Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

belief Related Abstracts

11 Word of Mouth and Its Impact on Marketing

Authors: Fatima Naz, Ayesha Tariq

Abstract:

In view of growing of the internet users for e-commerce and taking into account, the emergent impact of word of mouth phenomenon this research has different aims. The aims of this study were built following dissimilar discussion with teachers and colleagues enlightening that word of mouth information for online purchasing do not have the same effect for everybody. Then they were born following dissimilar researchers together with what was already done in previous researches and what was completed. As a result different aims were drawn; the initial aim of this research is to study the attention of the customers in the word of mouth to power their online purchasing activities. The next aim is to analyze the people influenced by the interest of word of mouth. The following aim is to examine the marketing behavior bearing in mind the internet progress and word of mouth, their consideration for word of mouth marketing. In the form of research questions the aims of the study are: 1) How community utilizes and multiplies word of mouth information about online purchasing experience? 2) How communities perceive the word of mouth marketing? 3) How marketers take the word of mouth phenomenon and how they handle it?

Keywords: Power, belief, inspiration, self-expression, positive attitude to online marketing, forwarding of contents, purchasing decision, standard marketing

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10 Beliefs and Rituals among the Urak Lawoi Sea Gypsies in the Bulon Archipelago, Satun Province

Authors: Srisuporn Piyaratanawong, Suchai Assawapantanakul

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This study aims to reflect changes in beliefs and rituals among the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago of Satun Province that are related to changes of society according to each dimension of time. The historical study was conducted using an oral history approach. The study found that the traditional way of life as itinerants who moved seasonally resulted in their dependence on nature and beliefs in supernatural power, and mysterious powers and superstitions in the belief of ghosts, ancestors, guardian spirits, large banyan trees, life and living, treatment of diseases, king of nagas, and other beliefs. They displayed their respect to supernatural powers through rituals by worshiping, making offerings to spirits and performing Rongeng dance for spirits in return for fulfilling their vows. After World War II (1945), the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on Bulon archipelago changed their itinerant way of life to permanent settlements. However, their beliefs in supernatural powers and ritual performances remained in existence. Until 1987, when tourism began to spread to the archipelago, some of them gradually turned to make a living with tourism. Moreover, during the last 20 years (from around 1994), Islam has spread among the people. With this social context, the traditional beliefs in supernatural powers have changed to beliefs according to the religion and the way of life that has changed. Thus, when the traditional beliefs and rituals can no longer fulfil the new way of life, they slowly disappear, such as the floating the boat ceremony that has been replaced with new beliefs and rituals according to Islam. Nevertheless, some beliefs and rituals still exist, such as beliefs about treatment of diseases and Rongeng dance for spirits in return for vow fulfilling. In conclusion, the traditional beliefs and rituals of the Urak Lawoi sea gypsies on the Bulon archipelago cannot fulfil the new way of life, and have, thus, brought about changes in beliefs and rituals that are congruent with the current society.

Keywords: belief, ritual, Urak Lawoi, sea gypsy, Bulon Archipelago

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9 Beliefs in Auspicious Materials of Shop Entrepreneurs in Maung Hat Yai, Thailand

Authors: Punya Tepsing

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This research aimed to study the beliefs in auspicious materials of entrepreneurs in Muang Hat Yai. The data were collected via documentary research and field work including interviews, observations shops in Hat Yai which used auspicious materials to bring lucks to the shops. The results were as follows. The beliefs in auspicious materials that the entrepreneurs had were of three areas: 1) The auspicious materials could correct the improperness of the shop location, for example, the shop situated opposite a branch road, a shrine, or a bank. The owner usually corrected it by putting Chinese auspicious materials in front of or in the shop, for example, a lion holding a sword in his mouth, or a mirror, etc. 2) The auspicious materials could bring in more income. The owner of the shop usually put the auspicious materials such as a cat beckoning and a bamboo fish trap believed to trap money in front of or inside the shop. 3) The auspicious materials like turtles, paired fish and a monster holding the moon in his mouth could solve life problems including health, family, and safety problems. The use of these auspicious materials showed the blending of the beliefs of the Chinese shop entrepreneurs with the Thai folk beliefs. What is interesting is that Hat Yai is located near the three southern border provinces which are the unrest area and this may cause the number of tourists to decline. This prompted them to build a mechanism in adjusting themselves both to save their lives and to increase the number of customers. Auspicious materials can make them feel more confident.

Keywords: belief, auspicious materials, shop, entrepreneur, Maung Hat Yai

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8 Evil Eye's Effects on Individual's Mental Health

Authors: Nikolaos Souvlakis

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One of the prominent phenomena that have survived even in the 21st century, when science is gaining more and more space in the scientific world, is the evil eye within non-Westernized societies and more specifically in Greek culture. The presentation is based on the Christian Orthodox beliefs and folklore about the evil eye. Evil eye occupies an important role in individuals' everyday life and it is fuelled by Satanic powers. Satanic powers and the belief on them have an immense effect on individual's well-being and mental health causing spiritual suffering. The present paper examines the psychological manifestations of the belief of evil eye in individuals' mental health and the ways to protect from it according to the Greek Orthodox tradition.

Keywords: Mental Health, Well-being, Spirituality, belief, Healing, evil eye

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7 Inclusive Education in Higher Education: Looking from the Lenses of Prospective Teachers

Authors: Kiran, Pooja Bhagat

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Inclusion of diversities is much talked and discussed for school education, mainly at the elementary level. However, not enough discourse has taken place as far as the promulgation of diversities from school education to higher education in terms of guarantee of access, retention and success of students belonging to the diverse groups is concerned. In view of this, the present paper attempts to look at the phenomenon of inclusion of diversities in higher education from the perspective of the people, who themselves are the part of the present system of higher education and aspiring to take up teaching at higher education level as profession. The paper focuses on exploring the awareness of the group under study about the inclusion of diversities at higher education, their perception of diversities, and the mechanism which they consider effective to facilitate inclusion.

Keywords: Higher Education, Perception, Inclusion, belief, attitude

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6 An Anthropological Insight into Cultural Beliefs, Perceptions and Taboos Associated with Reproductive Tract Infections among Women of Village Junga Village, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: A. Ratika Thakur, B. A. K. Sinha, C. R. K. Pathak

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Reproductive Tract Infections are recognized as a serious global health problem with direct impact on women. In the developing countries, prevalence of RTI is much higher relative to other health problems. Women of the reproductive age group are socially, mentally and physically more vulnerable to infections. Also, it is a well established fact that RTI has prolonged complications in women rather than men. It causes ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, miscarriage and infertility in the long course. Women perspective about infections is less studied. In this view the study was carried out with an aim to determine knowledge, perception and belief of married women towards reproductive tract infection. The study was conducted in Junga village, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India. 48 women were interviewed regarding awareness, beliefs and taboos related to reproductive tract infection. Other aspects like fertility history were also taken into account. The data were collected using interviews with the help of interview schedule and interview guide. Data were recorded in the form of narratives and case studies. The analysis was done using quantitative and qualitative analysis. It was found that a majority of women were not aware about the reasons of infection. Moreover cultural beliefs, perceptions and taboos made them more vulnerable and exposed to RTI. Economic dependency upon men, lack of control in barrier methods were some of the factors that contributed to delayed treatment of women. It was found that a majority of women suffering from RTIs were silently bearing the burden and underwent treatment when the case would not rest in their hands.

Keywords: Perception, Women, Infection, belief, taboo

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5 Religious Tattoos Symbols amongst Underground Communities in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia: Their Functions and Significances

Authors: Constantius Tri Handoko

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Tattoos on the body of Christian youths seemed interesting as the majority of Christian look at tattoo and tattooing activity are prohibited. This research besides to understand the motivation behind why Christian youth in Surabaya and Sidoarjo, Indonesia being tattooed also focus on the regard to what functions and meanings of the tattoos are. By using visual discourse analysis, the tattoos had relation to the informants’ social lives dimension, such as the Christian symbol tattoos expressed their spiritual life journey, a faith symbol to God, as personal symbols (identity), art expression, as well as fashion. On the other hands, tattoos also became a hatred symbol to Jesus and the Christian faith, since the tattoo wearers who were a former Christians felt disappointed to God as they thought God never help them to survive in their lives.

Keywords: Identity, Representation, belief, tattoo, Christian

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4 Contribution of Traditional Beliefs, Poverty and Bad Weather Conditions to Social Economic Status and Welfare of Rural Setting: A Case Study for Zingwangwa, Blantyre

Authors: Bright Msukwa

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Background: Malawi suffered economic instability, bad weather and massive flooding in the year 2015. A massive flood in the country, mainly in the southern region lead to damage of agriculture products. As a result, one of the heavily affected was Zingwangwa, Blantyre. Methods: We interviewed a selected number of houses residing in donor constructed temporal shelters and those still residing close to the floods prone areas in Zingwangwa, Blantyre. Results: About 67% of the population insisted that they resided on the land, which was prone to the floods as it belonged to their ancestors and their staying was part of preserving ancestral values. The remaining 23% of the population demonstrated economic challenges due to floods that contributed to the damage of their food crops, property and houses. Conclusion: Beliefs can negatively affect economic life improvement if mindsets are not changed among people in the rural area. Recommendation: Improving natural resource management, climate and disaster resilience.

Keywords: Economic, Poverty, belief, walfare

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3 A Pilot Study on the Development and Validation of an Instrument to Evaluate Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology (IBEAR)-16

Authors: Samuel Attias, Elad Schiff, Zahi Arnon, Eran Ben-Arye, Yael Keshet, Ibrahim Matter, Boker Lital Keinan

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Background: Despite the extensive use of manual therapies, reflexology in particular, no validated tools have been developed to evaluate patients' beliefs, attitudes and expectations regarding reflexology. Such tools however are essential to improve the results of the reflexology treatment, by better adjusting it to the patients' attitudes and expectations. The tool also enables assessing correlations with clinical results of interventional studies using reflexology. Methods: The IBEAR (Inpatient Beliefs, Expectations and Attitudes toward Reflexology) tool contains 25 questions (8 demographic and 17 specifically addressing reflexology), and was constructed in several stages: brainstorming by a multidisciplinary team of experts; evaluation of each of the proposed questions by the experts' team; and assessment of the experts' degree of agreement per each question, based on a Likert 1-7 scale (1 – don't agree at all; 7 – agree completely). Cronbach's Alpha was computed to evaluate the questionnaire's reliability while the Factor analysis test was used for further validation (228 patients). The questionnaire was tested and re-tested (48h) on a group of 199 patients to assure clarity and reliability, using the Pearson coefficient and the Kappa test. It was modified based on these results into its final form. Results: After its construction, the IBEAR questionnaire passed the expert group's preliminary consensus, evaluation of the questions' clarity (from 5.1 to 7.0), inner validation (from 5.5 to 7) and structural validation (from 5.5 to 6.75). Factor analysis pointed to two content worlds in a division into 4 questions discussing attitudes and expectations versus 5 questions on belief and attitudes. Of the 221 questionnaires collected, a Cronbach's Alpha coefficient was calculated on nine questions relating to beliefs, expectations, and attitudes regarding reflexology. This measure stood at 0.716 (satisfactory reliability). At the Test-Retest stage, 199 research participants filled in the questionnaire a second time. The Pearson coefficient for all questions ranged between 0.73 and 0.94 (good to excellent reliability). As for dichotomic answers, Kappa scores ranged between 0.66 and 1.0 (mediocre to high). One of the questions was removed from the IBEAR following questionnaire validation. Conclusions: The present study provides evidence that the proposed IBEAR-16 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for the characterization of potential reflexology patients and may be effectively used in settings which include the evaluation of inpatients' beliefs, expectations, and attitudes toward reflexology.

Keywords: Expectation, belief, cam, reflexology, Inpatient, attitude

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2 Assessing the Attitude and Belief towards Online Advertisement in Pakistan and China Mainland

Authors: Prih Bukhari

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The purpose of the proposed paper is to determine if the perception of online advertisement formed due to attitude and belief vary among two different countries or not. Specifically, it seeks to find out how people from China and Pakistan perceive online advertisement. Public attitude and belief towards advertising have been a focus of attention to explore a path to a better strategy of advertising. The ‘belief’ factor was analyzed through 4 items, i.e., product information, entertainment, and increase in economy’ whereas, the ‘attitude’ factor was analyzed thorough questions based on 4 items, i.e. ‘overall, I consider online advertising a good thing’; 'overall, I like online advertising’; ‘'I consider online advertising very essential’; and 'I would describe my overall attitude toward online advertising very favorably’. As such, it provides theoretical basis to explain similarities and differences of beliefs and attitude towards advertising across the two countries. Given its mixed method approach, both quantitative and qualitative method is used to carry out research. A questionnaire-based survey and focus group interviews were conducted. The sample size was of 500 participants. For analysis survey copies were then collected from which 497 were received whereas focus group interviews were collected from both nations. The findings showed that the belief factor among both countries had no significant relation with the perception of online advertisement. However, the attitude had a significant relation with the perception about online advertisement. Also it was observed that despite of different backgrounds, perception about online advertisement based on beliefs and attitude were found largely to be similar. Implications and future studies are provided.

Keywords: Perception, belief, attitude, online advertisement

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1 Wave State of Self: Findings of Synchronistic Patterns in the Collective Unconscious

Authors: R. Dimitri Halley

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The research within Jungian Psychology presented here is on the wave state of Self. What has been discovered via shared dreaming, independently correlating dreams across dreamers, is beyond the Self stage into the deepest layer or the wave state Self: the very quantum ocean, the Self archetype is embedded in. A quantum wave or rhyming of meaning constituting synergy across several dreamers was discovered in dreams and in extensively shared dream work with small groups at a post therapy stage. Within the format of shared dreaming, we find synergy patterns beyond what Jung called the Self archetype. Jung led us up to the phase of Individuation and delivered the baton to Von Franz to work out the next synchronistic stage, here proposed as the finding of the quantum patterns making up the wave state of Self. These enfolded synchronistic patterns have been found in group format of shared dreaming of individuals approximating individuation, and the unfolding of it is carried by belief and faith. The reason for this format and operating system is because beyond therapy and of living reality, we find no science – no thinking or even awareness in the therapeutic sense – but rather a state of mental processing resembling more like that of spiritual attitude. Thinking as such is linear and cannot contain the deepest layer of Self, the quantum core of the human being. It is self reflection which is the container for the process at the wave state of Self. Observation locks us in an outside-in reactive flow from a first-person perspective and hence toward the surface we see to believe, whereas here, the direction of focus shifts to inside out/intrinsic. The operating system or language at the wave level of Self is thus belief and synchronicity. Belief has up to now been almost the sole province of organized religions but was viewed by Jung as an inherent property in the process of Individuation. The shared dreaming stage of the synchronistic patterns forms a larger story constituting a deep connectivity unfolding around individual Selves. Dreams of independent dreamers form larger patterns that come together as puzzles forming a larger story, and in this sense, this group work level builds on Jung as a post individuation collective stage. Shared dream correlations will be presented, illustrating a larger story in terms of trails of shared synchronicity.

Keywords: belief, shared dreaming, synchronistic patterns, wave state of self

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