Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

bioassay Related Abstracts

7 Effects of Rice Plant Extracts and Phenolic Allelochemicals on Seedling Growth of Radish

Authors: Mohammad Shamim Hasan Mandal, Phu Minh, Do Tan Khang, Phung Thi Tuyen, Tran Dang Xuan


Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the major crops of Vietnam which has more than thousands of varieties. Many of the local varieties have greater potentiality but they are in danger of extinct. Rice plant contains many secondary metabolites that are allelopathic to other plants. Seven rice varieties were cultivated in the field condition at Hiroshima University, Japan; stems and leaves from each variety were collected later, they were extracted with methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. Total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents were high in ethyl acetate extracts. DPPH antioxidant assay results showed that the ethyl acetate extracts had the higher IC50 value. Therefore, the ethyl acetate extracts were selected for laboratory experimentation through petri dish assay. Results showed that the two-local variety Re nuoc and Nan chon completely inhibited the germination of radish seedlings. Further laboratory bioassay and field experimentation will be conducted to validate the laboratory bioassay findings.

Keywords: Allelopathy, Oryza sativa, bioassay, Raphanus sativus

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6 Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma longibrachiatum as an Entomopathogenic Fungi against Bemisia tabaci

Authors: Ahmad Ali Shahid, Muhammad Saleem Haider, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar


The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a complex insect species, including many cryptic species or biotypes. Whitefly causes damage to many ornamental and horticultural crops through directly feeding on phloem sap, resulting in sooty mould and critically decreases the rate of photosynthesis of many host plants. Biological control has emerged as one of the most important methods for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens. Among the natural enemies of insects different entomopathogenic fungi are mostly used as biological control of the pest. The purpose of this research was to find indigenous insect-associated fungi and their virulence against Bemisia tabaci. A detailed survey of cotton fields in sample collection was conducted during July and August 2013 from the central mixed zone of Punjab, Pakistan. For the isolation of T. longibrachiatum, sabouraud dextrose peptone yeast extract agar (SDAY) media was used and morphological characterization of isolated T. longibrachiatum was studied using different dichotomous keys. Molecular Identification of the pathogen was confirmed by amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region. Blastn analysis showed 100% homology with already reported sequences on the database. For these bioassays, two conidial concentrations 4 × 108/mL & 4 × 104/mL of T. longibrachiatum was sprayed in clip cages for nymph and adult B. tabaci respectively under controlled environmental conditions. The pathogenicity of T. longibrachiatum was tested on nymph and adult whitefly to check mortality. Mortality of B. tabaci at nymphal and adult stages were observed after 24-hour intervals. Percentage mortality of nymphs treated with 4 x 104/mL conidia of T. longibrachiatum was 20, 24, 36 and 40% after 48, 72, 96, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours respectively. However, no considerable difference was recorded in percentage mortality of whitefly after 120 and 144 hours. There were great variations after 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in the rate of mortality. The efficacy of T. longibrachiatum as entomopathogenic fungi was evaluated in adult and nymphal stages of whitefly. Trichoderma longibrachiatum showed maximum activity on nymphal stages of whitefly as compared to adult stages. The percentage of conidial germination was also recorded on the outer surface of adult and nymphal stages of B. tabaci. The present findings indicated that T. longibrachiatum is an entomopathogenic fungus against B. tabaci and many species of Trichoderma were already reported as an antagonistc organism against a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens.

Keywords: Efficacy, virulence, bioassay, Trichoderma

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5 Efficacy of Different Soil-Applied Fungicides to Manage Phytophthora Root Rot of Chili (Solanum annum) in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Nasir Subhani, Ahmad Ali Shahid, Sehrish Iftikhar, Kiran Nawaz, Waheed Anwar


Chili (Solanum annum L.) attacks by many fungal pathogens, including members of Oomycetes which are responsible for root rot in different chili growing areas of the world. Oomycetes pathogens cause economic losses in different regions of the Pakistan. Most of the plant tissues, including roots, crowns, fruit, and leaves, are vulnerable to Phytophthora capsici. It is very difficult to manage the Phytophthora root rot of chili as many commercial varieties are tremendously vulnerable to P. capsici. The causal agent of the disease was isolated on corn meal agar (CMA) and identified on a morphological basis by using available taxonomic keys. The pathogen was also confirmed on the molecular basis through internal transcribed spacer region and with other molecular markers.The Blastn results showed 100% homology with already reported sequences of P. capsici in NCBI database. Most of the farmers have conventionally relied on foliar fungicide applications to control Phytophthora root rot in spite of their incomplete effectiveness. In this study, in vitro plate assay, seed soaking and foliar applications of 6 fungicides were evaluated against root rot of chili. In vitro assay revealed that significant inhibition of linear growth was obtained with Triflumizole at 7.0%, followed by Thiophanate methyl (8.9%), Etridiazole (6.0%), Propamocarb (5.9%) and 7.5% with Mefenoxam and Iprodione for P. capsici. The promising treatments of in vitro plate bioassay were evaluated in pot experiments under controlled conditions in the greenhouse. All fungicides were applied after at 6-day intervals. Results of pot experiment showed that all treatments considerably inhibited the percentage of P. capsici root rot incidence. In addition, application of seed soaking with all six fungicides combined with the foliar spray of the same components showed the significant reduction in root rot incidence. The combine treatments of all fungicides as in vitro bioassay, seed soaking followed by foliar spray is considered non-harmful control methods which have advantages and limitation. Hence, these applications proved effective and harmless for the management of soil-borne plant pathogens.

Keywords: bioassay, blastn, corn meal agar(CMA), oomycetes

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4 Optimized Preprocessing for Accurate and Efficient Bioassay Prediction with Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Chang-Shyh Peng, Daisy Sang, Jeff Clarine


Bioassay is the measurement of the potency of a chemical substance by its effect on a living animal or plant tissue. Bioassay data and chemical structures from pharmacokinetic and drug metabolism screening are mined from and housed in multiple databases. Bioassay prediction is calculated accordingly to determine further advancement. This paper proposes a four-step preprocessing of datasets for improving the bioassay predictions. The first step is instance selection in which dataset is categorized into training, testing, and validation sets. The second step is discretization that partitions the data in consideration of accuracy vs. precision. The third step is normalization where data are normalized between 0 and 1 for subsequent machine learning processing. The fourth step is feature selection where key chemical properties and attributes are generated. The streamlined results are then analyzed for the prediction of effectiveness by various machine learning algorithms including Pipeline Pilot, R, Weka, and Excel. Experiments and evaluations reveal the effectiveness of various combination of preprocessing steps and machine learning algorithms in more consistent and accurate prediction.

Keywords: Machine Learning, preprocessing, bioassay, virtual screen

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3 Phytochemical Screening, Anticancer, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of the Leaf Extracts of Mabolo (Diospyros philippinensis A. DC.)

Authors: Jarel Elgin Tolentino, Arby Denise Nera, Mary Rose Roco, Angela Vianca Aspa, Nikko Beltran, Else Dapat


Drug resistance by cells has been the problem in the medical field for decades now. The use of medicinal plants as a source of creating powerful drugs has been nowadays recognized worldwide to treat such resistant diseases. In the present study, the potential for Diospyros philippinensis A. DC. to inhibit growth of both bacteria and cancer cell line was conducted. The leaf crude extracts were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and examined for potential bioactivities by employing several assays like Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) assay and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium assay for the antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the extract, respectively. Phytochemical test results of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, phenols, quinones, cardiac glycosides, phlobatannins, carbohydrate, cardenolides and proteins. The leaf extracts were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, high antioxidant activity (99.22% ± 0.005) but did not show any sign of cytotoxicity towards HCT116 (ATCC CCL-247). The study therefore concludes that D. philippinensis A. DC. leaf extract can be a source of antibacterial and chemopreventive agents. This claim may be used as basis for future investigation.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants, phytochemical screening, bioassay, plant crude extracts

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2 The Residual Efficacy of Etofenprox WP on Different Surfaces for Malaria Control in the Brazilian Legal Amazon

Authors: Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Allan K. R. Galardo, Luana A. Lima, Talita F. Sobral, Josiane N. Muller, Jessica F. S. Barroso, Nercy V. R. Furtado, Ednaldo C. Rêgo., Jose B. P. Lima


Malaria is a public health problem in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. Among the integrated approaches for anopheline control, the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) remains one of the main tools in the basic strategy applied in the Amazonian States, where the National Malaria Control Program currently uses one of the insecticides from the pyrethroid class, the Etofenprox WP. Understanding the residual efficacy of insecticides on different surfaces is essential to determine the spray cycles, in order to maintain a rational use and to avoid product waste. The aim of this study was to evaluate the residual efficacy of Etofenprox - VECTRON ® 20 WP on surfaces of Unplastered Cement (UC) and Unpainted Wood (UW) on panels, in field, and in semi-field evaluation of Brazil’s Amapa State. The evaluation criteria used was the cone bioassay test, following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended method, using plastic cones and female mosquitos of Anopheles sp. The tests were carried out in laboratory panels, semi-field evaluation in a “test house” built in the Macapa municipality, and in the field in 20 houses, being ten houses per surface type (UC and UW), in an endemic malaria area in Mazagão’s municipality. The residual efficacy was measured from March to September 2017, starting one day after the spraying, repeated monthly for a period of six months. The UW surface presented higher residual efficacy than the UC. In fact, the UW presented a residual efficacy of the insecticide throughout the period of this study with a mortality rate above 80% in the panels (= 95%), in the "test house" (= 86%) and in field houses ( = 87%). On the UC surface it was observed a mortality decreased in all the tests performed, with a mortality rate of 45, 47 and 29% on panels, semi-field and in field, respectively; however, the residual efficacy ≥ 80% only occurred in the first evaluation after the 24-hour spraying bioassay in the "test house". Thus, only the UW surface meets the specifications of the World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) regarding the duration of effective action (three to six months). To sum up, the insecticide residual efficacy presented variability on the different surfaces where it was sprayed. Although the IRS with Etofenprox WP was efficient on UW surfaces, and it can be used in spraying cycles at 4-month intervals, it is important to consider the diversity of houses in the Brazilian Legal Amazon, in order to implement alternatives for vector control, including the evaluation of new products or different formulations types for insecticides.

Keywords: vector control, insecticide, Anopheles, bioassay

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1 Effectiveness Assessment of a Brazilian Larvicide on Aedes Control

Authors: Ana Paula S. A. Correa, Allan K. R. Galardo, Josiane N. Muller, Jose B. P. Lima, Tatiane A. Barbosa, Evan P. Ferro, Wellington M. Dos Santos, Edinaldo C. Rego


The susceptibility status of an insect population to any larvicide depends on several factors such includes genetic constitution, environmental conditions and others. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of three important viral diseases, Zika, Dengue, and Chikungunya. The frequent outbreaks of those diseases in different parts of Brazil demonstrate the importance of testing the susceptibility of vectors in different environments. Since the control of this mosquito leads to the control of disease, alternatives for vector control that value the different Brazilian environmental conditions are needed for effective actions. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis israelenses (DengueTech: Brazilian innovative technology) in the Brazilian Legal Amazon considering the climate conditions. Semi-field tests were conducted in the Institute of Scientific and Technological Research of the State of Amapa in two different environments, one in a shaded area and the other exposed to sunlight. The mosquito larvae were exposed to larvicide concentration and a control; each group was tested in three containers of 40 liters each. To assess persistence 50 third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti laboratory lineages (Rockefeller) and 50 larvae of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipality of Macapa, Brazil’s Amapa state, were added weekly and after 24 hours the mortality was assessed. In total 16 tests were performed, where 12 were done with replacement of water (1/5 of the volume, three times per week). The effectiveness of the product was determined through mortality of ≥ 80%, as recommend by the World Health Organization. The results demonstrated that high-water temperatures (26-35 °C) on the containers influenced the residual time of the product, where the maximum effect achieved was 21 days in the shaded area; and no effectiveness of 60 days was found in any of the tests, as expected according to the larvicide company. The test with and without water replacement did not present significant differences in the mortality rate. Considering the different environments and climate, these results stimulate the need to test larvicide and its effectiveness in specific environmental settings in order to identify the parameters required for better results. Thus, we see the importance of semi-field researches considering the local climate conditions for a successful control of Aedes aegypti.

Keywords: vector control, aedes aegypti, bioassay, larvicida

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