Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Bioavailability Related Abstracts

26 Bio-Equivalence of Doxycycline in Two Preparations in Broiler Chickens

Authors: Abdelrazzag Elmajdoub

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate the bio-equivalence of doxycycline in Dolistin® and Colidox® at a dose rate of 10 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight in 48 clinically normal broiler chickens. After oral administration, plasma levels of doxycycline peaked after 2 hours post-dosing without significant differences between the two products and it could be detected therapeutically and exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most micro-organisms sensitive to doxycycline for 12 hours. The disposition kinetics of doxycycline in the two products following oral administration revealed that the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax.) were 22.65 and 21.80 µg/ml and attained at (Tmax.) 2.10 and 2.20 hours, respectively. Doxycycline in both of the products was eliminated with half- lives (t0.5α) equal to 7.70 and 6.93 hours, respectively. The mean systemic bio availabilities of doxycycline in both of the products after oral administration in chickens were 80.60 and 79.70%, respectively. It was concluded that doxycycline in the form of Dolistin® and Colidox® needs a dose equivalent to 20 mg doxycycline/kg of body weight a day is better to keep the plasma concentration higher than the MIC.

Keywords: Bioavailability, tetracyclines, broilers, doxycycline, chickens

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25 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

Abstract:

The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: Bioavailability, solubility, SNEDDS, Quality by Design (QbD)

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24 Surface Sediment Quality Assessment in a Coastal Lagoon (NW Adriatic Sea) Based on SEM-AVS Analysis

Authors: Roberta Guerra, Juan Pablo Pozo Hernandez

Abstract:

Surface sediments from the coastal lagoon of Pialassa Piomboni in the NW Adriatic Sea were collected and analysed and the potential ecological risks in the area were assessed based on the acid-volatile sulphide (AVS) model. The AVS levels are between 0.03 and 8.8 µmol g-1, with the average at 3.1 µmol g-1. The simultaneously extracted metals (∑SEM), which is the molar sum of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn, range from 0.3 to 6.6 µmol g-1, with the average at 1.7 µmol g-1. Most of the high ∑SEM concentrations are located in the southern area of the lagoon. [SEM]Zn had the comparatively high mean concentration (1.4 µmol g-1), and a maximum value of 6.1 µmol g-1, respectively. Concentrations of [SEM]Cd, [SEM]Cu, [SEM]Ni, and [SEM]Pb were consistently lower, with maximum values of 0.007 µmol g-1, 1.4 µmol g-1, 0.3 µmol g-1 and 0.2 µmol g-1, respectively. Compared to other metals, [SEM]Zn was the dominant component in all samples and accounted for approximately 31 - 93% of the ∑SEM, whereas the contribution of Cd – the most toxic metal studied – to ∑SEM was no more than 1%. According to the USEPA evaluation method, the sediment samples can be divided into the three following categories: category 1, adverse biological effects on aquatic life may be expected when ([SEM]–[AVS])/fOC > 3000; category 2, adverse effects on aquatic life are uncertain when ([SEM]–[AVS])/fOC = 130 to 3,000; and category 3, no indication of adverse effects when ([SEM]–[AVS])/fOC < 130. Most of the surface sediments of the Pialassa Piomboni lagoon (>90%) had no adverse biological effects according to the criterion proposed by the USEPA; while adverse effects were uncertain in few stations (~2%).

Keywords: Bioavailability, Heavy Metals, SEM, sediment quality, coastal lagoon, AVS

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23 Bioavailability Enhancement of Ficus religiosa Extract by Solid Lipid Nanoparticles

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Karunanithi Priyanka, Ramoji Kosuru, Raju Prasad Sharma

Abstract:

Herbal drugs are well known for their mixed pharmacological activities with the benefit of no harmful side effects. The use of herbal drugs is limited because of their higher dose requirement, frequent drug administration, poor bioavailability of phytochemicals and delayed onset of action. Ficus religiosa, a potent anti-oxidant plant useful in the treatment of diabetes and cancer was selected for the study. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of Ficus religiosa extract was developed for the enhancement in oral bioavailability of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, principal components present in the extract. Hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication method was used to develop extract loaded SLN. Developed extract loaded SLN were characterized for particle size, PDI, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release and kinetics, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractrometry and stability studies. Entrapment efficiency of optimized extract loaded SLN was found to be 68.46 % (56.13 % of stigmasterol and 12.33 % of β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside, respectively). RP HPLC method development was done for simultaneous estimation of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract in rat plasma. Bioavailability studies were carried out for extract in suspension form and optimized extract loaded SLN. AUC of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 6.7-folds by 9.2-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Also, Cmax of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside were increased by 4.3-folds by 3.9-folds, respectively in rats treated with extract loaded SLN compared to extract suspension. Mean residence times (MRT) for stigmasterol were found to be 12.3 ± 0.67 hours from extract and 7.4 ± 2.1 hours from SLN and for β-sitosterol-d-glucoside, 10.49 ± 2.9 hours from extract and 6.4 ± 0.3 hours from SLN. Hence, it was concluded that SLN enhanced the bioavailability and reduced the MRT of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol-d-glucoside in Ficus religiosa extract which in turn may lead to reduction in dose of Ficus religiosa extract, prolonged duration of action and also enhanced therapeutic efficacy.

Keywords: Bioavailability, solid lipid nanoparticles, Ficus religiosa, phytosterolins, stigmasterol and β-sitosteryl-d-glucoside

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22 Studies on Effect of Nano Size and Surface Coating on Enhancement of Bioavailability and Toxicity of Berberine Chloride; A p-gp Substrate

Authors: Sanjay Singh, Parameswara Rao Vuddanda

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is study the factual benefit of nano size and surface coating of p-gp efflux inhibitor on enhancement of bioavailability of Berberine chloride (BBR); a p-gp substrate. In addition, 28 days sub acute oral toxicity study was also conducted to assess the toxicity of the formulation on chronic administration. BBR loaded polymeric nanoparticles (BBR-NP) were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. BBR NP were surface coated (BBR-SCNP) with the 1 % w/v of vitamin E TPGS. For bioavailability study, total five groups (n=6) of rat were treated as follows first; pure BBR, second; physical mixture of BBR, carrier and vitamin E TPGS, third; BBR-NP, fourth; BBR-SCNP and fifth; BBR and verapamil (widely used p-gp inhibitor). Blood was withdrawn at pre-set timing points in 24 hrs study and drug was quantified by HPLC method. In oral chronic toxicity study, total four groups (n=6) were treated as follows first (control); water, second; pure BBR, third; BBR surface coated nanoparticles and fourth; placebo BBR surface coated nanoparticles. Biochemical levels of liver (AST, ALP and ALT) and kidney (serum urea and creatinine) along with their histopathological studies were also examined (0-28 days). The AUC of BBR-SCNP was significantly 3.5 folds higher compared to all other groups. The AUC of BBR-NP was 3.23 and 1.52 folds higher compared to BBR solution and BBR with verapamil group, respectively. The physical mixture treated group showed slightly higher AUC than BBR solution treated group but significantly low compared to other groups. It indicates that encapsulation of BBR in nanosize form can circumvent P-gp efflux effect. BBR-NP showed pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC) which are near to BBR-SCNP. However, the difference in values of T1/2 and clearance indicate that surface coating with vitamin E TPGS not only avoids the P-gp efflux at its absorption site (intestine) but also at organs which are responsible for metabolism and excretion (kidney and liver). It may be the reason for observed decrease in clearance of BBR-SCNP. No toxicity signs were observed either in biochemical or histopathological examination of liver and kidney during toxicity studies. The results indicate that administration of BBR in surface coated nanoformulation would be beneficial for enhancement of its bioavailability and longer retention in systemic circulation. Further, sub acute oral dose toxicity studies for 28 days such as evaluation of intestine, liver and kidney histopathology and biochemical estimations indicated that BBR-SCNP developed were safe for long use.

Keywords: Bioavailability, berberine nanoparticles, p-gp efflux inhibitor, nanoprecipitation method

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21 Bioavailability of Iron in Some Selected Fiji Foods using In vitro Technique

Authors: William Aalbersberg, Poonam Singh, Surendra Prasad

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Iron the most essential trace element in human nutrition. Its deficiency has serious health consequences and is a major public health threat worldwide. The common deficiencies in Fiji population reported are of Fe, Ca and Zn. It has also been reported that 40% of women in Fiji are iron deficient. Therefore, we have been studying the bioavailability of iron in commonly consumed Fiji foods. To study the bioavailability it is essential to assess the iron contents in raw foods. This paper reports the iron contents and its bioavailability in commonly consumed foods by multicultural population of Fiji. The food samples (rice, breads, wheat flour and breakfast cereals) were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for total iron and its bioavailability. The white rice had the lowest total iron 0.10±0.03 mg/100g but had high bioavailability of 160.60±0.03%. The brown rice had 0.20±0.03 mg/100g total iron content but 85.00±0.03% bioavailable. The white and brown breads showed the highest iron bioavailability as 428.30±0.11 and 269.35 ±0.02%, respectively. The Weetabix and the rolled oats had the iron contents 2.89±0.27 and 1.24.±0.03 mg/100g with bioavailability of 14.19±0.04 and 12.10±0.03%, respectively. The most commonly consumed normal wheat flour had 0.65±0.00 mg/100g iron while the whole meal and the Roti flours had 2.35±0.20 and 0.62±0.17 mg/100g iron showing bioavailability of 55.38±0.05, 16.67±0.08 and 12.90±0.00%, respectively. The low bioavailability of iron in certain foods may be due to the presence of phytates/oxalates, processing/storage conditions, cooking method or interaction with other minerals present in the food samples.

Keywords: Human Nutrition, Bioavailability, Iron, Fiji foods, in vitro technique

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20 Currently Use Pesticides: Fate, Availability, and Effects in Soils

Authors: Lucie Bielska, Lucia Škulcová, Martina Hvězdová, Jakub Hofman, Zdeněk Šimek

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The currently used pesticides represent a broad group of chemicals with various physicochemical and environmental properties which input has reached 2×106 tons/year and is expected to even increases. From that amount, only 1% directly interacts with the target organism while the rest represents a potential risk to the environment and human health. Despite being authorized and approved for field applications, the effects of pesticides in the environment can differ from the model scenarios due to the various pesticide-soil interactions and resulting modified fate and behavior. As such, a direct monitoring of pesticide residues and evaluation of their impact on soil biota, aquatic environment, food contamination, and human health should be performed to prevent environmental and economic damages. The present project focuses on fluvisols as they are intensively used in the agriculture but face to several environmental stressors. Fluvisols develop in the vicinity of rivers by the periodic settling of alluvial sediments and periodic interruptions to pedogenesis by flooding. As a result, fluvisols exhibit very high yields per area unit, are intensively used and loaded by pesticides. Regarding the floods, their regular contacts with surface water arise from serious concerns about the surface water contamination. In order to monitor pesticide residues and assess their environmental and biological impact within this project, 70 fluvisols were sampled over the Czech Republic and analyzed for the total and bioaccessible amounts of 40 various pesticides. For that purpose, methodologies for the pesticide extraction and analysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique were developed and optimized. To assess the biological risks, both the earthworm bioaccumulation tests and various types of passive sampling techniques (XAD resin, Chemcatcher, and silicon rubber) were optimized and applied. These data on chemical analysis and bioavailability were combined with the results of soil analysis, including the measurement of basic physicochemical soil properties as well detailed characterization of soil organic matter with the advanced method of diffuse reflectance infrared spectrometry. The results provide unique data on the residual levels of pesticides in the Czech Republic and on the factors responsible for increased pesticide residue levels that should be included in the modeling of pesticide fate and effects.

Keywords: Pesticides, Bioavailability, Soil Properties, currently used pesticides, fluvisoils, Quechers, liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry, DRIFT analysis

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19 Formulation and Evaluation of Silibilin Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Paresh Patel, Priya Patel, Mihir Raval

Abstract:

Silibinin, a flavanone as an antimicrotubular agent used in the treatment of cancer, was encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) of poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) polymer using the spray-drying technique. The effects of various experimental parameters were optimized by box-behnken experimental design. Production yield, encapsulation efficiency and dissolution study along with characterization by scanning electron microscopy, DSC, FTIR followed by bioavailability study. Particle size and zeta potential were evaluated by using zetatrac particle size analyzer. Experimental design it was evaluated that inlet temperature and polymer concentration influence on the drug release. Feed flow rate impact on particle size. Results showed that spray drying technique yield 149 nm indicate nanosize range. The small size of the nanoparticle resulted in an enhanced cellular entry and greater bioavailability. Entrapment efficiency was found between 89.35% and 98.36%. Zeta potential shows good stability index of nanoparticle formulation. The in vitro release studies indicated the silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles provide controlled drug release over a period of 32 h. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that after oral administration of silibinin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, relative bioavailability was enhanced about 8.85-fold, compared to silibinin suspension as control hence, this investigation demonstrated the potential of the experimental design in understanding the effect of the formulation variables on the quality of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles. These results describe an effective strategy of silibinin loaded PLGA nanoparticles and might provide a promising approach against the cancer.

Keywords: Cancer, Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, PLGA, silibinin

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18 Tomato Lycopene: Functional Properties and Health Benefits

Authors: M. J. Reis Lima, J. Oliveira, E. Teixeira-Lemos, C. S. Marques

Abstract:

The growing concerns for physical wellbeing and health have been reflected in the way we choose food in our table. Nowadays, we are all more informed consumers and choose healthier foods. On the other hand, stroke, cancer and atherosclerosis may be somehow minimized by the intake of some bioactive compounds present in food, the so-called nutraceuticals and functional foods. The aim of this work was to make a revision of the published studies about the effects of some bioactive compounds, namely lycopene in human health, in the prevention of diseases, thus playing the role of a functional food. Free radical in human body can induce cell damage and consequently can be responsible for the development of some cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants known, being the predominant carotenoid in tomato. The respective chemistry, bioavailability, and its functional role in the prevention of several diseases will be object of this work. On the other hand the inclusion of lycopene in some foods can also be made by biotechnology and represents a way to recover the wastes in the tomato industry with nutritional positive effects in health.

Keywords: Functional foods, Bioavailability, Carotenoids, lycopene, tomato, cancer and antioxidants

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17 Modulated Bioavailability of an Anti HIV Drug through a Self-Nanoemulsifying Drug Delivery System

Authors: Sunit Kumar Sahoo, Prakash Chandra Senapati

Abstract:

The main drawback to design drug delivery systems with BCS class II drugs is their low bioavailabilty due to their inherent low permeability characteristics. So the present investigation aspire to develop a self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of BCS class II anti HIV drug efavirenz (EFZ) using mixtures of non-ionic surfactant mixtures with the main objective to improve the oral bioavailability of said drug. Results obtained from solubility studies of EFZ in various expients utilized for construction of the pseudo ternary phase diagram containing surfactant mixtures. Surfactants in 1:1 combination are used with different co-surfactants in different ratio to delineate the area of monophasic region of the pseudo ternary phase diagram. The formulations which offered positive results in different thermodynamic stability studies were considered for percentage transmittance and turbidity analysis. The various characterization studies like the TEM analysis of post diluted SNEDDS formulations r confirmed the size in nanometric range (below 50 nm) and FT-IR studies confirmed the intactness of the drug the in the preconcentrate. The in vitro dissolution profile of SNEDDS showed that 80% drug was released within 30 min in case of optimized SNEDDS while it was approximately 18.3 % in the case of plain drug powder.. The Pharmacokinetic study using rat model revealed a 2.63 fold increase in AUC (0-∞) in comparison to plain EFZ suspension. The designed delivery system illustrated the confidence in creating a formulation of EFZ with enhanced bioavailability for better HIV treatment.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Efavirenz, self-nanoemulsifying, surfactant mixture

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16 Development and Evaluation of Naringenin Nanosuspension to Improve Antioxidant Potential

Authors: Venkata Srikanth Meka, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Md. Shadab, Mariyam N. Nashid

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Naringenin (NAR), is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, that possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory behaviour, cholesterol-lowering and anticarcinogenic activities. However, despite the therapeutic potential of naringenin shown in a number of animal models, its clinical development has been hindered due to its low aqueous solubility, slow dissolution rate and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability. Naringenin nanosuspension were produced using stabilizers Tween® 80 by high pressure homogenization techniques. The nanosuspensions were characterized with regard to size (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), size distribution, charge (zeta potential measurements), morphology, short term physical stability, dissolution profile and antioxidant potential. A nanocrystal PCS size of about 500 nm was obtained after 20 homogenization cycles at 1500 bar. The short-term stability was assessed by storage of the nanosuspensions at 4 ◦C, room temperature and 40 ◦C. Result showed that naringenin nanosuspension was physically unstable due to large fluctuations in the particle size and zeta potential after 30 days. Naringenin nanosuspension demonstrated higher drug dissolution (97.90%) compared to naringenin powder (62.76%) after 120 minutes of testing. Naringenin nanosuspension showed increased antioxidant activity compared to naringenin powder with a percentage DPPH radical scavenging activity of 49.17% and 31.45% respectively at the lowest DPPH concentration.

Keywords: Bioavailability, nanosuspension, naringenin, oral delivery

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15 Rooibos Extract Antioxidants: In vitro Models to Assess Their Bioavailability

Authors: Ntokozo Dambuza, Maryna Van De Venter, Trevor Koekemoer

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Oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases and consequently antioxidant therapy has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic strategy. Regardless of the quantities ingested, antioxidants need to reach the diseased tissues at concentrations sufficient to combat oxidative stress. Bioavailability is thus a defining criterion for the therapeutic efficacy of antioxidants. In addition, therapeutic antioxidants must possess biologically relevant characteristics which can target the specific molecular mechanisms responsible for disease related oxidative stress. While many chemical antioxidant assays are available to quantify antioxidant capacity, they relate poorly to the biological environment and provide no information as to the bioavailability. The present comparative study thus aims to characterise green and fermented rooibos extracts, well recognized for their exceptional antioxidant capacity, in terms of antioxidant bioavailability and efficacy in a disease relevant cellular setting. Chinese green tea antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Chemical antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH and ORAC) confirmed the potent antioxidant capacity of both green and fermented rooibos, with green rooibos possessing antioxidant activity superior to that of fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea. Bioavailability was assessed using the PAMPA assay and the results indicate that green and fermented rooibos have a permeation coefficient of 5.7 x 10-6 and 6.9 x 10-6 cm/s, respectively. Chinese green tea permeability coefficient was 8.5 x 10-6 cm/s. These values were comparable to those of rifampicin, which is known to have a high permeability across intestinal epithelium with a permeability coefficient of 5 x 10 -6 cm/s. To assess the antioxidant efficacy in a cellular context, U937 and red blood cells were pre-treated with rooibos and Chinese green tea extracts in the presence of a dye DCFH-DA and then exposed to oxidative stress. Green rooibos exhibited highest activity with an IC50 value of 29 μg/ml and 70 μg/ml, when U937 and red blood cells were exposed oxidative stress, respectively. Fermented rooibos and Chinese green tea had IC50 values of 61 μg/ml and 57 μg/ml for U937, respectively, and 221 μg/ml and 405 μg/ml for red blood cells, respectively. These results indicate that fermented and green rooibos extracts were able to permeate the U937 cells and red blood cell membrane and inhibited oxidation of DCFH-DA to a fluorescent DCF within the cells.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Antioxidants, Permeability, rooibos

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14 Controlled Drug Delivery System for Delivery of Poor Water Soluble Drugs

Authors: Raj Kumar, Prem Felix Siril

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The poor aqueous solubility of many pharmaceutical drugs and potential drug candidates is a big challenge in drug development. Nanoformulation of such candidates is one of the major solutions for the delivery of such drugs. We initially developed the evaporation assisted solvent-antisolvent interaction (EASAI) method. EASAI method is use full to prepared nanoparticles of poor water soluble drugs with spherical morphology and particles size below 100 nm. However, to further improve the effect formulation to reduce number of dose and side effect it is important to control the delivery of drugs. However, many drug delivery systems are available. Among the many nano-drug carrier systems, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) have many advantages over the others such as high biocompatibility, stability, non-toxicity and ability to achieve controlled release of drugs and drug targeting. SLNs can be administered through all existing routes due to high biocompatibility of lipids. SLNs are usually composed of lipid, surfactant and drug were encapsulated in lipid matrix. A number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have poor bioavailability resulting from their poor aqueous solubility. In the present work, SLNs loaded with NSAIDs such as Nabumetone (NBT), Ketoprofen (KP) and Ibuprofen (IBP) were successfully prepared using different lipids and surfactants. We studied and optimized experimental parameters using a number of lipids, surfactants and NSAIDs. The effect of different experimental parameters such as lipid to surfactant ratio, volume of water, temperature, drug concentration and sonication time on the particles size of SLNs during the preparation using hot-melt sonication was studied. It was found that particles size was directly proportional to drug concentration and inversely proportional to surfactant concentration, volume of water added and temperature of water. SLNs prepared at optimized condition were characterized thoroughly by using different techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We successfully prepared the SLN of below 220 nm using different lipids and surfactants combination. The drugs KP, NBT and IBP showed 74%, 69% and 53% percentage of entrapment efficiency with drug loading of 2%, 7% and 6% respectively in SLNs of Campul GMS 50K and Gelucire 50/13. In-vitro drug release profile of drug loaded SLNs is shown that nearly 100% of drug was release in 6 h.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, solubility, delivery, solid lipid nanoparticles, hot-melt sonication, poor water soluble drugs

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13 Nanoparticles Made of Amino Acid Derived Biodegradable Polymers as Promising Drug Delivery Containers

Authors: Sophio Kobauri, David Tugushi, Ramaz Katsarava, Tengiz Kantaria, Temur Kantaria, Nina Kulikova

Abstract:

Polymeric disperse systems such as nanoparticles (NPs) are of high interest for numerous applications in contemporary medicine and nanobiotechnology to a considerable potential for treatment of many human diseases. The important technological advantages of NPs usage as drug carriers (nanocontainers) are their high stability, high carrier capacity, feasibility of encapsulation of both hydrophilic or hydrophobic substances, as well as a high variety of possible administration routes, including oral application and inhalation. NPs can also be designed to allow controlled (sustained) drug release from the matrix. These properties of NPs enable improvement of drug bioavailability and might allow drug dosage decrease. The targeted and controlled administration of drugs using NPs might also help to overcome drug resistance, which is one of the major obstacles in the control of epidemics. Various degradable and non-degradable polymers of both natural and synthetic origin have been used for NPs construction. One of the most promising for the design of NPs are amino acid-based biodegradable polymers (AABBPs) which can clear from the body after the fulfillment of their function. The AABBPs are composed of naturally occurring and non-toxic building blocks such as α-amino acids, fatty diols and dicarboxylic acids. The particles designed from these polymers are expected to have an improved bioavailability along with a high biocompatibility. The present work deals with a systematic study of the preparation of NPs by cost-effective polymer deposition/solvent displacement method using AABBPs. The influence of the nature and concentration of surfactants, concentration of organic phase (polymer solution), and the ratio organic phase/inorganic(water) phase, as well as of some other factors on the size of the fabricated NPs have been studied. It was established that depending on the used conditions the NPs size could be tuned within 40-330 nm. At the next step of this research was carried out an evaluation of biocompability and bioavailability of the synthesized NPs using a stable human cell culture line – A549. It was established that the obtained NPs are not only biocompatible but they stimulate the cell growth.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, Amino Acids, Biodegradable Polymers

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12 Development of Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery Systems (SEDDS) of Anticancer Agents Used in AYUSH System of Medicine for Improved Oral Bioavailability Followed by Their Pharmacological Evaluation Using Biotechnological Techniques

Authors: Munish Garg, Meenu Mehta

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The use of oral anticancer drugs from AYUSH system of medicine is widely increased among the society due to their low cost, enhanced efficacy, increased patient preference, lack of inconveniences related to infusion and they provide an opportunity to develop chronic treatment regimens. However, oral delivery of these drugs usually laid down by the limited bioavailability of the drug, which is associated with a wide variation. As most of the cytotoxic agents have a narrow therapeutic window and are dosed at or near the maximum tolerated dose, a wide variability in the bioavailability can negatively affect treatment result. It is estimated that 40% of active substances are poorly soluble in water. The improvement of bio-availability of drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. There are several techniques reported in literature. Among all these Self Emulsifying Drug Delivery System (SEDDS) has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling a reduction in dose. Thus, SEDDS anticancer drugs will have the increased bioavailability and efficacy. These dosage form will provide societal benefit in a cost-effective manner as compared to other oral dosage forms. Present study reflects on the formulation strategies as SEDDS for oral anticancer agents of AYUSH system for enhanced bioavailability with proven efficacy by cancer cell lines.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Anticancer Agents, AYUSH system, SEDDS

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11 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, W. Y. Tan, Eric Y. M. Yeo

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This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: Bioavailability, synergistic, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations

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10 Assessment of Bisphenol A and 17 α-Ethinyl Estradiol Bioavailability in Soils Treated with Biosolids

Authors: I. Ahumada, L. Ascar, C. Pedraza, J. Montecino

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It has been found that the addition of biosolids to soil is beneficial to soil health, enriching soil with essential nutrient elements. Although this sludge has properties that allow for the improvement of the physical features and productivity of agricultural and forest soils and the recovery of degraded soils, they also contain trace elements, organic trace and pathogens that can cause damage to the environment. The application of these biosolids to land without the total reclamation and the treated wastewater can transfer these compounds into terrestrial and aquatic environments, giving rise to potential accumulation in plants. The general aim of this study was to evaluate the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA), and 17 α-ethynyl estradiol (EE2) in a soil-biosolid system using wheat (Triticum aestivum) plant assays and a predictive extraction method using a solution of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) to determine if it is a reliable surrogate for this bioassay. Two soils were obtained from the central region of Chile (Lo Prado and Chicauma). Biosolids were obtained from a regional wastewater treatment plant. The soils were amended with biosolids at 90 Mg ha-1. Soils treated with biosolids, spiked with 10 mgkg-1 of the EE2 and 15 mgkg-1 and 30 mgkg-1of BPA were also included. The BPA, and EE2 concentration were determined in biosolids, soils and plant samples through ultrasound assisted extraction, solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry determination (GC/MS). The bioavailable fraction found of each one of soils cultivated with wheat plants was compared with results obtained through a cyclodextrin biosimulator method. The total concentration found in biosolid from a treatment plant was 0.150 ± 0.064 mgkg-1 and 12.8±2.9 mgkg-1 of EE2 and BPA respectively. BPA and EE2 bioavailability is affected by the organic matter content and the physical and chemical properties of the soil. The bioavailability response of both compounds in the two soils varied with the EE2 and BPA concentration. It was observed in the case of EE2, the bioavailability in wheat plant crops contained higher concentrations in the roots than in the shoots. The concentration of EE2 increased with increasing biosolids rate. On the other hand, for BPA, a higher concentration was found in the shoot than the roots of the plants. The predictive capability the HPCD extraction was assessed using a simple linear correlation test, for both compounds in wheat plants. The correlation coefficients for the EE2 obtained from the HPCD extraction with those obtained from the wheat plants were r= 0.99 and p-value ≤ 0.05. On the other hand, in the case of BPA a correlation was not found. Therefore, the methodology was validated with respect to wheat plants bioassays, only in the EE2 case. Acknowledgments: The authors thank FONDECYT 1150502.

Keywords: Biosolids, Bioavailability, Endocrine disruptors, emerging compounds

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9 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El

Abstract:

Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Bioavailability, Formulation, lutein

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8 Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contamination and Assessment of the Suitability of Water for Irrigation: A Case Study of the Sand River, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Ngonidzashe Moyo, Mmaditshaba Rapatsa

Abstract:

The primary objective of this study was to determine heavy metal contamination in the water, sediment, grass and fish in Sand River, South Africa. This river passes through an urban area and sewage effluent is discharged into it. Water from the Sand river is subsequently used for irrigation downstream of the sewage treatment works. The suitability of this water and the surrounding boreholes for irrigation was determined. This study was undertaken between January, 2014 and January, 2015. Monthly samples were taken from four sites. Sites 1 was upstream of the Polokwane Wastewater Treatment Plant, sites 2, 3 and 4 were downstream. Ten boreholes in the vicinity of the Sand River were randomly selected and the water was tested for heavy metal contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in Sand River water followed the order Mn>Fe>Pb>Cu≥Zn≥Cd. Manganese concentration averaged 0.34 mg/L. Heavy metal concentration in the sediment, grass and fish followed the order Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd. The bioaccumulation factor from grass to fish was highest in manganese (19.25), followed by zinc (16.39) and iron (14.14). Soil permeability index (PI) and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) were used to determine the suitability of Sand River and borehole water for irrigation. The PI index for Sand River water was 75.1% and this indicates that Sand River water is suitable for irrigation of crops. The PI index for the borehole water ranged from 65.8-72.8% and again this indicates suitability of borehole water for crop irrigation. The sodium adsorption ratio also indicated that both Sand River and borehole water were suitable for irrigation. A risk assessment study is recommended to determine the suitability of the fish for human consumption.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Heavy Metals, bioaccumulation, sodium adsorption ratio

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7 Polysaccharide-Based Oral Delivery Systems for Site Specific Delivery in Gastro-Intestinal Tract

Authors: Kaarunya Sampathkumar, Say Chye Joachim Loo

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Oral delivery is regarded as the facile method for the administration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) and drug carriers. In an initiative towards sustainable nanotechnology, an oral nano-delivery system has been developed that is made entirely of food-based materials and can also act as a site-specific delivery device depending on the stimulus encountered in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The delivery system has been fabricated from food grade polysaccharide materials like chitosan and starch through electrospraying technique without the use of any organic solvents. A nutraceutical extracted from an Indian medicinal plant, has been loaded into the nano carrier to test its efficacy in encapsulation and stimuli based release of the active ingredient. The release kinetics of the nutraceutical from the carrier was evaluated in simulated gastric, intestinal and colonic fluid and was found to be triggered both by the enzymes and the pH in each part of the intestinal tract depending on the polysaccharide being used. The toxicity of the nanoparticles on the intestinal epithelial cells was tested and found to be relatively safe for up to 24 hours at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL with cellular uptake also being observed. The developed nano carrier thus serves as a promising delivery vehicle for targeted delivery to different parts of the GIT with the inherent conditions of the GIT itself acting as the stimulus. In addition, being fabricated from food grade materials, the carrier could be potentially used for the targeted delivery of nutrients through functional foods.

Keywords: Bioavailability, encapsulation, Delivery Systems, chitosan

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6 Effect of Fermentation on the Bioavailability of Some Fruit Extracts

Authors: Kubra Ozkan, Osman Sagdic

Abstract:

To better understand the benefits of these fresh and fermented fruits on human health, the consequences of human metabolism and the bioavailability must be known. In this study, brine with 10% salt content, sugar, and vinegar (5% acetic acid) was added to fruits (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch) in different formulations. Samples were stored at 20±2˚C for their fermentation for 21 days. The effects of in vitro digestion were determined on the bioactive compounds in fresh and fermented fruits ((Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch). Total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of post gastric (PG), IN (with small intestinal absorbers) and OUT (without small intestine absorbers) samples obtained as gastric and intestinal digestion in vitro were measured. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity were determined by spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant capacity was tested by the CUPRAC methods, the total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total flavonoid content (TFC) determined by Aluminium trichloride (AlCl3) method. While the antioxidant capacity of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 2.21±0.05 mg TEAC/g, 4.39±0.02mg TEAC/g; these values for fermented fruits were found 2.37±0.08mg TEAC/g, 5.38±0.07mg TEAC/g respectively. While the total phenolic contents of fresh fruits namely, Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.51±0.01mg GAE/g, 5.56±0.01mg GAE/g; these values for fermented fruits were found as 0.52±0.01mg GAE/g, 6.81±0.03mg GAE/g, respectively. While the total flavonoid amounts of fresh Prunus domestica L. and Prunus amygdalus Batsch samples were 0.19±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.68±0.02mg CAE/g, these values for fermented fruits were found 0.20±0.01mg CAE/g, 2.93±0.02mg CAE/g, respectively. This study showed that phenolic, flavonoid compounds and antioxidant capacities of the samples were increased during the fermantation process. As a result of digestion, the amounts of bioactive components decreased in the stomach and intestinal environment. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 40.89% and 43.28%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the phenolic compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 4.27% and 3.82%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 5.32% and 19.98%, respectively. The bioavailability values of the flavonoid compounds in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 2.22% and 1.53%, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus domestica L. fruits are 33.06% and 33.51, respectively. The bioavailability values of antioxidant capacity in fresh and fermented Prunus amygdalus Batsch fruits 14.50% and 15.31%, respectively. Fermentation process; Prunus amygdalus Batsch decreased bioavailability while Prunus domestica increased bioavailability. When two fruits are compared; Prunus domestica bioavailability is more than Prunus amygdalus Batsch.

Keywords: Nutrition, Bioavailability, Bioactivity, Fruit, fermented

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5 Use of Electrokinetic Technology to Enhance Chemical and Biological Remediation of Contaminated Sands and Soils

Authors: Brian Wartell, Michel Boufadel

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Contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds present in crude and petroleum oils and are known to be toxic and often carcinogenic. Therefore, a major effort is placed on tracking their subsurface soil concentrations following an oil spill. The PAHs can persist for years in the subsurface especially if there is a lack of oxygen. Both aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PAHs encounter the difficulties of both nutrient transport and bioavailability (proximal access) to the organisms of the contaminants. A technology, known as electrokinetics (EK or EK-BIO for ‘electrokinetic bioremediation’) has been found to transport efficiently nutrients or other chemicals in the subsurface. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate migration patterns in both sands and clay for both ionic and nonionic compounds and aerobic biodegradation studies were conducted with soil spiked with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons yielding interesting results. In one set of experiment, Self-designed electrokinetic setups were constructed to examine the differences in electromigration and electroosmotic rates. Anionic and non-ionic dyes were used to visualize these phenomena, respectively. In another experiment, a silt-clay soil was spiked with three low-molecular-weight compounds (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene) and placed within self-designed electrokinetic setups and monitored for aerobic degradation. Plans for additional studies are in progress including the transport of peroxide through anaerobic sands.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Bioavailability, Electrokinetics, subsurface transport

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4 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa, M. Barbafieri, M. Grifoni

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Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination

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3 Cocrystals of Etodolac: A Crystal Engineering Approach with an Endeavor to Enhance Its Biopharmaceutical Assets

Authors: Renu Chadha, Sakshi Tomar

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Cocrystallization comprises a selective route to the intensive design of pharmaceutical products with desired physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The present study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of etodolac (ET) co-crystals with coformers nicotinamide (ETNI) and Glutaric acid (ETGA), using cocrystallization approach. Preliminarily examination of the prepared co-crystal was done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermographs of ETNI and ETGA cocrystals showed single sharp melting endotherms at 144°C and 135°C, respectively, which were different from the melting of drugs and coformers. FT-IR study points towards carbonyl-acid interaction sandwiched between the involving molecules. The emergence of new peaks in the PXRD pattern confirms the formation of new crystalline solid forms. Both the cocrystals exhibited better apparent solubility, and 3.8-5.0 folds increase in IDR were established, as compared to pure etodolac. Evaluations of these solid forms were done using anti-osteoarthritic activities. All the results indicate that etodolac cocrystals possess better anti-osteoarthritic efficacy than free drug. Thus loom of cocrystallization has been found to be a viable approach to resolve the solubility and bioavailability issues that circumvent the use of potential antiosteoarthritic molecules.

Keywords: Osteoarthritis, Bioavailability, nicotinamide, etodolac

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2 Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil with Vivianite Nanoparticles

Authors: Shinen B., Bavor J., Dorjkhand B., Suvd B., Maitsetseg B.

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A number of remediation techniques are available for the treatment of soils and sediments contaminated by heavy metals. However, some of these techniques are expensive and environmentally disruptive. Nanomaterials are used in the environment as environmental catalysts to convert toxic substances from water, soil, and sediment into environmentally benign compounds. This study was carried out to scrutinize the feasibility of vivianite nanoparticles for remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Column experiments were performed in the laboratory to examine nanoparticle sequestration of metal in soil amended with vivianite nanoparticle suspension. The effect of environmental parameters such as temperature, pH and redox potential on metal leachability and bioavailability of soil amended with nanoparticle suspension was examined and compared with non-amended soils. The vivianite was effective in reducing the leachability of metals in soils. It is suggested that vivianite nanoparticles could be applied for the remediation of contaminated sites polluted by heavy metals due to mining activities, particularly in Mongolia, where mining industries have been developing rapidly in the last decade.

Keywords: Remediation, Nanoparticles, Bioavailability, Heavy Metals

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1 In situ Stabilization of Arsenic in Soils with Birnessite and Goethite

Authors: Ravi Naidu, Saeed Bagherifam, Trevor Brown, Chris Fellows

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Over the last century, rapid urbanization, industrial emissions, and mining activities have resulted in widespread contamination of the environment by heavy metal(loid)s. Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid belonging to group 15 of the periodic table, which occurs naturally at low concentrations in soils and the earth’s crust, although concentrations can be significantly elevated in natural systems as a result of dispersion from anthropogenic sources, e.g., mining activities. Bioavailability is the fraction of a contaminant in soils that is available for uptake by plants, food chains, and humans and therefore presents the greatest risk to terrestrial ecosystems. Numerous attempts have been made to establish in situ and ex-situ technologies of remedial action for remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils. In situ stabilization techniques are based on deactivation or chemical immobilization of metalloid(s) in soil by means of soil amendments, which consequently reduce the bioavailability (for biota) and bioaccessibility (for humans) of metalloids due to the formation of low-solubility products or precipitates. This study investigated the effectiveness of two different types of synthetic manganese and iron oxides (birnessite and goethite) for stabilization of As in a soil spiked with 1000 mg kg⁻¹ of As and treated with 10% dosages of soil amendments. Birnessite was made using HCl and KMnO₄, and goethite was synthesized by the dropwise addition of KOH into Fe(NO₃) solution. The resulting contaminated soils were subjected to a series of chemical extraction studies including sequential extraction (BCR method), single-step extraction with distilled (DI) water, 2M HNO₃ and simplified bioaccessibility extraction tests (SBET) for estimation of bioaccessible fractions of As in two different soil fractions ( < 250 µm and < 2 mm). Concentrations of As in samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that soil with birnessite reduced bioaccessibility of As by up to 92% in both soil fractions. Furthermore, the results of single-step extractions revealed that the application of both birnessite and Goethite reduced DI water and HNO₃ extractable amounts of arsenic by 75, 75, 91, and 57%, respectively. Moreover, the results of the sequential extraction studies showed that both birnessite and goethite dramatically reduced the exchangeable fraction of As in soils. However, the amounts of recalcitrant fractions were higher in birnessite, and Goethite amended soils. The results revealed that the application of both birnessite and goethite significantly reduced bioavailability and the exchangeable fraction of As in contaminated soils, and therefore birnessite and Goethite amendments might be considered as promising adsorbents for stabilization and remediation of As contaminated soils.

Keywords: Arsenic, Bioavailability, metalloid(s) contaminated soils, in situ stabilisation

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