Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

bicycle Related Abstracts

5 Difference between Riding a Bicycle on a Sidewalk or in the Street by Usual Traveling Means

Authors: Ai Fujii, Kan Shimazaki


Bicycle users must ride on the street according the law in Japan, but in practice, many bicycle users ride on the sidewalk. Drivers generally feel that bicycles riding in the street are in the way. In contrast, pedestrians generally feel that bicycles riding on the sidewalk are in the way. That seems to make sense. What, then, is the difference between riding a bicycle on the sidewalk or in the street by usual traveling means. We made 3D computer graphics models of pedestrians, a car, and a bicycle at an intersection. The bicycle was positioned to choose between advancing to the sidewalk or the street after a few seconds. We then made a 2D stimulus picture by changing the point of view of the 3DCG model pictures. Attitudes were surveyed using this 2D stimulus picture, and we compared attitudes between three groups, people traveling by car, on foot, or by bicycle. Here we report the survey result.

Keywords: Safety, intersection, driver, pedestrians, bicycle, sidewalk

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4 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita


Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Wind Engineering, wells turbine, bicycle

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3 The Severity of Electric Bicycle Injuries Compared to Classic Bicycle Injuries in Children: A Retrospective Review

Authors: Tali Capua, Karin Hermon, Miguel Glatstein, Oren Tavor, Ayelet Rimon


Background: Electric bicycles (E-bikes) are one of a wide range of light electric vehicles that provide convenient local transportation and attractive recreational opportunities. Along with their growing use worldwide, the E-bike related injury rate increases. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to specifically compare E-bike with classic bicycle related injuries in children. Methods: Data of all pediatric ( < 16 years of age) bicycle related injuries presenting to an urban level I trauma center between 2014 and 2015 were collected and analyzed. The recorded data included age, gender, details of the accident, as well severity of injury, medical diagnosis, and the outcome. Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were calculated for each patient. Data of E-bike related injuries and classic bicycle were then compared. Results: A total of 124 bicycle related injuries and 97 E-bike related injuries presented to the emergency department. Once pedestrians and bicycle passengers were removed, the groups of riders consisted of 111 bikers and 85 E-bikers. The mean age of bikers was 9.9 years (range 3-16 years) and of E-bikers was 13.7 years (range 7.5-16 years). Injuries to the head and the extremities were common in both groups. Compared to bikers, E-bikers had significantly more injuries to intra-abdominal organs (p = 0.04). Twenty patients (16%) with bicycle related injuries were admitted, and 13 (15%) patients with E-bike related injuries, of the latter group four underwent surgical intervention. ISS scores were low overall, but the injuries of higher severity (ISS > 9) were among the E-bikers. Conclusions: This study provides unique information which suggests that injuries in E-bikers tend to be more severe than in classic bikers. There is a need for regulation regarding the use of E-bikes to enhance the safety of both bikers and other road and pavement users.

Keywords: Trauma, Pediatric, Injury, bicycle, electric bicycle

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2 Analysis of the Factors Affecting the Public Bicycle Projects in Chinese Cities

Authors: Xiujuan Wang, Weiguo Wang, Lei Yu, Xue Liu


There are many purported benefits of public bike systems, therefore, it has seen a sharp increase since 2008 in Hangzhou, China. However, there are few studies on the public bicycle system in Chinese cities. In order to make recommendations for the development of public bicycle systems, this paper analyzes the influencing factors by using the system dynamics method according to the main characteristics of Chinese cities. The main characteristics of Chinese cities lie in the city size and process of urbanization, traffic mode division, demographic characteristics, bicycle infrastructure and right of way, regime structure. Finally, under the context of Chinese bike sharing systems, these analyses results can help to design some feasible strategies for the planner to the development of the public bicycles.

Keywords: System Dynamics, bicycle, engineering of communication and transportation system, public bike, characteristics of Chinese cities

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1 Wadjda, a Film That Quietly Sets the Stage for a Cultural Revolution in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Anouar El Younssi


This study seeks to shed some light on the political and social ramifications and implications of Haifaa al-Mansour’s 2012 film Wadjda. The film made international headlines following its release, and was touted as the first film ever to be shot in its entirety inside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and also the first to be directed by a female (Haifaa al-Mansour). Wadjda revolves around a simple storyline: A teenage Saudi girl living in the capital city Riyadh—named Wadjda—wants to have a bicycle just like her male teenage neighbor and friend Abdullah, but her ultra-conservative Saudi society places so many constraints on its female population—including not allowing girls and women to ride bicycles. Wadjda, who displays a rebellious spirit, takes concrete steps to save money in order to realize her dream of buying a bicycle. For example, she starts making and selling sports bracelets to her school mates, and she decides to participate in a Qur’an competition in hopes of winning a sum of money that comes with the first prize. In the end, Wadjda could not beat the system on her own, but the film reverses course, and the audience gets a happy ending: Wadjda’s mother, whose husband has decided to take a second wife, defies the system and buys her daughter the very bicycle Wadjda has been dreaming of. It is quite significant that the mother takes her daughter’s side on the subject of the bicycle at the end of the film, for this shows that she finally came to the realization that she and her daughter are both oppressed by the cultural norms prevalent in Saudi society. It is no coincidence that this change of heart and action on the part of the mother takes place immediately after the wedding night celebrating her husband’s second marriage. Gender inequality is thus placed front and center in the film. Nevertheless, a major finding of this study is that the film carries out its social critique in a soft and almost covert manner. The female actors in the film never issue a direct criticism of Saudi society or government; the criticism is consistently implied and subtle throughout. It is a criticism that relies more on showing than telling. The film shows us—rather than tells us directly—what is wrong, and lets us, the audience, decide and make a judgment. In fact, showing could arguably be more powerful and impactful than telling. Regarding methodology, this study will focus on and analyze the visuals and a number of key utterances by the main actor Wadjda in order to corroborate the study’s argument about the film’s bent on critiquing patriarchy. This research will attempt to establish a link between the film as an art object and as a social text. Ultimately, Wadjda sends a message of hope, that change is possible and that it is already happening slowly inside the Kingdom. It also sends the message that an insurrectional approach regarding women’s rights in Saudi Arabia is perhaps not the right one, at least at this historical juncture.

Keywords: Gender Inequality, Women’s Rights, bicycle, social critique, Wadjda

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