Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

bio-char Related Abstracts

2 Effect of Core Puncture Diameter on Bio-Char Kiln Efficiency

Authors: W. Intagun, T. Khamdaeng, P. Prom-ngarm, N. Panyoyai

Abstract:

Biochar has been used as a soil amendment since it has high porous structure and has proper nutrients and chemical properties for plants. Product yields produced from biochar kiln are dependent on process parameters and kiln types used. The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of core puncture diameter on biochar kiln efficiency, i.e., yields of biochar and produced gas. Corncobs were used as raw material to produce biochar. Briquettes from agricultural wastes were used as fuel. Each treatment was performed by changing the core puncture diameter. From the experiment, it is revealed that the yield of biochar at the core puncture diameter of 3.18 mm, 4.76 mm, and 6.35 mm was 10.62 wt. %, 24.12 wt. %, and 12.24 wt. %, of total solid yields, respectively. The yield of produced gas increased with increasing the core puncture diameter. The maximum percentage by weight of the yield of produced gas was 81.53 wt. % which was found at the core puncture diameter of 6.35 mm. The core puncture diameter was furthermore found to affect the temperature distribution inside the kiln and its thermal efficiency. In conclusion, the high efficient biochar kiln can be designed and constructed by using the proper core puncture diameter.

Keywords: temperature distribution, anila stove, bio-char, soil conditioning materials

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1 High Heating Value Bio-Chars from a Bio-Oil Upgrading Process

Authors: Paul T. Williams, Julius K. Gane, Mohamad N. Nahil

Abstract:

In today’s world of rapid population growth and a changing climate, one way to mitigate various negative effects is via renewable energy solutions. Energy and power as basic requirements in almost all human endeavours are also the banes of the changing climate and the impacts thereof. Thus it is crucial to develop innovative and environmentally friendly energy options to ameliorate various negative repercussions. Upgrading of fast pyrolysis bio-oil via hydro-treatment offers such opportunities, as quality renewable liquid transportation fuels can be produced. The process, however, is typically accompanied by bio-char formation as a by-product. The goal of this work was to study the yield and some properties of bio-chars formed from a hydrotreatment process, with an overall aim to promote the valuable utilization of wastes or by-products from renewable energy technologies. It is assumed that bio-chars that have comparable energy contents with coals will be more desirable as solid energy materials due to renewability and environmental friendliness. Therefore, the analytical work in this study focused mainly on determining the higher heating value (HHV) of the chars. The method involved the reaction of bio-oil in an autoclave supplied by the Parr Instrument Company, IL, USA. Two main parameters (different temperatures and resident times) were investigated. The chars were characterized using a Thermo EA2000 CHNS analyser, then oxygen contents and HHVs computed based on the literature. From the results, these bio-chars can readily serve as feedstocks for the production of renewable solid fuels. Their HHVs ranged between 29.26-39.18 MJ/kg, affected by different temperatures and retention times. There was an inverse relationship between the oxygen content and the HHVs of the chars. It can, therefore, be concluded that it is possible to optimize the process efficiency of the hydrotreatment process used through the production of renewable energy materials from the 'waste’ char by-products. Future work should consider developing a suitable balance between the primary objective of bio-oil upgrading processes (which is to improve the quality of the liquid fuels) and the conversion of its solid wastes into value-added products such as smokeless briquettes.

Keywords: waste-to-energy, valorisation, bio-char, renewable solid biofuels

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