Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Bio-based Related Abstracts

3 Substitution of Formaldehyde in Phenolic Resins with Innovative and Bio-Based Vanillin Derived Compounds

Authors: Sylvain Caillol, Ghislain David


Phenolic resins are industrially used in a wide range of applications from commodity and construction materials to high-technology aerospace industry. They are mainly produced from the reaction between phenolic compounds and formaldehyde. Nevertheless, formaldehyde is a highly volatile and hazardous compound, classified as a Carcinogenic, Mutagenic and Reprotoxic chemical (CMR). Vanillin is a bio-based and non-toxic aromatic aldehyde compound obtained from the abundant lignin resources. Also, its aromaticity is very interesting for the synthesis of phenolic resins with high thermal stability. However, because of the relatively low reactivity of its aldehyde function toward phenolic compounds, it has never been used to synthesize phenolic resins. We developed innovative functionalization reactions and designed new bio-based aromatic aldehyde compounds from vanillin. Those innovative compounds present improved reactivity toward phenolic compounds compared to vanillin. Moreover, they have target structures to synthesize highly cross-linked phenolic resins with high aromatic densities. We have obtained phenolic resins from substituted vanillin, thus without the use of any aldehyde compound classified as CMR. The analytical tests of the cured resins confirmed that those bio-based resins exhibit high levels of performance with high thermal stability and high rigidity properties

Keywords: Bio-based, vanillin, phenolic resins, formaldehyde-free, non-toxic

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2 Synthesis of Bisphenols Containing Pendant Furyl Group Based on Chemicals Derived from Lignocellulose and Their Utilization for Preparation of Clickable Poly(Arylene Ether Sulfone)s

Authors: Samadhan S. Nagane, Sachin S. Kuhire, Prakash P. Wadgaonkar


Lignocellulose-derived chemicals such as furfural, furandicarboxylic acid, syringol, guaiacol, etc are highly attractive as sustainable alternatives to petrochemicals for the synthesis of monomers and polymers. We wish to report herein the facile synthesis of fully bio-based bisphenols containing pendant furyl group by base-catalyzed condensation of furfural with guaiacol. Bisphenols possessing pendant furyl group represent valuable monomers for the synthesis of a range of polymers which include epoxy resins, polyesters, polycarbonates, poly(aryl ether)s, etc. Several new homo/co-poly(arylene ether sulfone)s have been prepared by the reaction of 4,4(-fluorodiphenyl sulfone (FDS) with 4,4'-(furan-2-ylmethylene)bis(2-methoxyphenol) (BPF) and 4,4(-isopropylidenediphenol (BPA) using different molar ratios of bisphenols. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed inherent viscosities in the range 0.92-1.47 dLg-1 and number average molecular weights (Mn), obtained from gel permeation chromatography (GPC), were in the range 91,300 – 1,31,000. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s could be cast into tough, transparent and flexible films from chloroform solutions. X-Ray diffraction studies indicated amorphous nature of poly(arylene ether sulfone)s. Poly(arylene ether sulfone)s showed Tg values in the range 179-191 oC. Additionally, the pendant furyl groups in poly(arylene ether sulfone)s provide reactive sites for chemical modifications and cross-linking via Diels-Alder reaction with maleimides and bismaleimides, respectively.

Keywords: Bio-based, Diels-Alder reaction, bisphenols, poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

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1 Acrylate-Based Photopolymer Resin Combined with Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil for 3D-Printing

Authors: Raphael Palucci Rosa, Giuseppe Rosace


Stereolithography (SLA) is one of the 3D-printing technologies that has been steadily growing in popularity for both industrial and personal applications due to its versatility, high accuracy, and low cost. Its printing process consists of using a light emitter to solidify photosensitive liquid resins layer-by-layer to produce solid objects. However, the majority of the resins used in SLA are derived from petroleum and characterized by toxicity, stability, and recalcitrance to degradation in natural environments. Aiming to develop an eco-friendly resin, in this work, different combinations of a standard commercial SLA resin (Peopoly UV professional) with a vegetable-based resin were investigated. To reach this goal, different mass concentrations (varying from 10 to 50 wt%) of acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO), a vegetable resin produced from soyabean oil, were mixed with a commercial acrylate-based resin. 1.0 wt% of Diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO) was used as photo-initiator, and the samples were printed using a Peopoly moai 130. The machine was set to operate at standard configurations when printing commercial resins. After the print was finished, the excess resin was drained off, and the samples were washed in isopropanol and water to remove any non-reacted resin. Finally, the samples were post-cured for 30 min in a UV chamber. FT-IR analysis was used to confirm the UV polymerization of the formulated resin with different AESO/Peopoly ratios. The signals from 1643.7 to 1616, which corresponds to the C=C stretching of the AESO acrylic acids and Peopoly acrylic groups, significantly decreases after the reaction. The signal decrease indicates the consumption of the double bonds during the radical polymerization. Furthermore, the slight change of the C-O-C signal from 1186.1 to 1159.9 decrease of the signals at 809.5 and 983.1, which corresponds to unsaturated double bonds, are both proofs of the successful polymerization. Mechanical analyses showed a decrease of 50.44% on tensile strength when adding 10 wt% of AESO, but it was still in the same range as other commercial resins. The elongation of break increased by 24% with 10 wt% of AESO and swelling analysis showed that samples with a higher concentration of AESO mixed absorbed less water than their counterparts. Furthermore, high-resolution prototypes were printed using both resins, and visual analysis did not show any significant difference between both products. In conclusion, the AESO resin was successful incorporated into a commercial resin without affecting its printability. The bio-based resin showed lower tensile strength than the Peopoly resin due to network loosening, but it was still in the range of other commercial resins. The hybrid resin also showed better flexibility and water resistance than Peopoly resin without affecting its resolution. Finally, the development of new types of SLA resins is essential to provide new sustainable alternatives to the commercial petroleum-based ones.

Keywords: Bio-based, soybean, Stereolithography, resin

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