Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Bioactive Related Abstracts

10 Bioactive, Nutritional and Heavy Metal Constituents of Some Edible Mushrooms Found in Abia State of Nigeria

Authors: I. C. Okwulehie, J. A. Ogoke

Abstract:

The phytocemical, mineral, proximate and heavy metals compositions of six edible and non-edible species of mushrooms were investigated. Fully fleshy mushrooms were used for the analysis. On the averagely, the bioactive constituents of the mushrooms were as follows Alkaloids 0.12 ± 0.02 – 1.01 ± 03 %, Tannins 0.44 ± 0.09 – 1.38 ± 0.6,). Phenols,(0.13 ± 0.01 – 0.26± 0.00, Saponins 0.14 ± 0.03 – 0.32 ± 0.04%, Flavonoids 0.08 ± 0.02 – 0.34 ± 0.02%. The result of proximate composition indicated that the mushroom contained (5.17 ± 0.06 – 12.28 ± 0.16% protein, 0.16 ± 0.02 – 0.67 ± 0.02% fats, 1.06 ± 0.03 – 8.49 ± 0.03 % fibre, (62.06 ± 0.52 – 80.01 ± 4.71% and carbohydrate. The mineral composition of the mushrooms were as follows, calcium 81.49 ± 2.32 - .914 ± 2.32mg/100g, Magnesium(8 ± 1.39-24 ± 2.40mg/100g, Potassium 64.54 ± 0.43 – 164.54 ± 1.23 mg/100g, sodium 9.47 ± 0.12 – 30.97 ± 0.16 mg/100g, and Phosphorus 22.19 ± 0.57-53.2± 0.44 mg/100g. Heavy metals concentration indicated Cadmium 0.7-0.94ppm. Zinc 27.82 – 70.98 ppm. Lead 0.66 – 2.86ppm and Copper 1.8-22.32ppm. The result obtained indicates that the mushrooms are of good sources of phytochemicals, proximate and minerals needed for maintenance of good health and can also be exploited in manufacture of drugs. Heavy metals obtained indicate that when consume intentionally in high content may cause liver, kidney damage and even death.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Bioactive, mushroom, nutritive

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9 The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Sensory Quality of the New Developed Bioactive Bread

Authors: Kobus-Cisowska Joanna, Gramza-Michalowska Anna, Kmiecik Dominik, Marcinkowska Agata, Korczak Józef

Abstract:

The relationship between the choice of a proper diet, a diet, lifestyle man and his health has been known for a long time. Because of the increase in public awareness of food ingredients and their influence on health status, measures have been taken towards the production of food, which is designed to not only eat, but also to protect against the incidence of lifestyle diseases. For this purpose, the bio active products with healthy properties was developed. Mulberry have a very high nutritional value, rich in chemical composition and many properties used in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. In addition to basic chemical components, nutrients, mulberry fruit contain compounds having a physiological effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of white mulberry fruit on the sensory quality of bread to be healthy diet of people suffering from anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sensory analysis was carried out by the profile method. Intra-operative differentiators color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall assessment. Sensory analysis showed that all test trials were characterized by a uniform and concise consistency, similar in color from dark to light beige. The taste and smell of herbal characteristic was designed in an attempt to prevention of diabetes, while the other samples were characterized by a typical taste and smell of bread grain. There were no foreign taste and odor in the test bread. It was found that the addition of white mulberry fruit does not affect the sensory quality of the newly developed bioactive bread.

Keywords: Bread, Sensory Analysis, Bioactive, mulberry

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8 Novel Wound Healing Biodegradable Patch of Bioactive

Authors: Abhay Asthana, Shally Toshkhani, Gyati Shilakari

Abstract:

The present research was aimed to develop a biodegradable dermal patch formulation for wound healing in a novel, sustained and systematic manner. The goal is to reduce the frequency of dressings with improved drug delivery and thereby enhance therapeutic performance. In present study optimized formulation was designed using component polymers and excipients (e.g. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose, Ethylcellulose, and Gelatin) to impart significant folding endurance, elasticity and strength. Gelatin was used to get a mixture using ethylene glycol. Chitosan dissolved in suitable medium was mixed with stirring to gelatin mixture. With continued stirring to the mixture Curcumin was added in optimized ratio to get homogeneous dispersion. Polymers were dispersed with stirring in final formulation. The mixture was sonicated casted to get the film form. All steps were carried out under under strict aseptic conditions. The final formulation was a thin uniformly smooth textured film with dark brown-yellow color. The film was found to have folding endurance was around 20 to 21 times without a crack in an optimized formulation at RT (23C). The drug content was in range 96 to 102% and it passed the content uniform test. The final moisture content of the optimized formulation film was NMT 9.0%. The films passed stability study conducted at refrigerated conditions (4±0.2C) and at room temperature (23 ± 2C) for 30 days. Further, the drug content and texture remained undisturbed with stability study conducted at RT 23±2C for 45 and 90 days. Percentage cumulative drug release was found to be 80% in 12 h and matched the biodegradation rate as drug release with correlation factor R2 > 0.9. The film based formulation developed shows promising results in terms of stability and release profiles.

Keywords: Polymer, Bioactive, biodegradable, patch

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7 Starch Incorporated Hydroxyapatite/Chitin Nanocomposite as a Novel Bone Construct

Authors: Reshma Jolly, Mohammad Shakir, Mohammad Shoeb Khan, Noor E. Iram

Abstract:

A nanocomposite system integrating hydroxyapatite, chitin and starch (n-HA/CT/ST) has been synthesized via co-precipitation approach at room temperature, addressing the issues of biocompatibility, mechanical strength and cytotoxicity required for Bone tissue engineering. The interactions, crystallite size and surface morphology against n-HA/CT (nano-hydroxyapatite/chitin) nanocomposite have been obtained by correlating and comparing the results of FTIR, SEM, TEM and XRD. The comparative study of the bioactivity of n-HA/CT and n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposites revealed that the incorporation of starch as templating agent improved these properties in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite. The rise in thermal stability in n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite as compared to n-HA/CT has been observed by comparing the TGA results. The comparison of SEM images of both the scaffolds indicated that the addition of ST influenced the surface morphology of n-HA/CT scaffold which appeared to be rougher and porous. The MTT assay on murine fibroblast L929 cells and in-vitro bioactivity of n-HA/CT/ST matrix referred superior non-toxic property of n-HA/CT/ST nanocomposite and higher possibility of osteo-integration in-vivo, respectively.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Bioactive, chitin, hyroxyapatite

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6 Effect of B2O3 Addition on Sol-gel Synthesized 45S5 Bioglass

Authors: S. K. Pal, P. Dey

Abstract:

Ceramics or glass ceramics with the property of bone bonding at the nearby tissues and producing possible bone in growth are known to be bioactive. The most extensively used glass in this context is 45S5 which is a silica based bioglass mostly explored in the field of tissue engineering as scaffolds for bone repair. Nowadays, the borate based bioglass are being utilized in orthopedic area largely due to its superior bioactivity with the formation of bone bonding. An attempt has been made, in the present study, to observe the effect of B2O3 addition in 45S5 glass and perceive its consequences on the thermal, mechanical and biological properties. The B2O3 was added in 1, 2.5, and 5 wt% with simultaneous reduction in the silica content of the 45S5 composition. The borate based bioglass has been synthesized by the means of sol-gel route. The synthesized powders were then thermally analyzed by DSC-TG. The as synthesized powders were then calcined at 600ºC for 2hrs. The calcined powders were then pressed into pellets followed by sintering at 850ºC with a holding time of 2hrs. The phase analysis and the microstructural analysis of the as synthesized and calcined powder glass samples and the sintered glass samples were being carried out using XRD and FESEM respectively. The formation of hydroxyapatite layer was performed by immersing the sintered samples in the simulated body fluid (SBF) and mechanical property has been tested for the sintered samples by universal testing machine (UTM). The sintered samples showed the presence of sodium calcium silicate phase while the formation of hydroxyapaptite takes place for SBF immersed samples. The formation of hydroxyapatite is more pronounced in case of borated based glass samples instead of 45S5.

Keywords: Bioactive, Sol-Gel Synthesis, hydroxyapatite, borate

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5 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Preeti K. Suresh, Indu Lata Kanwar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: Bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

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4 Variation of Biologically Active Compounds and Antioxidancy in the Process of Blueberry Storage

Authors: Indira Djaparidze, Maia Vanidze, Aleko Kalandia, Meri Khakhutaishvili

Abstract:

Cultivation of blueberry in Georgia started in 21st century. There are more than 20 species of blueberry cultivated in this region from all other the world. The species are mostly planted on acidic soil, previously occupied by tea plantations. Many of the plantations have pretty good yield. It is known that changing the location of a plant to a new soil or climate effects chemical compositions of the plant. However, even though these plants are brought from other countries, no research has been conducted to fully examine the blueberry fruit cultivated in Georgia. Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation Grant FR/335/10-160/14, gave us an opportunity to continue our previous works and conduct research on several berries, among them of course the chemical composition of stored Blueberry. We were able to conduct the first study that included examining qualitative and quantitative features of bioactive compounds in Georgian Blueberry. This experiments were held in the ‘West Georgia Regional Chromatography center’ (Grant AP/96/13) of our university, that is equipped with modern equipment like HPLC UV-Vis, RI-detector, HPLC-conductivity detector, UPLC-MS-detector. Biochemical analysis was conducted using different physico-chemical and instrumental methods. Separation-identification and quantitative analysis were conducted using UPLC-MS (Waters Acquity QDa detector), HPLC (Waters Brceze 1525, UV-Vis 2489 detectors), pH-meters (Mettler Toledo). Refractrometer -Misco , Spectrometer –Cuvette Changer (Mettler Toledo UV5A), C18 Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Waters Sep-Pak C18 (500 mg), Chemicals – stability radical- 2,2-Diphenil-1-picrilhydrazyl (Aldrich-germany), Acetonitrile, Methanol, Acetic Acid (Merck-Germany), AlCl3, Folin Ciocalteu reagent (preparation), Standarts –Callic acid, Quercetin. Carbohydrate HPLC-RI analysis used systems acetonitrile-water (80-20). UPLC-MS analysis used systems- solvent A- Water +1 % acetic acid და solvent -B Methanol +1% acetic acid). It was concluded that the amount of sugars was in range of 5-9 %, mostly glucose and fructose. Also, the amount of organic acids was 0.2-1.2% most of which was malic and citric acid. Anthocians were also present in the sample 200-550mg/100g. We were able to identify up to 15 different compounds, most of which were products of delphinidine and cyanide. All species have high antioxidant level(DPPH). By rapidly freezing the sample and then keeping it in specific conditions allowed us to keep the sample for 12 months.

Keywords: Storage, Antioxidants, Bioactive, blueberry

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3 Extraction, Recovery and Bioactivities of Chlorogenic Acid from Unripe Green Coffee Cherry Waste of Coffee Processing Industry

Authors: Akkasit Jongjareonrak, Supansa Namchaiya

Abstract:

Unripe green coffee cherry (UGCC) accounting about 5 % of total raw material weight receiving to the coffee bean production process and is, in general, sorting out and dump as waste. The UGCC is known to rich in phenolic compounds such as caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acids, chlorogenic acid (CGA), etc. CGA is one of the potent bioactive compounds using in the nutraceutical and functional food industry. Therefore, this study aimed at optimization the extraction condition of CGA from UGCC using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). The ethanol/water mixture at various ethanol concentrations (50, 60 and 70 % (v/v)) was used as an extraction solvent at elevated pressure (10.34 MPa) and temperatures (90, 120 and 150 °C). The recovery yield of UGCC crude extract, total phenolic content, CGA content and some bioactivities of UGCC extract were investigated. Using of ASE at lower temperature with higher ethanol concentration provided higher CGA content in the UGCC crude extract. The maximum CGA content was observed at the ethanol concentration of 70% ethanol and 90 °C. The further purification of UGCC crude extract gave a higher purity of CGA with a purified CGA yield of 4.28 % (w/w, of dried UGCC sample) containing 72.52 % CGA equivalent. The antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity of purified CGA extract were determined. The purified CGA exhibited the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity at 0.88 mg Trolox equivalent/mg purified CGA sample. The antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli was observed with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 3.12 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 12.5 mg/ml. These results suggested that using of high concentration of ethanol and low temperature under elevated pressure of ASE condition could accelerate the extraction of CGA from UGCC. The purified CGA extract could be a promising alternative source of bioactive compound using for nutraceutical and functional food industry.

Keywords: Extraction, Bioactive, Chlorogenic Acid, coffee

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2 Influence of Cryo-Grinding on Antioxidant Activity and Amount of Free Phenolic Acids, Rutin and Tyrosol in Whole Grain Buckwheat and Pumpkin Seed Cake

Authors: B. Voucko, M. Benkovic, N. Cukelj, S. Drakula, D. Novotni, S. Balbino, D. Curic

Abstract:

Oxidative stress is considered as one of the causes leading to metabolic disorders in humans. Therefore, the ability of antioxidants to inhibit free radical production is their primary role in the human organism. Antioxidants originating from cereals, especially flavonoids and polyphenols, are mostly bound and indigestible. Micronization damages the cell wall which consecutively results in bioactive material to be more accessible in vivo. In order to ensure complete fragmentation, micronization is often combined with high temperatures (e.g., for bran 200°C) which can lead to degradation of bioactive compounds. The innovative non-thermal technology of cryo-milling is an ultra-fine micronization method that uses liquid nitrogen (LN2) at a temperature of 195°C to freeze and cool the sample during milling. Freezing at such low temperatures causes the material to become brittle which ensures the generation of fine particles while preserving the bioactive content of the material. The aim of this research was to determine if production of ultra-fine material with cryo-milling will result in the augmentation of available bioactive compounds of buckwheat and pumpkin seed cake. For that reason, buckwheat and pumpkin seed cake were ground in a ball mill (CryoMill, Retch, Germany) with and without the use of LN2 for 8 minutes, in a 50 mL stainless steel jar containing one grinding ball (Ø 25 mm) at an oscillation frequency of 30 Hz. The cryo-milled samples were cooled with LN2 for 2 minutes prior to milling, followed by the first cycle of milling (4 minutes), intermediary cooling (2 minutes), and finally the second cycle of milling (further 4 minutes). A continuous process of milling was applied to the samples ground without freezing with LN2. Particle size distribution was determined using the Scirocco 2000 dry dispersion unit (Malvern Instruments, UK). Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, while the total phenol content was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu method, using the ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (Specord 50 Plus, Germany). The content of the free phenolic acids, rutin in buckwheat, tyrosol in pumpkin seed cake, was determined with an HPLC-PDA method (Agilent 1200 series, Germany). Cryo-milling resulted in 11 times smaller size of buckwheat particles, and 3 times smaller size of pumpkin seed particles than milling without the use of LN2, but also, a lower uniformity of the particle size distribution. Lack of freezing during milling of pumpkin seed cake caused a formation of agglomerates due to its high-fat content (21 %). Cryo-milling caused augmentation of buckwheat flour antioxidant activity measured by DPPH test (23,9%) and an increase in available rutin content (14,5%). Also, it resulted in an augmentation of the total phenol content (36,9%) and available tyrosol content (12,5%) of pumpkin seed cake. Antioxidant activity measured with the FRAP test, as well as the content of phenolic acids remained unchanged independent of the milling process. The results of this study showed the potential of cryo-milling for complete raw material utilization in the food industry, as well as a tool for extraction of aimed bioactive components.

Keywords: Bioactive, buckwheat, cryo-milling, ball-mill, pumpkin seed cake

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1 Biodegradable and Bioactive Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: A. M. Malagon Escandon, J. A. Arenas Alatorre, C. P. Chaires Rosas, N. A. Vazquez Torres, B. Hernandez Tellez, G. Pinon Zarate, M. Herrera Enriquez, A. E. Castell Rodriguez

Abstract:

The current approach to the treatment of bone defects involves the use of scaffolds that provide a biological and mechanically stable niche to favor tissue repair. Despite the significant progress in the field of bone tissue engineering, several main problems associated are attributed to giving a low biodegradation degree, does not promote osseointegration and regeneration, if the bone is not healing as well as expected or fails to heal, will not be given a proper ossification or new bone formation. The actual approaches of bone tissue regeneration are directed to the use of decellularized native extracellular matrices, which are able of retain their own architecture, mechanic properties, biodegradability and promote new bone formation because they are capable of conserving proteins and other factors that are founded in physiological concentrations. Therefore, we propose an extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds derived from bovine cancellous bone, which is processed by decellularization, demineralization, and hydrolysis of the collagen protein, these protocols have been successfully carried out in other organs and tissues; the effectiveness of its biosafety has also been previously evaluated in vivo and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. In the specific case of bone, a more complex treatment is needed in comparison with other organs and tissues because is necessary demineralization and collagen denaturalization. The present work was made in order to obtain a temporal scaffold that succeed in degradation in an inversely proportional way to the synthesis of extracellular matrix and the maturation of the bone by the cells of the host.

Keywords: Bone, Stem Cells, Tissue Engineering, Bioactive, biodegradable, extracellular matrix-based bioscaffolds

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