Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Behavior Related Abstracts

54 Analysis of Users’ Behavior on Book Loan Log Based on Association Rule Mining

Authors: Kunyanuth Kularbphettong, Kanyarat Bussaban

Abstract:

This research aims to create a model for analysis of student behavior using Library resources based on data mining technique in case of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The model was created under association rules, apriori algorithm. The results were found 14 rules and the rules were tested with testing data set and it showed that the ability of classify data was 79.24 percent and the MSE was 22.91. The results showed that the user’s behavior model by using association rule technique can use to manage the library resources.

Keywords: Knowledge Discovery, Behavior, data mining technique, a priori algorithm

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53 Changes in Behavior and Learning Ability of Rats Intoxicated with Lead

Authors: U. E. Mahrous, A. Goma Amira

Abstract:

Measuring the effect of perinatal lead exposure on learning ability of offspring is considered as a sensitive and selective index for providing an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by this toxic metal. A total of 35 Sprague-Dawley adult rats were used to investigate the effect of lead acetate toxicity on behavioral patterns of adult female rats and learning ability of offspring. Rats were allotted into 4 groups, group one received 1g/l lead acetate (n=10), group two received 1.5g/l lead acetate (n=10), group three received 2g/l lead acetate in drinking water (n=10), and control group did not receive lead acetate (n=5) from 8th day of pregnancy till weaning of pups. The obtained results revealed a dose-dependent increase in the feeding time, drinking frequency, licking frequency, scratching frequency, licking litters, nest building, and retrieving frequencies, while standing time increased significantly in rats treated with 1.5g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. On the contrary, lying time decreased gradually in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, movement activities were higher in rats treated with 1g/l lead acetate than other treated groups and control. Furthermore, time spent in closed arms was significantly lower in rats given 2g/l lead acetate than other treated groups, while they spent significantly much time spent in open arms than other treated groups which could be attributed to occurrence of adaptation. Furthermore, number of entries in open arms was-dose dependent. However, the ratio between open/closed arms revealed a significant decrease in rats treated with 2g/l lead acetate than the control group.

Keywords: Behavior, rats, lead toxicity, learning ability

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52 Poverty and Environmental Degeneration in Central City of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Funmilayo Lanrewaju Amao, Amos Olusegun Amao, Odetoye Adeola Sunday, Joseph Joshua Olu

Abstract:

There is a high magnitude of housing inadequacy in urban centers in Nigeria. This is manifested in quantitative and qualitative terms. Severe overcrowding and insanitary physical environment characterize the housing in the urban centers. The culminating effect of this is the growth of slum areas. This paper takes a critical look at inter-allia history and anatomy, general characteristic, present condition, root causes, official responses and reactions, possible solution and advocacy housing in central city slum of Ibadan. It also examines slum development and consequent deviant behaviors in the inner-city neighborhoods of Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, Nigeria. Residing there are many underemployed and unemployed individuals, these are miscreants who are generally socially frustrated. The activities of this group of people are a cause of concern. Deleterious and anti-social behaviors such as prostitution and house burglary are commonplace in the neighborhoods. The paper examines building conditions in the neighborhoods and the nexus with the deviant behavior of the inhabitants. The paper affirms that there is monumental deficiency in housing quality, while the design and the arrangement of the buildings into spatial units significantly influence the behavior of the residents. The paper suggests a two-prong approach in dealing with the situation. This involves urban renewal and slum upgrading programmes on the one hand, and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants, especially an increase in employment opportunity on the other.

Keywords: Housing, Behavior, Poverty, slum, environmental degeneration

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51 Customers' Perception towards the Service Marketing Mix and Frequency of Use of Mercedes Benz Automobile Service, Thailand

Authors: Pranee Tridhoskul

Abstract:

This research paper is aimed to examine a relationship between the service marketing mix and customers’ frequency of use of service at Mercedes Benz Auto Repair Centres under Thonburi Group, Thailand. Based on 2,267 customers who used the service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres as the population, the sampling of this research was a total of 340 samples, by use of Probability Sampling Technique. Systematic Random Sampling was applied by use of questionnaire in collecting the data at Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres. Mean and Pearson’s basic statistical correlations were utilized in analyzing the data. The study discovered a medium level of customers’ perception towards product and service of Thonburi Group’s Auto Repair Centres, price, place or distribution channel and promotion. People who provided service were perceived also at a medium level, whereas the physical evidence and service process were perceived at a high level. Furthermore, there appeared a correlation between the physical evidence and service process, and customers’ frequency of use of automobile service per year.

Keywords: Behavior, service marketing mix, Mercedes Auto Service Centre, frequency of use

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50 Farmers’ Awareness and Behavior of Chemical Pesticide Uses in Suan Luang Sub-District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram, Thailand

Authors: Paiboon Jeamponk, Tikamporn Thipsaeng

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to investigate farmers’ level of awareness and behavior of chemical pesticide uses, by using a case study of Suan Luang Sub- District Municipality, Ampawa, Samut Songkram Province. Questionnaire was employed in this study with the farmers from 46 households to explore their level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses, while interview and observation were adopted in exploring their behavior of chemical pesticide uses. The findings reflected the farmers’ high level of awareness in chemical pesticide uses in the hazardous effects of the chemical to human and environmental health, while their behavior of chemical pesticide uses explained their awareness paid to the right way of using pesticides, for instance reading the direction on the label, keeping children and animals away from the area of pesticide mixing, covering body with clothes and wearing hat and mask, no smoking, eating or drinking during pesticide spray or standing in windward direction.

Keywords: Behavior, Pesticide, awareness, farmers

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49 Effects of Exposure to Domestic Physical Violence on Children's Behavior: A Chinese Community-Based Sample

Authors: Cao Yuping, Li Longfei, Zhao Xingfu, Zhang Yalin

Abstract:

Purpose: This study examined the effects of exposure to domestic physical violence (DPV) on children’s behavior in a community sample. Method: Ninety-three 12-16 year-old adolescents exposed to DPV were matched with 54 adolescents with no exposure to DPV based on age, gender, family composition and parental age and education level. Participation included assessment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) by the adolescents and their parents respectively. Results: CBCL total score and anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing scores were significantly higher in adolescents exposed to DPV than those in controls (all ps<0.05).The CBCL total score and scores of anxiety/depression, social interaction problems, attention problems, delinquency, aggression and externalizing behaviors of boys were significantly higher in the research group than in the controls (all ps<0.05). Delinquency scores in abused adolescents were significantly higher than in DPV witnessed (p<0.05), but no other scores of CBCL were significant different. Different subtypes of behavioral problems were associated with different types of abuse. Conclusions: DPV exposure is associated with adverse behaviors in children, especially among boys. Children witness DPV alone have similar behavioral scores as the abused children. We recommend that both abused and DPV witness adolescents in Chinese communities need treatment to mitigate the effects on maladjusted behaviors.

Keywords: Behavior, Community, Child, Domestic Violence, China

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48 Fuzzy Logic in Detecting Children with Behavioral Disorders

Authors: David G. Maxínez, Andrés Ferreyra Ramírez, Liliana Castillo Sánchez, Nancy Adán Mendoza, Carlos Aviles Cruz

Abstract:

This research describes the use of fuzzy logic in detection, assessment, analysis and evaluation of children with behavioral disorders. It shows how to acquire and analyze ambiguous, vague and full of uncertainty data coming from the input variables to get an accurate assessment result for each of the typologies presented by children with behavior problems. Behavior disorders analyzed in this paper are: hyperactivity (H), attention deficit with hyperactivity (DAH), conduct disorder (TD) and attention deficit (AD).

Keywords: Economic, Behavior, Social, Disorders, Fuzzy Logic, Detection, hyperactivity, alteration, centroid, impulsivity

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47 Occupational Stress, Perceived Fairness, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior among Bank Workers in Nigeria

Authors: K. M. Ngbea, F. Ugwu, J. M. Uwouku, P. Atsehe, A. Ucho, P. N. Achakpa-Ikyo, P. Azende

Abstract:

This study examined occupational stress, perceived fairness and organizational citizenship behavior among bank workers. The participants were 198 (118) males and (80) female's bank employees from selected banks within Makurdi metropolis and questionnaire were used for data collection. Three hypotheses were tested and it was found that employees with high perception of occupational stress differ significantly from their counterparts at perceived fairness also influenced organizational citizenship behavior.On the other hand, there is no interaction effect of occupational stress and perceived fairness on organizational citizenship behavior. The implication of findings, limitations, recommendations and conclusions were discussed.

Keywords: Behavior, Occupational Stress, perceived fairness, organizational citizenship

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46 Impact of Some Experimental Procedures on Behavioral Patterns and Physiological Traits of Rats

Authors: Amira, A. Goma, U. E. Mahrous

Abstract:

Welfare may be considered to be a subjective experience; it has a biological function that is related to the fitness and survival of the animal accordingly, researches have suggested that welfare is compromised when the animal's evolutionary fitness is reduced. This study was carried out to explain the effect of some managerial stressors as handling and restraint on behavioral patterns and biochemical parameters of rats. A total of 24 (12 males and 12 females) Sprague-Dawley rats (12 months and 150-180g) were allotted into 3 groups, handled group (4 male and 4 female), restrained group (4 male and 4 female) and control group (4 males and 4 females). The obtained results revealed that time spent feeding, drinking frequency, movement and cage exploration increased significantly in handled rats than other groups, while lying time and licking increased significantly in restrained rats than handled and controls. Moreover, social behavior decreased in both stressed groups than control. Triglycerides were significantly increased in handled rats than other groups, while total lipid, total protein and globulin significantly increased in both treated groups than control. Corticosterone increased in restrained and handled rats than control ones. Moreover, there was an increment in packed cell volume significantly in restrained rats than others. These deducted that if we want to study the effect of stress on animal welfare it is necessary to study the effect of such stressors on animal’s behavior and physiological responses.

Keywords: Physiology, Behavior, welfare, Handling, rat, restraint

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45 The Consumer's Behavior of Bakery Products in Bangkok

Authors: Jiraporn Weenuttranon

Abstract:

The objectives of the consumer behavior of bakery products in Bangkok are to study consumer behavior of the bakery product, to study the essential factors that could possibly affect the consumer behavior and to study recommendations for the development of the bakery products. This research is a survey research. Populations are buyer’s bakery products in Bangkok. The probability sample size is 400. The research uses a questionnaire for self-learning by using information technology. The researcher created a reliability value at 0.71 levels of significance. The data analysis will be done by using the percentage, mean, and standard deviation and testing the hypotheses by using chi-square.

Keywords: Behavior, Consumer, standard deviation, bakery

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44 Responsibility of Corporate Manager: To Synthesize of the Different Theories by Economic, Political, Social, and Behavioral Perspectives

Authors: Bahram Soltani, Louai Ghazieh

Abstract:

Following the high profile financial scandals of 2007-2008, corporate management has been faced with strong pressures resulting from more regulatory requirements, as well as the increasing expectations of various groups of stakeholders. The responsibility acquired a big importance in front of this financial crisis. This responsibility requires more transparency and communication, inside the company with the collaborators and outside of the company with the society, while companies try to improve the degree of control and to authorize managers to realize the objectives of the company. The objective of this paper is to present the concept of the responsibility generally and the various types of manager’s responsibility in private individual within the company, as well as the explanatory theories of this responsibility through the various perspectives such as: economic, political, social and behavioral. This study should have academic and practical contributions particularly for regulators seeking to improve the companies’ practices and organizational functioning within capital market economy.

Keywords: Behavior, Accountability, Financial Crisis, Corporate Performance, manager

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43 Reproductive Behavior of Caspian Red Deer (Cervus Elaphus Maral) in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari

Authors: Behrang Ekrami, Amin Tamadon

Abstract:

Caspian red deer or maral (Cervus elaphus maral) is a ruminant from the family of Cervidae. Maintenance and protection of maral requires knowing the behavioral, physiological, environmental characteristics and factors harmful to this species. In this article, reproductive and behavioral traits of this species in both sexes are presented based on observations and the available records of protected deer in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari (one of the sites that preserve the maral in the Free Zones of Hyrcanian forest) from 2006 to 2011. Hart characteristics including sexual behavior, apparent changes during reproductive season and reproductive physiology; and hind characteristics including of ovulation, reproductive cycle, mating, pregnancy and parturition, have been evaluated. Identification of maral reproductive characteristics in Wildlife Refuge of Semeskande, Sari is one of the most important information requirements to preserve and breed this species and will open up new routes for performing new methods of reproduction of this species in Iran wildlife parks or other refuge areas.

Keywords: Behavior, Reproduction, Iran, caspian red deer

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42 The Influence of Water Content on the Shear Resistance of Silty Sands

Authors: Mohamed Boualem Salah

Abstract:

This work involves an experimental study of the behavior of chlef sand under effect of various parameters influencing on shear strength. Because of their distinct nature, sands, silts and clays exhibit completely different behavior (shear strength, the contracting and dilatancy, the angle of internal friction and cohesion etc.). By cons when these materials are mixed, their behavior will become different from each considered alone. The behavior of these mixtures (silty sands etc.) is currently the state of several studies to better use. We studied in this work: The influence of the following factors on the shear strength: (The density, the fines content, the water content). The apparatus used for the tests is the shear box casagrande. This device, although one may have some disadvantages and modern instrumentation is appropriate used to study the shear strength of soils.

Keywords: Behavior, Sand, Cohesion, Shear Strength, moisture content, friction angle, fines content, silt

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41 Modeling of International Financial Integration: A Multicriteria Decision

Authors: Zouari Ezzeddine, Tarchoun Monaem

Abstract:

Despite the multiplicity of advanced approaches, the concept of financial integration couldn’t be an explicit analysis. Indeed, empirical studies appear that the measures of international financial integration are one-dimensional analyses. For the ambivalence of the concept and its multiple determinants, it must be analyzed in multidimensional level. The interest of this research is a proposal of a decision support by multicriteria approach for determining the positions of countries according to their international and financial dependencies links with the behavior of financial actors (trying to make governance decisions or diversification strategies of international portfolio ...

Keywords: Decision Support, Behavior, Financial Integration, multicriteria approach, governance and diversification

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40 Achieving Household Electricity Saving Potential Through Behavioral Change

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri

Abstract:

The rapid growth of Indonesia population is directly proportional to the energy needs of the country, but not all of Indonesian population can relish the electricity. Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. User behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. However repair solution will impact the user's habits sustainable energy issues. This study attempts to identify the user behavior and lifestyle that affect household electricity consumption and to evaluate the potential for energy saving. The behavior component is frequently underestimated or ignored in analyses of household electrical energy end use, partly because of its complexity. It is influenced by socio-demographic factors, culture, attitudes, aesthetic norms and comfort, as well as social and economic variables. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

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39 Assessing Household Energy Savings and Consumer Behavior in Padang City

Authors: Lusi Susanti, Prima Fithri, Karin Bestarina

Abstract:

Indonesia's electrification ratio is still around 80.1%, which means that approximately 19.9% of households in Indonesia have not been getting the flow of electrical energy. Household electricity consumptions in Indonesia are generally still dominated by the public urban. In the city of Padang, West Sumatera, Indonesia, about 94.10% are power users of government services (PLN). The most important thing of the issue is human resources efficient energy. Consumer behavior in utilizing electricity becomes significant. Intensive questioner survey, in-depth interview and statistical analysis are carried out to collect scientific evidences of the behavioral based changes instruments to reduce electricity consumption in household sector. The questioner was developed to include five factors assuming affect the electricity consumption pattern in household sector. They are: attitude, energy price, household income, knowledge and other determinants. The survey was carried out in Padang, West Sumatra Province Indonesia. About 210 questioner papers were proportionally distributed to households in 11 districts in Padang. Stratified sampling was used as a method to select respondents. The results show that the household size, income, payment methods and size of house are factors affecting electricity saving behavior in residential sector. Household expenses on electricity are strongly influenced by gender, type of job, level of education, size of house, income, payment method and level of installed power. These results provide a scientific evidence for stakeholders on the potential of controlling electricity consumption and designing energy policy by government in residential sector.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Behavior, Policy, Electricity, household

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38 Effectiveness of Diflubenzuron (DIMILIN) on Various Biological Stages and Behavior of Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hemiptera, anthocoridae) Under Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Baboo Ali, Avni Ugur

Abstract:

Pesticide namely, Diflubenzuron, is tremendously used in pear orchards against different insect pests of pear fruit trees in Turkey. The predatory bug, Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) is found in pear orchard feeding on Cacopsylla pyri (L.) (Homoptera: Psyllidae), is an insect pest of pear fruit trees. In this study, the effectiveness of the above mentioned pesticide on various biological stages of predatory bug were investigated under laboratory conditions of 25±1˚C, 75±5% RH, and photoperiod of 16L: 8D h. Newly emerged 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th instars as well as the female and male stages of the predatory bug were placed on treated petri dishes and their mortality was checked after every 24 hours till the survival of the last individual. Prey consumption of surviving instars as well as the adult stages was determined simultaneously. All biological stages of the predatory bug were fed with eggs of Ephestia kuehniella during the whole research work. Percent hatch of treated eggs was recorded after every 24 hours, and the behavioral test of the male and female stages against Diflubenzuron was also determined using Y-tube olfactometer. Consequently, the mortality rate of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th instars was 61.32 %, 67.50%, 74. 91%, 80.11%, and 83.04%, respectively. In case of male and female stages, it has been recorded as 95.47% and 95.50%, respectively. Thus, a significant difference was not found between female and male mortality rates. Prey consumption of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th surviving instars was noted as 8.01, 11. 72, 13.24, 16.93 and 20.49 number of eggs/day while in females and males, it was 12.05 and 12.71 number of eggs/day, respectively. Hatching ratio of treated eggs of predator was 25.32±4.08. As far as the behavioral test is concerned, it has been indicated that Diflubenzuron has 65% repellent effect on the newly emerged male and female stages of the predatory bug while using Y-tube olfactometer under laboratory conditions.

Keywords: Behavior, Pesticide, Effectiveness, biological stages, diflubenzuron, predatory bug

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37 Behavior and Obesity: The Perception of Healthcare Professionals Concerning the Role of Behavior on Obesity

Authors: Saeed Wahass

Abstract:

Objective: Obesity is epidemic, affecting all societies and cultures. Most serious medical illnesses are attributed to obesity. For this reason, all healthcare systems worldwide have focused on obesity for both intervention and prevention. However, there is scientific evidence supporting that obesity is treatable through implementing different modalities of interventions. They include biological interventions like medications and bariatric surgeries and behavioral interventions. It seems healthcare professionals may suggest the quick and the easiest interventions for obesity like surgery, ignoring other modesties that might require efforts from their sides and patients as well. Searching on the onset, progression and prevention, behavior plays a major role. As a result, psychological interventions have become increasingly core for intervention and prevention of obesity. They are effective and cost effective in dealing with obesity. Methods: A questionnaire describing the role of behavior on obesity and the way it can be prevented and treated was distributed to a group of health professionals who are dealing with obesity e.g. bariatric surgeons, bariatric physicians, psychologists, health educators, nurses and social workers. Results: 88% of healthcare professionals believed that behavior plays a major role on the onset and progression of obesity, 95% of them recognized that obesity can be prevented with consideration for behavior factors. A major proportion (87%) of the respondents see that psychological interventions are effective and cost effective in treating obesity. Conclusions: It optimistically appears that the majority of healthcare professionals believe that behavior is a key component in understanding, preventing and treating obesity. This outcome may help in developing specific training courses for healthcare professionals, who are dealing with obesity concerning the way they can treat patients behaviorally and, moreover, educating the community.

Keywords: Obesity, Behavior, Psychological Interventions, healthcare provider

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36 Assessing Empathy of Deliquent Adolescents

Authors: Stephens Oluyemi Adetunji, Nel Norma Margaret, Naidu Narainsamy

Abstract:

Empathy has been identified by researchers to be a crucial factor in helping adolescents to refrain from delinquent behavior. Adolescent delinquent behavior is a social problem that has become a source of concern to parents, psychologists, educators, correctional services, researchers as well as governments of nations. Empathy is a social skill that enables an individual to understand and to share another’s emotional state. An individual with a high level of empathy will avoid any act or behavior that will affect another person negatively. The need for this study is predicated on the fact that delinquent adolescent behavior could lead to adult criminality. This, in the long run, has the potential of resulting in an increase in crime rate thereby threatening public safety. It has therefore become imperative to explore the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents who have committed crime and are awaiting trial. It is the conjecture of this study that knowledge of the empathy level of delinquent adolescents will provide an opportunity to design an intervention strategy to remediate the deficit. This study was therefore designed to determine the level of empathy of delinquent adolescents. In addition, this study provides a better understanding of factors that may prevent adolescents from developing delinquent behavior, in this case, delinquents’ empathy levels. In the case of participants who have a low level of empathy, remediation strategies to improve their empathy level would be designed. Two research questions were raised to guide this study. A mixed methods research design was employed for the study. The sample consists of fifteen male adolescents who are between 13-18 years old with a mean age of 16.5 years old. The participants are adolescents who are awaiting trial. The non-probability sampling technique was used to obtain the sample for the quantitative study while purposive sampling was used in the case of the qualitative study. A self–report questionnaire and structured interview were used to assess the level of empathy of participants. The data obtained was analysed using the simple percentages for the quantitative data and transcribing the qualitative data. The result indicates that most of the participants have low level of empathy. It is also revealed that there is a difference in the empathy level on the basis of whether they are from parents living together and those whose parents are separated. Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that the level of empathy of participants be improved through training and emphasizing the importance of stimulating family environment for children. It is also recommended that programs such as youth mentoring and youth sheltering be established by the government of South Africa to address the menace of delinquent adolescents.

Keywords: Behavior, Adolescents, Empathy, delinquents

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35 The Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams Externally Strengthened with CFRP Composites Exposed for Different Environment Conditions

Authors: Rajai Al-Rousan

Abstract:

The repair and strengthening of concrete structures is a big challenge for the concrete industry for both engineers and contractors. Due to increasing economical constraints, the current trend is to repair/upgrade deteriorated and functionally obsolete structures rather than replacing them with new structures. CFRP has been used previously by air space industries regardless of the high costs. The decrease in the costs of the composite materials, as results of the technology improvement, has made CFRP an alternative to conventional materials for many applications. The primary objective of this research is to investigate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams externally strengthened with CFRP composites exposed for three years for the following conditions: (a) room temperature, (b) cyclic ponding in 15% salt-water solution, (c) hot-water of 65oC, and (d) rapid freeze/thaw cycles. Results indicated that the after three years of various environmental conditions, the bond strength between the concrete beams and CFRP sheets was not affected. No signs of separation or debonding of CFRP sheets were observed before testing. Also, externally strengthening RC beams with CFRP sheets leads to a substantial increase in the ductility of concrete structures. This is a result of forcing the concrete to undergo inelastic deformation, resulting in compression failure of the structure after yielding of steel reinforcement. In addition, exposure to heat water tank for three years reduces the ultimate load by about 11%. This 11% reduction in the ultimate load equates to about 53%, 46% and 68% loss of the gain of the strength attributed to the CFRP of 2/3 Layer, 1 Layers and 2 Layers CFRP Sheets respectively. This mean that with decreasing of number of layers the environmental exposure had an efficient effect on concrete by protection concrete from environmental effect and adverse effect on the bond performance.

Keywords: Composites, Environment, Behavior, CFRP, flexural, conditions

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34 [Keynote Talk]: A Blueprint for an Educational Trajectory: The Power of Discourse in Constructing “Naughty” and “Adorable” Kindergarten Students

Authors: Fernanda T. Orsati, Julie Causton

Abstract:

Discursive practices enacted by educators in kindergarten create a blueprint for how the educational trajectories of students with disabilities are constructed. This two-year ethnographic case study critically examine educators’ relationships with students considered to present challenging behaviors in one kindergarten classroom located in a predominantly White middle-class school district in the Northeast of the United States. Focusing on the language and practices used by one special education teacher and three teaching assistants, this paper analyzes how teacher responses to students’ behaviors constructs and positions students over one year of kindergarten education. Using a critical discourse analysis, it shows that educators understand students’ behaviors as a deficit and needing consequences. This study highlights how educators’ responses reflect students' individual characteristics including family background, socioeconomics and ability status. This paper offers in-depth analysis of two students’ stories, which evidenced that the language used by educators amplifies the social positioning of students within the classroom and creates a foundation for who they are constructed to be. Through exploring routine language and practices, this paper demonstrates that educators outlined a blueprint of kindergartners, which positioned students as learners in ways that became the ground for either a limited or a promising educational pathway for them.

Keywords: Behavior, Special Education, Early Education, Critical Discourse Analysis

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33 Relationship of Teachers' Personality and Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Personality Development in Mainland Local Government Area, Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Solomon Olusegun Olugbenro

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the relationship of teachers' personalty and peer pressure on adolescents' personalty in mainland local government, Lagos State, Nigeria. The research design for this study was survey. A representative fraction of the population of mainland local government of lagos was used as sample. One hundred and fifty (150) teenagers whose age ranged from 11-19 from six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in mainland local government area of lagos were used. A four-point likert type questionnaire was constructed for eliciting data for this study. Data were analysed using t-test. The study revealed that there is a significant relationship between teachers' and adolescents' personality development. The study also revealed that there is significant relationship between peer pressure and adolescents' personality development. It was recommended that teachers should be role models to students as they manipulate environmental factors to assist adolescents in their personality development.

Keywords: Development, Relationship, Behavior, Adolescents, Teachers, Personality, peer pressure, significant

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32 The Study of Information Uses Behaviour of Tourists in Songkhla Province, Thailand

Authors: Patraporn Kaewkhanitarak, Suchada Srichuar, Narawat Kanjanapan

Abstract:

This research is the survey research. The purpose of this research is to study information uses behavior and problem of tourists in Songkhla Province. The tool used in this study include structure questioner standardize in 5 levels rating scale. The 400 participants selected by convenience sampling (allowable error 5%) by Taro Yamane method. The collecting data period is 6 months from January-June 2014. The result of this study found that the type of information that the tourists often use to plan their trip is internet (x̅ = 3.81) and the most popular text is restaurant (x̅ = 3.77). The tourists found that booking or buying service from internet provided more affordable price and they could select appropriate plan by themselves. The most convenience source of information that the tourists often use is internet and website (x̅ = 3.69). Nevertheless, they explained that most of tourist information source in Songkhla province are lack and insufficient of tourist organization that provide information and service related to tourism.

Keywords: Information, Behavior, Thailand, tourists

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31 Effect of Perception on People’s Behavior in Public Space

Authors: Morteza Maleki

Abstract:

In the present study is that it tried to behave in the environment to be monitored and the respective roles of environment (assumed as a vessel) and human beings (assumed as occupants of this vessel) inevitably create effects which can be expressed as various behaviors on the part of human being. The mutual relationship between man and his environment is exhibited through perceptions, behaviors, subjective images, activities, etc. This study investigates the conceptual dimension in the form of the four components of readability, sense of place, identity, and Tenability (tenability) at the Ahmadabad Axis in Mashhad. The theoretical fundamentals and the data regarding the status quo were presented through the descriptive method and the proposed policies were derived through analyzing the available status quo information. The required data were gathered from library resources and documents related to the studied area as well as from instruments used in field methods such as questionnaires. Upon conducting the necessary investigation, the conceptual dimension within the design area was analyzed. The SWOT table was presented, and the results obtained for improving environmental perception were arranged in the form of policy-making tables and operational projects tables for improving the sense of place, creating imagery, and other investigated components.

Keywords: Perception, Environment, Behavior, Public space

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30 Effect of Toxic Metals Exposure on Rat Behavior and Brain Morphology: Arsenic, Manganese

Authors: Tamar Bikashvili, Tamar Lordkipanidze, Ilia Lazrishvili

Abstract:

Heavy metals remain one of serious environmental problems due to their toxic effects. The effect of arsenic and manganese compounds on rat behavior and neuromorphology was studied. Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: rats in control group were given regular water, while rats in other groups drank water with final manganese concentration of 10 mg/L (group A), 20 mg/L (group B) and final arsenic concentration 68 mg/L (group C), respectively, for a month. To study exploratory and anxiety behavior and also to evaluate aggressive performance in “home cage” rats were tested in “Open Field” and to estimate learning and memory status multi-branched maze was used. Statistically significant increase of motor and oriental-searching activity in experimental groups was revealed by an open field test, which was expressed in increase of number of lines crossed, rearing and hole reflexes. Obtained results indicated the suppression of fear in rats exposed to manganese. Specifically, this was estimated by the frequency of getting to the central part of the open field. Experiments revealed that 30-day exposure to 10 mg/ml manganese did not stimulate aggressive behavior in rats, while exposure to the higher dose (20 mg/ml), 37% of initially non-aggressive animals manifested aggressive behavior. Furthermore, 25% of rats were extremely aggressive. Obtained data support the hypothesis that excess manganese in the body is one of the immediate causes of enhancement of interspecific predatory aggressive and violent behavior in rats. It was also discovered that manganese intoxication produces non-reversible severe learning disability and insignificant, reversible memory disturbances. Studies of rodents exposed to arsenic also revealed changes in the learning process. As it is known, the distribution of metal ions differs in various brain regions. The principle manganese accumulation was observed in the hippocampus and in the neocortex, while arsenic was predominantly accumulated in nucleus accumbens, striatum, and cortex. These brain regions play an important role in the regulation of emotional state and motor activity. Histopathological analyzes of brain sections illustrated two morphologically distinct altered phenotypes of neurons: (1) shrunk cells with indications of apoptosis - nucleus and cytoplasm were very difficult to be distinguished, the integrity of neuronal cytoplasm was not disturbed; and (2) swollen cells - with indications of necrosis. Pyknotic nucleus, plasma membrane disruption and cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in swollen neurons and they were surrounded by activated gliocytes. It’s worth to mention that in the cortex the majority of damaged neurons were apoptotic while in subcortical nuclei –neurons were mainly necrotic. Ultrastructural analyses demonstrated that all cell types in the cortex and the nucleus caudatus represent destructed mitochondria, widened neurons’ vacuolar system profiles, increased number of lysosomes and degeneration of axonal endings.

Keywords: Learning, Behavior, Arsenic, neuron, manganese

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29 Social Contact Patterns among School-Age Children in Taiwan

Authors: Dih Ling Luh, Zhi Shih You, Szu Chieh Chen

Abstract:

Social contact patterns among school-age children play an important role in the epidemiology of infectious disease. Since many of the greatest threats to human health are spread by direct person-to-person contact, understanding the spread of respiratory pathogens and patterns of human interactions are public health priorities. This study used social contact diaries to compare the number of contacts per day per participant across different flu/non-flu seasons and weekend/weekday. We also present contact properties such as sex, age, masking, setting, frequency, duration, and contact types among school-age children (grades 7–8). The sample size with pair-wise comparisons for the seasons (flu/non-flu) and stratification by location were 54 and 83, respectively. There was no difference in the number of contacts during the flu and non-flu seasons, with averages of 16.3 (S.D. = 12.9) and 14.6 (S.D. = 9.5) people, respectively. Weekdays were associated with 23% and 28% more contacts than weekend days during the non-flu and flu seasons, respectively (p < 0.001) (Wilcoxon signed-rank test).

Keywords: Behavior, Influenza, contact patterns, social mixing

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28 The Psychological Impact of Memorials on People: The Case of Northern-Cyprus

Authors: Ma'in Abushaikha

Abstract:

Memorials are usually a landmark could be either an object, sculpture or a statue. They are built for a specific group or person who has died with historical contribution, or it could refer to an important hub, event or a specific culture, therefore to keep past events alive in the common memory through this kind of physical representation in public areas, or even to satisfy the desire to honour something either it is a person who suffered or died during a conflict or just to honour a group of people or even a whole society in a specific character they used to possess during a specific period of time. The aim behind the research is to look more deeply about the importance of memorials placement and environment for more successful outcomes towards people's psychology, therefore, behavior, manners and characteristics, knowing that in the main, they are usually set for function able purposes so people could be involved meaningfully therefore psychologically more than aesthetically. What contribution either positive or negative does memorialization through its physical/urban elements has towards people? Is it towards locals social reconstruction over time including either their understanding to the current conflicts or is it toward their general behavior, manners and characteristics in terms of psychology? And how important Memorial's placement is for the observer? Moreover, how does that either reduces or increases its value, attractiveness, and its effectiveness? This paper considers taking north Cyprus memorials as the main case study, is good enough as a choice to support the research hypothesis where a comparison between deferent memorials is going to be done as the main approach in trying to address the mentioned questions, by that, the research requires field survey in terms of interviewing both dwellers and general observers as well as library survey by viewing similar studies. As a significant result, this research is about to come up assesses how important memorials placements are, in order to apply its impact to the observers, whereas the most successful placed ones have its more effectiveness on observers psychology by time by introducing several mental reflects by this kind of physical representation.

Keywords: Psychology, Environment, Behavior, Impact, Characteristics, memorials, placement, manners

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27 Effect of Manual Compacting and Semi-Automatic Compacting on Behavior of Stabilized Earth Concrete

Authors: Sihem Chaibeddra, Fahim Kahlouche, Fattoum Kharchi, Youcef Benna

Abstract:

In the recent years, a considerable level of interest has been developed on the use of earth in construction, led by its rediscovery as an environmentally building material. The Stabilized Earth Concrete (SEC) is a good alternative to the cement concrete, thanks to its thermal and moisture regulating features. Many parameters affect the behavior of stabilized earth concrete. This article presents research results related to the influence of the compacting nature on some SEC properties namely: The mechanical behavior, capillary absorption, shrinkage and sustainability to water erosion, and this, basing on two types of compacting: Manual and semi-automatic.

Keywords: Behavior, semi-automatic, compacting, manual, SEC

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26 Knowledge and Attitude: Challenges for Continuing Education in Health

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, André M. Senna, Rosa M. Machado-de-Sena

Abstract:

One of the great challenges presented in educational practice is how to ensure the students not only acquire knowledge of training courses throughout their academic life, but also how to apply it in their current professional activities. Consequently, aiming to incite changes in the education system of healthcare professionals noticed the inadequacy of the training providers to solve the social problems related to health, the education related to these procedures should initiate in the earliest years of process. Following that idea, there is another question that needs an answer: If the change in the education should start sooner, in the period of basic training of healthcare professionals, what guidelines should a permanent education program incorporate to promote changes in an already established system? For this reason, the objective of this paper is to present different views of the teaching-learning process, with the purpose of better understanding the behavior adopted by healthcare professionals, through bibliographic study. The conclusion was that more than imparting knowledge to the individual, a larger approach is necessary on permanent education programs concerning the performance of professional health services in order to foment significant changes in education.

Keywords: Continuing Education, Health Education, Behavior, training

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25 The Study of Thai Consumer Behavior toward Buying Goods on the Internet

Authors: Pichamon Chansuchai

Abstract:

The study of Thai consumer behavior toward buying goods on the Internet is a survey research. The five-level rating scale and open-ended questionnaire are applied for this research procedure, which has more than 400 random sampling of Thai people aged between 15-40 years old. The summary findings are: The analysis of respondents profile were female 55.3% and male 44.8% , 35.3% aged between 20-30 years old, had been employed 29.5% with average income up to 11,000 baht/month 50.2% and expenditure more than 11,000 baht per month 29.3%. The internet usage behavior of respondents mostly found that objectives of the internet usage are: 1) Communication 93.3% 2) the categories of websites usage was trading 42.8% 3) The marketing mix effected to trading behavior via internet which can be analyzed in term of marketing factor as following: Product focused on product quality was the most influenced factor with average value 4.75. The cheaper price than overview market was the most effect factor to internet shopping with mean value 4.53. The average value 4.67 of the available place that could reduce spending time for shopping. The effective promotion of the buy 1 get 1 was the stimulus factor for internet shopping with mean value 4.60. For hypothesis testing, the different sex has relationship with buying decision. It presented that male and female have vary purchasing decision via internet with value of significant difference 0.05. Furthermore, the variety occupations of respondents related to the use of selected type of website. It also found that the vary of personal occupation effected to the type of website selection dissimilar with value of significant difference 0.05.

Keywords: Internet, Behavior, Consumer, goods

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