Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

beneficiation Related Abstracts

3 Optimization of Beneficiation Process for Upgrading Low Grade Egyptian Kaolin

Authors: Nagui A. Abdel-Khalek, Khaled A. Selim, Ahmed Hamdy


Kaolin is naturally occurring ore predominantly containing kaolinite mineral in addition to some gangue minerals. Typical impurities present in kaolin ore are quartz, iron oxides, titanoferrous minerals, mica, feldspar, organic matter, etc. The main coloring impurity, particularly in the ultrafine size range, is titanoferrous minerals. Kaolin is used in many industrial applications such as sanitary ware, table ware, ceramic, paint, and paper industries, each of which should be of certain specifications. For most industrial applications, kaolin should be processed to obtain refined clay so as to match with standard specifications. For example, kaolin used in paper and paint industries need to be of high brightness and low yellowness. Egyptian kaolin is not subjected to any beneficiation process and the Egyptian companies apply selective mining followed by, in some localities, crushing and size reduction only. Such low quality kaolin can be used in refractory and pottery production but not in white ware and paper industries. This paper aims to study the amenability of beneficiation of an Egyptian kaolin ore of El-Teih locality, Sinai, to be suitable for different industrial applications. Attrition scrubbing and classification followed by magnetic separation are applied to remove the associated impurities. Attrition scrubbing and classification are used to separate the coarse silica and feldspars. Wet high intensity magnetic separation was applied to remove colored contaminants such as iron oxide and titanium oxide. Different variables affecting of magnetic separation process such as solid percent, magnetic field, matrix loading capacity, and retention time are studied. The results indicated that substantial decrease in iron oxide (from 1.69% to 0.61% ) and TiO2 (from 3.1% to 0.83%) contents as well as improving iso-brightness (from 63.76% to 75.21% and whiteness (from 79.85% to 86.72%) of the product can be achieved.

Keywords: classification, Magnetic Separation, Kaolin, titanoferrous minerals, beneficiation, attrition scrubbing

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2 Beneficiation of Low Grade Chromite Ore and Its Characterization for the Formation of Magnesia-Chromite Refractory by Economically Viable Process

Authors: Amit Kumar Bhandary, Rajib Dey, Prithviraj Gupta, Siddhartha Mukherjee, Mahua Ghosh Chaudhuri


Chromite ores are primarily used for extraction of chromium, which is an expensive metal. For low grade chromite ores (containing less than 40% Cr2O3), the chromium extraction is not usually economically viable. India possesses huge quantities of low grade chromite reserves. This deposit can be utilized after proper physical beneficiation. Magnetic separation techniques may be useful after reduction for the beneficiation of low grade chromite ore. The sample collected from the sukinda mines is characterized by XRD which shows predominant phases like maghemite, chromite, silica, magnesia and alumina. The raw ore is crushed and ground to below 75 micrometer size. The microstructure of the ore shows that the chromite grains surrounded by a silicate matrix and porosity observed the exposed side of the chromite ore. However, this ore may be utilized in refractory applications. Chromite ores contain Cr2O3, FeO, Al2O3 and other oxides like Fe-Cr, Mg-Cr have a high tendency to form spinel compounds, which usually show high refractoriness. Initially, the low grade chromite ore (containing 34.8% Cr2O3) was reduced at 1200 0C for 80 minutes with 30% coke fines by weight, before being subjected to magnetic separation. The reduction by coke leads to conversion of higher state of iron oxides converted to lower state of iron oxides. The pre-reduced samples are then characterized by XRD. The magnetically inert mass was then reacted with 20% MgO by weight at 1450 0C for 2 hours. The resultant product was then tested for various refractoriness parameters like apparent porosity, slag resistance etc. The results were satisfactory, indicating that the resultant spinel compounds are suitable for refractory applications for elevated temperature processes.

Keywords: Refractory, beneficiation, apparent porosity, low-grade chromite, spinel compounds, slag resistance

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1 Characterization and Comparative Analysis of North Bengal Sand

Authors: Fahmida Gulshan, Marzia Hoque Tania, Oishy Roy, ASW Kurny


This paper presents results of the investigation on the characterization of silica sand of northern region of Bangladesh on the basis of material composition, particle shape, and size, density, transportation, crystallinity, etc. before and after upgradation. The raw sand samples collected from Nilphamari and Lalmonirhat district were studied and compared for the prospect silica as a high valued commodity rather than heavy minerals. The raw sand particles were colorful in appearance with varying particle size distribution. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed uniformity in grain size and mineralogical composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis indicated the silica content of the as-received sample to be 75%. Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) did not detect the presence of any organic material. These tests revealed the sample to be alpha-quartz. Samples were washed with organic and inorganic acid with a combination of varying rotation speed, concentration, solid-liquid ratio. Experiments showed the silica content could be enhanced to more than 85% by washing with 15% sulphuric acid in room temperature. Beneficiation can be improved in further work considering the effect of varying temperature or advanced technology.

Keywords: Characterization, beneficiation, silica, commercial grade sand, glass sand, upgradation

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