Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Benzene Related Abstracts

5 Soot Formation in the Field of Combustion

Authors: Nacira Mecheri, N. Boussid


A new chemical mechanism designed to study the process of forming the first aromatic ring (benzene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from a flame of acetylene (C2H2) has been developed. The mechanism developed, contains 50 chemical species involved in 268 reversible elementary reactions. The comparison between the results from modelling and experimental measurements allowed us to test the validity of the postulated mechanism in specific experimental conditions. Kinetic analysis of the flame by calculating the maximum rates for each elementary reaction, allowed us to identify key reactions pathways of consumption and formation of main precursors of soot.

Keywords: Modeling, Benzene, soot, PAH, flame, acetylene

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4 Modeling Sorption and Permeation in the Separation of Benzene/ Cyclohexane Mixtures through Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Crosslinked Membranes

Authors: Hassiba Benguergoura, Kamal Chanane, Sâad Moulay


Pervaporation (PV), a membrane-based separation technology, has gained much attention because of its energy saving capability and low-cost, especially for separation of azeotropic or close-boiling liquid mixtures. There are two crucial issues for industrial application of pervaporation process. The first is developing membrane material and tailoring membrane structure to obtain high pervaporation performances. The second is modeling pervaporation transport to better understand of the above-mentioned structure–pervaporation relationship. Many models were proposed to predict the mass transfer process, among them, solution-diffusion model is most widely used in describing pervaporation transport including preferential sorption, diffusion and evaporation steps. For modeling pervaporation transport, the permeation flux, which depends on the solubility and diffusivity of components in the membrane, should be obtained first. Traditionally, the solubility was calculated according to the Flory–Huggins theory. Separation of the benzene (Bz)/cyclohexane (Cx) mixture is industrially significant. Numerous papers have been focused on the Bz/Cx system to assess the PV properties of membrane materials. Membranes with both high permeability and selectivity are desirable for practical application. Several new polymers have been prepared to get both high permeability and selectivity. Styrene-butadiene rubbers (SBR), dense membranes cross-linked by chloromethylation were used in the separation of benzene/cyclohexane mixtures. The impact of chloromethylation reaction as a new method of cross-linking SBR on the pervaporation performance have been reported. In contrast to the vulcanization with sulfur, the cross-linking takes places on styrene units of polymeric chains via a methylene bridge. The partial pervaporative (PV) fluxes of benzene/cyclohexane mixtures in styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) were predicted using Fick's first law. The predicted partial fluxes and the PV separation factor agreed well with the experimental data by integrating Fick's law over the benzene concentration. The effects of feed concentration and operating temperature on the predicted permeation flux by this proposed model are investigated. The predicted permeation fluxes are in good agreement with experimental data at lower benzene concentration in feed, but at higher benzene concentration, the model overestimated permeation flux. The predicted and experimental permeation fluxes all increase with operating temperature increasing. Solvent sorption levels for benzene/ cyclohexane mixtures in a SBR membrane were determined experimentally. The results showed that the solvent sorption levels were strongly affected by the feed composition. The Flory- Huggins equation generates higher R-square coefficient for the sorption selectivity.

Keywords: Benzene, Pervaporation, Sorption Modeling, SBR, permeation, cyclohexane

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3 Identifying Dominant Anaerobic Microorganisms for Degradation of Benzene

Authors: Jian Peng, Wenhui Xiong, Zheng Lu


An optimal recipe of amendment (nutrients and electron acceptors) was developed and dominant indigenous benzene-degrading microorganisms were characterized in this study. Lessons were learnt from the development of the optimal amendment recipe: (1) salinity and substantial initial concentration of benzene were detrimental for benzene biodegradation; (2) large dose of amendments can shorten the lag time for benzene biodegradation occurrence; (3) toluene was an essential co-substance for promoting benzene degradation activity. The stable isotope probing study identified incorporation 13C from 13C-benzene into microorganisms, which can be considered as a direct evidence of the occurrence of benzene biodegradation. The dominant mechanism for benzene removal was identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis to be nitrate reduction. Microbial analyses (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S ribosomal RNA) demonstrated that members of genus Dokdonella spp., Pusillimonas spp., and Advenella spp. were predominant within the microbial community and involved in the anaerobic benzene bioremediation.

Keywords: Benzene, enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, stable isotope probing, biosep biotrap

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2 Efficiency of Visible Light Induced Photocatalytic Oxidation of Toluene and Benzene by a Photocatalytic Textile

Authors: Z. Younsi, L. Koufi, H. Gidik, D. Lahem, W. Wim Thielemans


This study investigated the efficiency of photocatalytic textile to remove the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) present in indoor air. Functionalization of the fabric was achieved by adding a photocatalyst material active in the visible spectrum of light. This is a modified titanium dioxide photocatalyst doped with non-metal ions synthesized via sol-gel process, which should allow the degradation of the pollutants – ideally into H₂O and CO₂ – using photocatalysis based on visible light and no additionnal external energy source. The visible light photocatalytic activity of textile sample was evaluated for toluene and benzene gaseous removal, under the visible irradiation, in a test chamber with the total volume of 1m³. The suggested approach involves experimental investigations of the global behavior of the photocatalytic textile. The experimental apparatus permits simultaneous measurements of the degradation of pollutants and presence of eventually formed by-products. It also allows imposing and measuring concentration variations with respect to selected time scales in the test chamber. The observed results showed that the amount of TiO₂ incorporation improved the photocatalytic efficiency of functionalized textile significantly under visible light. The results obtained with such textile are very promising.

Keywords: Efficiency, Visible light, Benzene, Textile Fabrics, titanium dioxide, TiO2, toluene, photocatalytic degradation, C₆H₆, C₇H₈

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1 Health Risk Assessment of Exposing to Benzene in Office Building around a Chemical Industry Based on Numerical Simulation

Authors: Majid Bayatian, Mohammadreza Ashouri


Releasing hazardous chemicals is one of the major problems for office buildings in the chemical industry and, therefore, environmental risks are inherent to these environments. The adverse health effects of the airborne concentration of benzene have been a matter of significant concern, especially in oil refineries. The chronic and acute adverse health effects caused by benzene exposure have attracted wide attention. Acute exposure to benzene through inhalation could cause headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, and irritation of the skin. Chronic exposures have reported causing aplastic anemia and leukemia at the occupational settings. Association between chronic occupational exposure to benzene and the development of aplastic anemia and leukemia were documented by several epidemiological studies. Numerous research works have investigated benzene emissions and determined benzene concentration at different locations of the refinery plant and stated considerable health risks. The high cost of industrial control measures requires justification through lifetime health risk assessment of exposed workers and the public. In the present study, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model has been proposed to assess the exposure risk of office building around a refinery due to its release of benzene. For simulation, GAMBIT, FLUENT, and CFD Post software were used as pre-processor, processor, and post-processor, and the model was validated based on comparison with experimental results of benzene concentration and wind speed. Model validation results showed that the model is highly validated, and this model can be used for health risk assessment. The simulation and risk assessment results showed that benzene could be dispersion to an office building nearby, and the exposure risk has been unacceptable. According to the results of this study, a validated CFD model, could be very useful for decision-makers for control measures and possibly support them for emergency planning of probable accidents. Also, this model can be used to assess exposure to various types of accidents as well as other pollutants such as toluene, xylene, and ethylbenzene in different atmospheric conditions.

Keywords: CFD, Numerical Simulation, Benzene, Health Risk Assessment, office building

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