Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

bentonite Related Abstracts

20 Evaluation of Drained Shear Strength of Bentonite-Sand Mixtures

Authors: Navid Khayat


Drained shear strength of saturated soils is fully understood. Shear strength of unsaturated soils is usually expressed in terms of soil suction. Evaluation of shear strength of compacted mixtures of sand-bentonite at optimum water content is main purpose of this research. To prepare the required samples, first, bentonite and sand are mixed in 10, 30, 50 and 70 percent by dry weight and then compacted at the proper optimum water content according to the standard proctor test. The samples were sheared in direct shear machine. Stress-strain relationship of samples indicated a ductile behavior. Most of the samples showed a dilatancy behavior during the shear and the tendency for dilatancy increased with the increase in sand proportion. The results show that with the increase in percentage of sand a decrease in cohesion intercept c' for mixtures and an increase in the angle of internal friction Φ’is observed.

Keywords: Sand, bentonite, drained shear strength, cohesion intercept

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19 The Experimental and Modeling Adsorption Properties of Sr2+ on Raw and Purified Bentonite

Authors: A. A. Khodadadi, S. C. Ravaj, B. D. Tavildari, M. B. Abdolahi


The adsorption properties of local bentonite (Semnan Iran) and purified prepared from this bentonite towards Sr2+ adsorption, were investigated by batch equilibration. The influence of equilibration time, adsorption isotherms, kinetic adsorption, solution pH, and presence of EDTA and NaCl on these properties was studied and discussed. Kinetic data were found to be well fitted with a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Sr2+ is preferably adsorbed by bentonite and purified bentonite. The D-R isotherm model has the best fit with experimental data than other adsorption isotherm models. The maximum adsorption of Sr2+ representing the highest negative charge density on the surface of the adsorbent was seen at pH 12. Presence of EDTA and NaCl decreased the amount of Sr2+ adsorption.

Keywords: Kinetics, equilibrium isotherm, bentonite, purified bentonite, Sr2+

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18 Effect of Bentonite on the Rheological Behavior of Cement Grout in Presence of Superplasticizer

Authors: K. Benyounes, A. Benmounah


Cement-based grouts has been used successfully to repair cracks in many concrete structures such as bridges, tunnels, buildings and to consolidate soils or rock foundations. In the present study, the rheological characterization of cement grout with water/binder ratio (W/B) is fixed at 0.5. The effect of the replacement of cement by bentonite (2 to 10 % wt) in presence of superplasticizer (0.5 % wt) was investigated. Several rheological tests were carried out by using controlled-stress rheometer equipped with vane geometry in temperature of 20°C. To highlight the influence of bentonite and superplasticizer on the rheological behavior of grout cement, various flow tests in a range of shear rate from 0 to 200 s-1 were observed. Cement grout showed a non-Newtonian viscosity behavior at all concentrations of bentonite. Three parameter model Herschel-Bulkley was chosen for fitting of experimental data. Based on the values of correlation coefficients of the estimated parameters, The Herschel-Bulkley law model well described the rheological behavior of the grouts. Test results showed that the dosage of bentonite increases the viscosity and yield stress of the system and introduces more thixotropy. While the addition of both bentonite and superplasticizer with cement grout improve significantly the fluidity and reduced the yield stress due to the action of dispersion of SP.

Keywords: Rheology, viscosity, bentonite, cement grout, superplasticizer, yield stress

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17 Improvement of Oran Sebkha Soil by Dredged Sediments from Chorfa Dam in Algeria

Authors: Z. Aloui-Labiod, H. Trouzine, M. S. Ghembaza


Geotechnical properties of dredged sediment from Chorfa dam in Algeria and their mixtures (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%)with bentonite were investigated through with bentonite were investigated through a series of laboratory experimental tests in order to investigate possibilities of their usage as a barrier against the spread out of the Sebkha of Oran in the northwest of Algeria. Grain size and Atterberg limits tests, chemical and mineral analyses, and compaction, vertical swelling, and horizontal and vertical permeability tests were performed on the soils and their mixtures using tap water and the salty Sebkha water. The results indicate that the bentonite specimens remolded and inundated with Sebkha salty water have less swell potential than those prepared with tap water. The addition of bentonite to Chorfa sediment increases the density, limit liquid, specific surface, and swell potential of the mixtures. Compaction tests show a decrease in the optimum moisture and an increase in maximum dry densities as the bentonite content increases. The horizontal and vertical permeabilities decrease relatively with the addition of bentonite.

Keywords: barrier, bentonite, dredged sediment, salty water

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16 Preparation of New Organoclays and Applications for Adsorption of Telon Dyes in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Benamar Makhoukhi


Clay ion-exchange using bismidazolium salts (MBIM) could provide organophilic clays materials that allow effective retention of polluting dyes. The present investigations deal with bentonite (Bt) modification using (ortho, meta and para) bisimidazolium cations and attempts to remove a synthetic textile dyes, such as (Telon-Orange, Telon-Red and Telon-Blue) by adsorption, from aqueous solutions. The surface modification of MBIM–Bt was examined using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption tests applied to Telon dyes revealed a significant increase of the maximum adsorption capacity from ca. 21-28 to 88-108 mg.g-1 after intercalation. The highest adsorption level was noticed for Telon-Orange dye on the p-MBIM–Bt, presumably due higher interlayer space and better diffusion. The pseudo-first order rate equation was able to provide the best description of adsorption kinetics data for all three dyestuffs. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the equilibrium isotherms and the isotherm constants were also determined. The results show that MBIM–Bt could be employed as low-cost material for the removal of Telon dyes from effluents.

Keywords: Adsorption, Dyes, bentonite, organoclay, isotherms, Bisimidazolium

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15 Study of the Removal of a Red Dye Acid and Sodium Bentonite Raw

Authors: N. Ouslimani, M. T. Abadlia


Wastewater from manufacturing industries are responsible for many organic micropollutants such as some detergents and dyes. It is estimated that 10-15 % of these chemical compounds in the effluents are discharged. In the method of dyeing the dyes are often used in excess to improve the dye and thereby the waste water are highly concentrated dye. The treatment of effluents containing dye has become a necessity given its negative repercussions on ecosystems mainly due to the pollutant nature of synthetic dyes and particularly soluble dyes such as acid dyes. Technology adsorptive separation is now a separation technologies of the most important treatments. The choice led to the use of bentonite occurs in order to use an equally effective and less costly than replacing charcoal. This choice is also justified by the importance of the material developed by, the possibility of cation exchange and high availability in our country surface. During this study, therefore, we test the clay, the main constituent is montmorillonite, whose most remarkable properties are its swelling resulting from the presence of water in the space between the sheets and the fiber structure to the adsorption of acid dye "red Bemacid. "The study of various parameters i.e. time, temperature, and pH showed that the adsorption is more favorable to the temperature of 19 °C for 240 minutes at a Ph equal to 2.More styles and Langmuir adsorption Freundlich were applied to describe the isotherms. The results show that sodium bentonite seems to affect the ability and effectiveness to adsorb colorant.Les ultimate quantities are respectively 0.629 mg/g and 0.589 mg/g for sodium bentonite and bentonite gross.

Keywords: Adsorption, bentonite, treatment of polluted water, acid dyes

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14 Removal of Mixed Heavy Metals from Contaminated Clay Soils Using Pulsed Electrokinetic Process

Authors: Nuhu Dalhat Mu’azu, Abdullahi Usman, A. Bukhari and Muhammad Hussain Essa, Salihu Lukman


Electrokinetic remediation process was employed for the removal of four (4) heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) from contaminated clay and bentonite soils under pulsed current supply mode. The effects of voltage gradient, pulse duty cycle and bentonite/clay ratio on the simultaneous removal efficiencies of the heavy metals were investigated. A total of thirteen experiments were designed and conducted according to factorial design with each experiment allowed to continuously ran for 3 weeks. Results obtained showed that increase in bentonite ratio decreased the removal efficiency of the heavy metals with no significant effect on the energy consumption. Conversely, increase in both voltage gradient and pulse duty cycle increased the heavy metals removal efficiencies with increased in energy consumption. Additionally, increase in voltage gradient increased the electrical conductivity and the soil pH due to due to continuous refill and replacement of process fluids as they decomposed under the induced voltage gradient. Under different operating conditions, the maximum removal efficiencies obtained for Cr, Cu, Hg, and Pb were 21.87, 83.2, 62.4, 78.06 and 16.65% respectively.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Soil remediation, Clay, bentonite, mixed contaminants, and electrokinetic-adsorption

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13 The Effect of Salinity and Bentonite on the Hydrous Behaviors and Sodium Content of the Broad Bean Vicia faba var. Semilla violeta

Authors: T. Nouri, Y. H. A. Reguieg, A. Latigui, A. Ouaini


Salinity is considered as the most important abiotic factor. It limits growth and productivity of plants and degrades agricultural soils and ecosystem in arid and semi arid area. The study was conducted on Vicia faba L.’Semilla violeta’. Sowing was realized in plastic pots containing sandy substrates of bentonite 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10% associated with abiotic stresses of salinity corresponding to doses of NaCl, MgCl2 and MgSO4 20, 40, and 60 mmol/l respectively. The purpose of this work is to study the combined effect of salinity and of bentonite on a plant commonly cultivated in Algeria the broad bean Vicia faba has through the chemical and hydrous parameter. The results show that the combined action of strong concentration salt (40 and 60 mmol/l) and of bentonite a reduction of the relative content water reveals, against an increase in the content of hydrous deficit and of sodium. The growth of broad bean is significant in the substrate amended to 5 % of bentonite.

Keywords: Salinity, bentonite, Vicia faba L, sodium content, hydrous parameters

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12 Removal of Toxic Ni++ Ions from Wastewater by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: A. M. Ahmed, Mona A. Darwish


Removal of Ni++ ions from aqueous solution by sorption ontoNano-bentonite was investigated. Experiments were carried out as a function amount of Nano-bentonite, pH, concentration of metal, constant time, agitation speed and temperature. The adsorption parameter of metal ions followed the Langmuir Freundlich adsorption isotherm were applied to analyze adsorption data. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Thermodynamics parameters e.g.ΔG*, ΔS °and ΔH ° of adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. The adsorption process has fit pseudo-second order kinetic models. Langmuir and Freundich adsorption isotherm models were applied to analyze adsorption data and both were found to be applicable to the adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters, e.g., ∆G °, ∆S ° and ∆H ° of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated and the sorption process was found to be endothermic. Finally, it can be seen that Bentonite was found to be more effective for the removal of Ni (II) same with some experimental conditions.

Keywords: Adsorption, Waste water, Nickel, bentonite

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11 Recovery of Fried Soybean Oil Using Bentonite as an Adsorbent: Optimization, Isotherm and Kinetics Studies

Authors: Prakash Kumar Nayak, Avinash Kumar, Uma Dash, Kalpana Rayaguru


Soybean oil is one of the most widely consumed cooking oils, worldwide. Deep-fat frying of foods at higher temperatures adds unique flavour, golden brown colour and crispy texture to foods. But it brings in various changes like hydrolysis, oxidation, hydrogenation and thermal alteration to oil. The presence of Peroxide value (PV) is one of the most important factors affecting the quality of the deep-fat fried oil. Using bentonite as an adsorbent, the PV can be reduced, thereby improving the quality of the soybean oil. In this study, operating parameters like heating time of oil (10, 15, 20, 25 & 30 h), contact time ( 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 h) and concentration of adsorbent (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 g/ 100 ml of oil) have been optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) considering percentage reduction of PV as a response. Adsorption data were analysed by fitting with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model. The results show that the Langmuir model shows the best fit compared to the Freundlich model. The adsorption process was also found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

Keywords: bentonite, soybean oil, langmuir isotherm, RSM, peroxide value

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10 Study of Strontium Sorption onto Indian Bentonite

Authors: Pankaj Pathak, Susmita Sharma


Incessant industrial growth fulfill the energy demand of present day society, at the same time it produces huge amount of waste which could be hazardous or non-hazardous in nature. These wastes are coming out from different sources viz, nuclear power, thermal power, coal mines which contain different types of contaminants and one of the emergent contaminant is strontium, used in the present study. The isotope of strontium (Sr90) is radioactive in nature with half-life of 28.8 years and permissible limit of strontium in drinking water is 1.5 ppm. Above the permissible limit causes several types of diseases in human being. Therefore, safe disposal of strontium into ground becomes a biggest challenge for the researchers. In this context, bentonite is being used as an efficient material to retain strontium onto ground due to its specific physical, chemical and mineralogical properties which exhibits higher cation exchange capacity and specific surface area. These properties influence the interaction between strontium and bentonite, which is quantified by employing a parameter known as distribution coefficient. Batch test was conducted, and sorption isotherms were modelled at different interaction time. The pseudo first-order and pseudo second order kinetic models have been used to fit experimental data, which helps to determine the sorption rate and mechanism.

Keywords: Sorption, bentonite, strontium, interaction time

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9 Influence of Thermal History on the Undrained Shear Strength of the Bentonite-Sand Mixture

Authors: K. Ravi, Sabu Subhash


Densely compacted bentonite or bentonite–sand mixture has been identified as a suitable buffer in the deep geological repository (DGR) for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) due to its favourable physicochemical and hydro-mechanical properties. The addition of sand to the bentonite enhances the thermal conductivity and compaction properties and reduces the drying shrinkage of the buffer material. The buffer material may undergo cyclic wetting and drying upon ingress of groundwater from the surrounding rock mass and from evaporation due to high temperature (50–210 °C) derived from the waste canister. The cycles of changes in temperature may result in thermal history, and the hydro-mechanical properties of the buffer material may be affected. This paper examines the influence of thermal history on the undrained shear strength of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture. Bentonite from Rajasthan state and sand from the Assam state of India are used in this study. The undrained shear strength values are obtained by conducting unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on cylindrical specimens (dry densities 1.30 and 1.5 Mg/m3) of bentonite and bentonite-sand mixture consisting of 30 % bentonite+ 70 % sand. The specimens are preheated at temperatures varying from 50-150 °C for one, two and four hours in hot air oven. The results indicate that the undrained shear strength is increased by the thermal history of the buffer material. The specimens of bentonite-sand mixture exhibited more increase in strength compared to the pure bentonite specimens. This indicates that the sand content of the mixture plays a vital role in taking the thermal stresses of the bentonite buffer in DGR conditions.

Keywords: Deep Geological Repository, bentonite, thermal history, undrained shear strength

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8 Study of Rheological, Physic-Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Nitrile Butadiene Rubber Loaded with Organo-Bentonite

Authors: Doaa S. Mahmoud, Nivin M. Ahmed, Salwa H. El-Sabbagh


The rheometric characteristics and physicomechanical properties of bentonite / acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated. The influences of adding bentonite (Bt) and / or modified bentonite (organo-Bt) to the rubber were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the rubber chains may be confined within the interparticle space and the Bt particles presented a physical dispersion in NBR matrix. Bentonite (Bt) was modified with tetra butyl phosphonium bromide (TBP) in order to produce organo-Bt. The modification was carried out at 0.5, 1 and 2 cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite. Results showed that the maximum torque of organo-Bt / NBR composite increases at high bentonite loading. The scorch time (tS2) and cure time (tC90) of the organo-Bt / NBR composites decreased simultaneously relative to those of the neat NBR. The prepared composite exhibited significant improvement in mechanical compared with that of neat NBR.

Keywords: Composites, bentonite, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, physico-mechanical properties

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7 Optimization Study of Adsorption of Nickel(II) on Bentonite

Authors: B. Guezzen, B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi


This work concerns with the experimental study of the adsorption of the Ni(II) on bentonite. The effects of various parameters such as contact time, stirring rate, initial concentration of Ni(II), masse of clay, initial pH of aqueous solution and temperature on the adsorption yield, were carried out. The study of the effect of the ionic strength on the yield of adsorption was examined by the identification and the quantification of the present chemical species in the aqueous phase containing the metallic ion Ni(II). The adsorbed species were investigated by a calculation program using CHEAQS V. L20.1 in order to determine the relation between the percentages of the adsorbed species and the adsorption yield. The optimization process was carried out using 23 factorial designs. The individual and combined effects of three process parameters, i.e. initial Ni(II) concentration in aqueous solution (2.10−3 and 5.10−3 mol/L), initial pH of the solution (2 and 6.5), and mass of bentonite (0.03 and 0.3 g) on Ni(II) adsorption, were studied.

Keywords: Adsorption, bentonite, factorial design, nickel(II)

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6 Rheological Evaluation of Various Indigenous Gums

Authors: Satish Kumar Dewangan, Yogita Weikey, Shobha Lata Sinha


In the present investigation, rheology of the three different natural gums has been evaluated experimentally using MCR 102 rheometer. Various samples based on the variation of the concentration of the solid gum powder have been prepared. Their non-Newtonian behavior has been observed by the consistency plots and viscosity variation plots with respect to different solid concentration. The viscosity-shear rate curves of gums are similar and the behavior is shear thinning. Gums are showing pseudoplastic behavior. The value of k and n are calculated by using various models. Results show that the Herschel–Bulkley rheological model is reliable to describe the relationship of shear stress as a function of shear rate. R² values are also calculated to support the choice of gum selection.

Keywords: Rheology, bentonite, Indian gum, non-Newtonian model

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5 Effect of Fines on Liquefaction Susceptibility of Sandy Soil

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz, Ayad Salih Sabbar


Investigation of liquefaction susceptibility of materials that have been used in embankments, slopes, dams, and foundations is very essential. Many catastrophic geo-hazards such as flow slides, declination of foundations, and damage to earth structure are associated with static liquefaction that may occur during abrupt shearing of these materials. Many artificial backfill materials are mixtures of sand with fines and other composition. In order to provide some clarifications and evaluations on the role of fines in static liquefaction behaviour of sand sandy soils, the effect of fines on the liquefaction susceptibility of sand was experimentally examined in the present work over a range of fines content, relative density, and initial confining pressure. The results of an experimental study on various sand-fines mixtures are presented. Undrained static triaxial compression tests were conducted on saturated Perth sand containing 5% bentonite at three different relative densities (10, 50, and 90%), and saturated Perth sand containing both 5% bentonite and slag (2%, 4%, and 6%) at single relative density 10%. Undrained static triaxial tests were performed at three different initial confining pressures (100, 150, and 200 kPa). The brittleness index was used to quantify the liquefaction potential of sand-bentonite-slag mixtures. The results demonstrated that the liquefaction susceptibility of sand-5% bentonite mixture was more than liquefaction susceptibility of clean sandy soil. However, liquefaction potential decreased when both of two fines (bentonite and slag) were used. Liquefaction susceptibility of all mixtures decreased with increasing relative density and initial confining pressure.  

Keywords: slag, Liquefaction, bentonite, brittleness index

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4 Effect of Leachate Presence on Shear Strength Parameters of Bentonite-Amended Zeolite Soil

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, H. Keshavarz Hedayati


Over recent years, due to increased population and increased waste production, groundwater protection has become more important, therefore, designing engineered barrier systems such as landfill liners to prevent the entry of leachate into groundwater should be done with greater accuracy. These measures generally involve the application of low permeability soils such as clays. Bentonite is a natural clay with low permeability which makes it a suitable soil for using in liners. Also zeolite with high cation exchange capacity can help to reduce of hazardous materials risk. Bentonite expands when wet, absorbing as much as several times its dry mass in water. This property may effect on some structural properties of soil such as shear strength. In present study, shear strength parameters are determined by both leachates polluted and not polluted bentonite-amended zeolite soil with mixing rates (B/Z) of 5%-10% and 20% with unconfined compression test to obtain the differences. It is shown that leachate presence causes reduction in resistance in general.

Keywords: Leachate, bentonite, unconfined compression test, shear strength parameters

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3 Effect of Bentonite on Shear Strength of Bushehr Calcareous Sand

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Arash Poordana


Calcareous sands are found most commonly in areas adjacent to crude oil and gas, and particularly around water. These types of soil have high compressibility due to high inter-granular porosity, irregularity, fragility, and especially crushing. Also, based on experience, it has been shown that the behavior of these types of soil is not similar to silica sand in loading. Since the destructive effects of cement on the environment are obvious, other alternatives such as bentonite are popular to be used. Bentonite has always been used commercially in civil engineering projects and according to its low hydraulic conductivity, it is used for landfills, cut-off walls, and nuclear wastelands. In the present study, unconfined compression tests in five ageing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days) after mixing different percentages of bentonite (5%, 7.5% and 10%) with Bushehr calcareous sand were performed. The relative density considered for the specimens is 50%. Optimum water content was then added to each specimen accordingly (19%, 18.5%, and 17.5%). The sample preparation method was wet tamping and the specimens were compacted in five layers. It can be concluded from the results that as the bentonite content increases, the unconfined compression strength of the soil increases. Based on the obtained results, 3-day and 7-day ageing periods showed 30% and 50% increase in the shear strength of soil, respectively.

Keywords: bentonite, unconfined compression test, Bushehr, calcareous sand

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2 Photocatalytic Removal of Methylene Blue Dye: Fabrication and Optimization of Adsorbant Material and a Photocatlyst in Unilayer and Bilayer System

Authors: S. Ismail, M. Z. Mahmood


A reusable immobilized unilayer thin coating of adsorbent material bentonite and photocatalyst (TiO₂) was fabricated on the glass beaker to remove aqueous methylene blue solution. The dye removal efficiency of photocatalyst was much lower with pure titanium dioxide. In the preliminary experiments, different compositions of TiO₂ – bentonite were tested on unilayer and bilayer system, and it was observed that 0.50:0.50 ratios are best for maximum photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in aqueous medium when applied on unilayer coating system.

Keywords: Adsorption, TiO2, bentonite, photocatalyst

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1 Effect of Plastic Fines on Liquefaction Resistance of Sandy Soil Using Resonant Column Test

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. Ghorbani Tochaee


The aim of this study is to assess the influence of plastic fines content on sand-clay mixtures on maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance using a series of resonant column tests. A high plasticity clay called bentonite was added to 161 Firoozkooh sand at the percentages of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 by dry weight. The resonant column tests were performed on the remolded specimens at constant confining pressure of 100 KPa and then the values of Gmax and liquefaction resistance were investigated. The maximum shear modulus and cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) are examined in terms of fines content. Based on the results, the maximum shear modulus and liquefaction resistance tend to decrease within the increment of fine contents.

Keywords: Liquefaction, bentonite, resonant column, plastic fines, Gmax, sand-clay mixtures

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