that the grain size in the studied alloys depends on the deformation temperature. The grain size for all of investigated alloys is in the range from 3 to 7 microns, and 3 μm corresponds to the extrusion temperature of 220 °C. Analysis of mechanical properties after extrusion shows that extrusion at a temperature of 220 °C and alloying with Mn increase the strength characteristics and decrease the ductility of studied alloys. A slight anisotropy of properties in the longitudinal and transverse directions was also observed. Measurements of corrosion properties revealed that the addition of Mn to Mg-Zn-Ca alloys reduces the corrosion rate. On the other hand, increasing the Zn content in alloys increases the corrosion rate. The extrusion temperature practically does not affect the corrosion rate. Acknowledgement: The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation in the framework of Increase Competitiveness Program of NUST «MISiS» (No K2-2019-008), implemented by a governmental decree dated 16th of March 2013, N 211.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Properties, Severe Plastic Deformation, Magnesium Alloys, hot extrusion

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