Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Beauveria bassiana Related Abstracts

7 Histological Changes in the Culex pipiens Mosquito Larvae Treated by the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana

Authors: Fatma Sahir- Halouane, Sonia Hamid, Farida Tihar-Benzina, Fatiha Bouhlali, Souad Lourchane

Abstract:

The Culicidae are biting insects, the most harmful to people, they are almost all bloodsuckers, and they are responsible of the spread of many important diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, and elephantiasis. Entomopathogenic microorganisms occupy an important place among the alternative methods of fighting against pests insect. The fungus Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic agent naturally present in the ecosystems. It offers a very interesting potential for controlling populations of mosquitoes. This study aimed to show the histological changes that occured in Culex pipiens larvae infected with Beauveria bassiana. The 4th instar larvae were infected with B. bassiana in 10-7 spore/ml dilution, the histological section was studied showing that the fungi infected all the body parts specially Cuticle, Epiderms, fat bodies and midgut. After then the insect have a white appearance and covered with a thick coat of hyphea. The obtained results show that the application of Beauveria bassiana on cuticle of the fourth stage larvae of Culex pipiens was dependent of an apparent disturbance on the structure of the cuticle or there has been the degeneration of its different parts, infection of the fungus does not stop at the body walls. Therefore, it affects even the Adipose tissue, epidermal cells and intestine.

Keywords: Culex pipiens, Beauveria bassiana, histological changes, cuticle, intestine and adipose tissue

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6 Effect of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on the Haemolymph of the Desert Locust Schistocerca gregaria

Authors: Fatima Zohra Bissaad, Farid Bounaceur, Nassima Behidj, Nadjiba Chebouti, Fatma Halouane, Bahia Doumandji-Mitiche

Abstract:

Effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum on the 5th instar nymphs of Schistocerca gregaria was studied in the laboratory. Infection by these both entomopathogenic fungi caused reduction in the hemolymph total protein. The average amounts of total proteins were 2.3, 2.07, 2.09 µg/100 ml of haemolymph in the control and M. anisopliae var. acridum, and B. bassiana based-treatments, respectively. Three types of haemocytes were recognized and identified as prohaemocytes, plasmatocytes and granulocytes. The treatment caused significant reduction in the total haemocyte count and in each haemocyte type on the 9th day after its application.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, haemolymph picture, haemolymph protein, Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum, Schistocerca gregaria

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5 Controlling Cocoa Pod Borer, Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.) and Cost Analysis Production at Cacao Plantation

Authors: Alam Anshary, Flora Pasaru, Shahabuddin

Abstract:

The Cocoa Pod Borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella (Snell.) is present on most of the larger cocoa producing islands in Indonesia. Various control measures CPB has been carried out by the farmers, but the results have not been effective. This study aims to determine the effect of application of Beauveria bassiana treatments and pruning technique to the control of CPB in the cocoa plantation people. Research using completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 3 replications, treatment consists of B.bassiana, Pruning, B. bassiana+pruning (Bb + Pr), as well as the control. The results showed that the percentage of PBK attack on cocoa pods in treatment (Bb + Pr) 3.50% the lowest compared to other treatments. CPB attack percentage in treatment B.bassiana 6.15%; pruning 8.75%, and 15.20% control. Results of the analysis of production estimates, the known treatments (Bb + Pr) have the highest production (1.95 tonnes / ha). The model results estimated production is Y= 0,20999 + 0,53968X1 + 0,34298X2+ 0,31410X3 + 0,35629X4 + 0,08345X5 + 0,29732X6. Farm production costs consist of fixed costs and variable costs, fixed costs are costs incurred by the farmer that the size does not affect the results, such as taxes and depreciation of production equipment. Variable costs are costs incurred by farmers who used up in one year cocoa farming activities. The cost of production in farming cocoa without integrated techniques control of CPB is Rp. 9.205.550 million/ha, while the cost of production with integrated techniques control is Rp. 6.666.050 million/ha.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, cocoa pod borer, cacao, pruning, production costs

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4 The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seedling

Authors: Itji Diana Daud, Nuniek Widiayani

Abstract:

The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B. bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU’s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 and F3 was 7.8 x 106. The research showed that B. Bassiana as endophyte still remain to the third generation. Innovation to the corn seed which is endophyte seed is essential to protect from the attack of corn borer and to avoid the usage of insecticide.

Keywords: third generation, Beauveria bassiana, endophytic, recovered

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3 Biomass Production Improvement of Beauveria bassiana at Laboratory Scale for a Biopesticide Development

Authors: M. Gomez, G. Quiroga-Cubides, M. Cruz, E. Grijalba, J. Sanabria, A. Ceballos, L. García

Abstract:

Beauveria sp. has been used as an entomopathogenic microorganism for biological control of various plant pests such as whitefly, thrips, aphids and chrysomelidaes (including Cerotoma tingomariana species), which affect soybean crops in Colombia´s Altillanura region. Therefore, a biopesticide prototype based on B. bassiana strain Bv060 was developed at Corpoica laboratories. For the production of B. bassiana conidia, a baseline fermentation was performed at laboratory in a solid medium using broken rice as a substrate, a temperature of 25±2 °C and a relative humidity of 60±10%. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a three-time repetition. These culture conditions resulted in an average conidial concentration of 1.48x10^10 conidia/g, a yield of 13.07 g/kg dry substrate and a productivity of 8.83x10^7 conidia/g*h were achieved. Consequently, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the particle size reduction of rice (<1 mm) and the addition of a complex nitrogen source over conidia production and efficiency parameters in a solid-state fermentation, in a completely randomized experiment with a three-time repetition. For this aim, baseline fermentation conditions of temperature and humidity were employed in a semisolid culture medium with powdered rice (10%) and a complex nitrogen source (8%). As a result, it was possible to increase conidial concentration until 9.87x10^10 conidia/g, yield to 87.07 g/g dry substrate and productivity to 3.43x10^8 conidia/g*h. This suggested that conidial concentration and yield in semisolid fermentation increased almost 7 times compared with baseline while the productivity increased 4 times. Finally, the designed system for semisolid-state fermentation allowed to achieve an easy conidia recovery, which means reduction in time and costs of the production process.

Keywords: solid state fermentation, Beauveria bassiana, biopesticide, semisolid medium culture

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2 A Comparative Laboratory Evaluation of Efficacy of Two Fungi: Beauveria bassiana and Acremonium perscinum, on Dichomeris eridantis Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae, an Important Pest of Dalbergia sissoo

Authors: Gunjan Srivastava, Shamila Kalia

Abstract:

Dalbergia sissoo Roxb., (Family- Leguminosae; Subfamily- Papilionoideae), is an economically and ecologically important tree species having medicinal value. Of the rich complex of insect fauna, ten have been recognized as potential pests of nurseries and plantations. Present study was conducted to explore an effective ecofriendly control of Dichomeris eridantis Meyrick, an important defoliator pest of D. sissoo. Health and environmental concerns demanded devising a bio-intensive pest management strategy and employing ecofriendly measures. In the present laboratory bioassay two entomopathogenic fungi Acremonium perscinum and Beauveria bassiana were tested and compared for evaluating the efficacy of their seven different concentrations (besides control) against the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of D. eridantis, on the basis of mean percent mortality data recorded and tabulated for seven days after treatment application. Analysis showed that both treatments vary significantly among themselves. Also, variations amongst instars and duration with respect to their mortality were highly significant (p < .001). All their interactions were found to vary significantly. B. bassiana at 0.25x107 spores / ml spore concentration caused maximum mean percent mortality (62.38%) followed by mean percent mortality at its 0.25x106 spores / ml concentration (56.67%). Mean percent mortality at maximum spore concentration (0.054x107 spores / ml) and next highest spore concentration (0.054 x106 spores / ml) due to A. perscinum treatment were far less effective (mean percent mortality of 45.40% and 31.29%, respectively). At 168 hours mean percent mortality of larval instars due to both fungal treatment applications reached its maximum (52.99%) whereas, at 24 hours mean percent mortality remained least (5.70%). In both cases, treatments were most effective against 3rd instar larvae and least effective against 5th instar larvae. A comparative acccount of efficacy of B. bassiana and A. perscinum on the 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae of D. eridantis on 5th, 6th and 7th post treatment observation days after their application, on the basis of their median lethal concentrations (LC50) proved B. bassiana to be more potential microbial pathogen of the two fungal microbes, for all the three instars (3rd, 4th and 5th) of D. eridantis, on all the three days (5th, 6th and 7th post observation days after application of both treatments). Percent mortality of D. eridantis increased in a dose dependent manner. Koch’s Postulates tested positive, thus confirming the pathogenicity of B. bassiana against the larval instars of D. eridantis. LC90 values of 0.280x1011 spores/ml, 0.301x108 spores/ml and 0.262x108 spores/ml concentrations of B. bassiana were standardized which can effectively cause mortality of all the larval instars of D. eridantis in the field after 5th, 6th and 7th day of their application, respectively. Therefore, these concentrations can be safely used in nurseries as well as plantations of D. sissoo for effective control of D. eridantis larvae.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Acremonium perscinum, Dalbergia sissoo, Dichomeris eridantis

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1 Evaluation of Different Inoculation Methods of Entomopathogenic Fungi on Their Endophytism and Pathogenicity against Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)

Authors: Mubashar Iqbal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Iqra Anjum

Abstract:

The present study was carried to screen out the effective entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) inoculation method in maize and to evaluate pathogenicity and oviposition-choice in C. partellus. Three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) formulations Pacer® (Metarhizium anisopliae), Racer® (Beauveria bassiana) and Meailkil® (Verticillium lecanii) were evaluated at three concentrations (5000, 10000 and 20000 ppm) for their endophytism in maize and pathogenicity in C. partellus. The stock solution of the highest concentration (20,000 ppm) was prepared and next lower from stock solution. In the first experiment, three EPF was inoculated in maize plant by four methods, i.e., leaf-inoculation (LI), whorl-inoculation (WI), shoot-inoculation (SI) and root-inoculation (RI). Leaf-discs and stem-cutting were sampled in all four inoculation methods and placed on fungus growth media in Petri dishes. In the second experiment, pathogenicity, pupal formation, adult emergence, sex ratio, oviposition-choice, and growth index of C. partellus were calculated. The leaves and stem of the inoculated plants were given to the counted number of larvae of C. Partellus. The mortality of larvae was recorded on daily basis till the pupation. The result shows that maximum percent mortality (86.67%) was recorded at high concentration (20000ppm) of Beauveria bassiana by leaf inoculation method. For oviposition choice bioassay, the newly emerged adults were fed on diet (water, honey and yeast in 9:1:1) for 48 hours. One pair of C. Partellus were aspirated from the rearing cages and were detained in large test tube plugged with diet soaked cotton. A set of four plants for each treatment were prepared and randomized inside the large oviposition chamber. The test tubes were opened and fitted in the hole made in the wall of oviposition chamber in front of each treatment. The oviposition chamber was placed in a completely dark laboratory to eliminate the effect of light on moth’s behavior. The plants were removed from the oviposition chamber after the death of adults. The number of eggs deposited on the plant was counted. The results of 2nd experiment revealed that in all EPF and inoculation methods, the fecundity, egg fertility and growth index of C. partellus decreased with the increase in concentration being significantly higher at low concentration (5000ppm) and lower at higher concentration (20000ppm). Application of B. bassiana demonstrated that minimum fecundity (126.83), egg fertility (119.52) and growth index (15%) in C. partellus followed by M. anisopliae with fecundity (135.93), egg fertility (132.29) and growth index (17.50%) while V. lecanii show higher values of fecundity (137.37), egg fertility (1135.42) and growth index (20%). Overall leaf inoculation method showed least fecundity (123.89) with egg fertility (115.36) and growth index (14%) followed by whorl, shoot inoculation method and root inoculation method show higher values of fecundity, egg fertility and growth index.

Keywords: Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisopliae, Chilo partellus, entomopathoganic, Verticillium lecanii

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