Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

bearing Related Abstracts

17 Hydrodynamic Analysis of Journal Bearing Operating With Nanolubricants

Authors: K. Prabhakaran Nair, R. Hariprakash


In this paper, the static and dynamic characteristics of hydrodynamic journal bearings operating under nano lubricants are presented. Hydrodynamic journal bearings are used in turbo machines of power plants to support heavy load. In power plants, bearings are getting failure because of its inability to support the heavy load due to various reasons. Failures of bearings make the power plant to be shutdown. The load carrying capacity of journal bearing mainly depends upon the viscosity of the lubricants. The addition of nano particles on commercially available lubricant may enhance the viscosity of lubricant and in turn, change the performance characteristics. In the literature, though many studies have been carried out for the hydrodynamic bearing operating under Newtonian and non-Newtonian lubricants, studies on hydrodynamic bearings operating under nano lubricants is scarce. Thus, it is felt that there is a need to recompute the performance characteristics of journal bearings operating under nano lubricants.

Keywords: Analysis, journal, hydrodynamic, bearing

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16 Numerical Study on the Static Characteristics of Novel Aerostatic Thrust Bearings Possessing Elastomer Capillary Restrictor and Bearing Surface

Authors: S. W. Lo, S.-H. Lu, Y. H. Guo, L. C. Hsu


In this paper, a novel design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed and is analyzed numerically. The capillary restrictor and bearing disk are made of elastomer like silicone and PU. The viscoelasticity of elastomer helps the capillary expand for more air flux and at the same time, allows conicity of the bearing surface to form when the air pressure is enhanced. Therefore, the bearing has the better ability of passive compensation. In the present example, as compared with the typical model, the new designs can nearly double the load capability and offer four times static stiffness.

Keywords: bearing, aerostatic, elastomer, static stiffness

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15 Current-Based Multiple Faults Detection in Electrical Motors

Authors: Moftah BinHasan


Induction motors (IM) are vital components in industrial processes whose failure may yield to an unexpected interruption at the industrial plant, with highly incurred consequences in costs, product quality, and safety. Among different detection approaches proposed in the literature, that based on stator current monitoring termed as Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA) is the most preferred. MCSA is advantageous due to its non-invasive properties. The popularity of motor current signature analysis comes from being that the current consists of motor harmonics, around the supply frequency, which show some properties related to different situations of healthy and faulty conditions. One of the techniques used with machine line current resorts to spectrum analysis. Besides discussing the fundamentals of MCSA and its applications in the condition monitoring arena, this paper shows a summary of the most frequent faults and their consequence signatures on the stator current spectrum of an induction motor. In addition, this article presents different case studies of induction motor fault diagnosis. These faults were seeded in the machine which was run for more than an hour for each test before the results were recorded for the faulty situations. These results are then compared with those for the healthy cases that were recorded earlier.

Keywords: Condition Monitoring, Fault diagnosis, Induction Motor, bearing, rotor, eccentricity, MCSA, stator

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14 Polymer Aerostatic Thrust Bearing under Circular Support for High Static Stiffness

Authors: Sy-Wei Lo, Chi-Heng Yu


A new design of aerostatic thrust bearing is proposed for high static stiffness. The bearing body, which is mead of polymer covered with metallic membrane, is held by a circular ring. Such a support helps form a concave air gap to grasp the air pressure. The polymer body, which can be made rapidly by either injection or molding is able to provide extra damping under dynamic loading. The smooth membrane not only serves as the bearing surface but also protects the polymer body. The restrictor is a capillary inside a silicone tube. It can passively compensate the variation of load by expanding the capillary diameter for more air flux. In the present example, the stiffness soars from 15.85 N/µm of typical bearing to 349.85 N/µm at bearing elevation 9.5 µm; meanwhile the load capacity also enhances from 346.86 N to 704.18 N.

Keywords: Polymer, bearing, aerostatic, static stiffness

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13 Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System

Authors: Soukat Kumar Das


Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.

Keywords: geogrid, bearing, prestressed, reinforced

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12 Journal Bearing with Controllable Radial Clearance, Design and Analysis

Authors: Majid Rashidi, Shahrbanoo Farkhondeh Biabnavi


The hydrodynamic instability phenomenon in a journal bearing may occur by either a reduction in the load carried by journal bearing, by an increase in the journal speed, by change in the lubricant viscosity, or a combination of these factors. The previous research and development work done to overcome the instability issue of journal bearings, operating in hydrodynamic lubricate regime, can be categorized as follows: A) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve by using piezo actuator, b) Inclusion of strategically located and shaped internal grooves within inner surface of the bearing sleeve, c) Actively controlling the bearing sleeve using an electromagnetic actuator, d)Actively and externally pressurizing the lubricant within a journal bearing set, and e)Incorporating tilting pads within the inner surface of the bearing sleeve that assume different equilibrium angular position in response to changes in the bearing design parameter such as speed and load. This work presents an innovative design concept for a 'smart journal bearing' set to operate in a stable hydrodynamic lubrication regime, despite variations in bearing speed, load, and its lubricant viscosity. The proposed bearing design allows adjusting its radial clearance for an attempt to maintain a stable bearing operation under those conditions that may cause instability for a bearing with a fixed radial clearance. The design concept allows adjusting the radial clearance at small increments in the order of 0.00254 mm. This is achieved by axially moving two symmetric conical rigid cavities that are in close contact with the conically shaped outer shell of a sleeve bearing. The proposed work includes a 3D model of the bearing that depicts the structural interactions of the bearing components. The 3D model is employed to conduct finite element Analyses to simulate the mechanical behavior of the bearing from a structural point of view. The concept of controlling of the radial clearance, as presented in this work, is original and has not been proposed and discuss in previous research. A typical journal bearing was analyzed under a set of design parameters, namely r =1.27 cm (journal radius), c = 0.0254 mm (radial clearance), L=1.27 cm (bearing length), w = 445N (bearing load), μ = 0.028 Pascale (lubricant viscosity). A shaft speed as 3600 r.p.m was considered, and the mass supported by the bearing, m, is set to be 4.38kg. The Summerfield Number associated with the above bearing design parameters turn to be, S=0.3. These combinations resulted in stable bearing operation. Subsequently, the speed was postulated to increase from 3600 r.p.mto 7200 r.p.m; the bearing was found to be unstable under the new increased speed. In order to regain stability, the radial clearance was increased from c = 0.0254 mm to0.0358mm. The change in the radial clearance was shown to bring the bearing back to stable an operating condition.

Keywords: Instability, journal, hydrodynamic, bearing, adjustable clearance

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11 Development of a Robot Assisted Centrifugal Casting Machine for Manufacturing Multi-Layer Journal Bearing and High-Tech Machine Components

Authors: Mohammad Syed Ali Molla, Mohammed Azim, Mohammad Esharuzzaman


Centrifugal-casting machine is used in manufacturing special machine components like multi-layer journal bearing used in all internal combustion engine, steam, gas turbine and air craft turboengine where isotropic properties and high precisions are desired. Moreover, this machine can be used in manufacturing thin wall hightech machine components like cylinder liners and piston rings of IC engine and other machine parts like sleeves, and bushes. Heavy-duty machine component like railway wheel can also be prepared by centrifugal casting. A lot of technological developments are required in casting process for production of good casted machine body and machine parts. Usually defects like blowholes, surface roughness, chilled surface etc. are found in sand casted machine parts. But these can be removed by centrifugal casting machine using rotating metallic die. Moreover, die rotation, its temperature control, and good pouring practice can contribute to the quality of casting because of the fact that the soundness of a casting in large part depends upon how the metal enters into the mold or dies and solidifies. Poor pouring practice leads to variety of casting defects such as temperature loss, low quality casting, excessive turbulence, over pouring etc. Besides these, handling of molten metal is very unsecured and dangerous for the workers. In order to get rid of all these problems, the need of an automatic pouring device arises. In this research work, a robot assisted pouring device and a centrifugal casting machine are designed, developed constructed and tested experimentally which are found to work satisfactorily. The robot assisted pouring device is further modified and developed for using it in actual metal casting process. Lot of settings and tests are required to control the system and ultimately it can be used in automation of centrifugal casting machine to produce high-tech machine parts with desired precision.

Keywords: Robot, bearing, centrifugal casting, cylinder liners

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10 Acoustic Analysis of Ball Bearings to Identify Localised Race Defect

Authors: M. Solairaju, Nithin J. Thomas, S. Ganesan


Each and every rotating part of a machine element consists of bearings within its structure. In particular, the rolling element bearings such as cylindrical roller bearing and deep groove ball bearings are frequently used. Improper handling, excessive loading, improper lubrication and sealing cause bearing damage. Hence health monitoring of bearings is an important aspect for radiation pattern of bearing vibration is computed using the dipole model. Sound pressure level for defect-free and race defect the prolonged life of machinery and auto motives. This paper presents modeling and analysis of Acoustic response of deep groove ball bearing with localized race defects. Most of the ball bearings, especially in machine tool spindles and high-speed applications are pre-loaded along an axial direction. The present study is carried out with axial preload. Based on the vibration response, the orbit motion of the inner race is studied, and it was found that the oscillation takes place predominantly in the axial direction. Simplified acoustic is estimated. Acoustic response shows a better indication in identifying the defective bearing. The computed sound signal is visualized in diagrammatic representation using Symmetrised Dot Pattern (SDP). SDP gives better visual distinction between the defective and defect-free bearing

Keywords: Noise, Sound, bearing, dipole

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9 Friction Calculation and Simulation of Column Electric Power Steering System

Authors: Seyed Hamid Mirmohammad Sadeghi, Raffaella Sesana, Daniela Maffiodo


This study presents a procedure for friction calculation of column electric power steering (C-EPS) system which affects handling and comfort in driving. The friction losses estimation is obtained from experimental tests and mathematical calculation. Parts in C-EPS mainly involved in friction losses are bearings and worm gear. In the theoretical approach, the gear geometry and Hertz law were employed to measure the normal load and the sliding velocity and contact areas from the worm gears driving conditions. The viscous friction generated in the worm gear was obtained with a theoretical approach and the result was applied to model the friction in the steering system. Finally, by viscous friction coefficient and Coulomb friction coefficient, values of friction in worm gear were calculated. According to the Bearing Company and the characteristics of each bearing, the friction torques due to load and due to speed were calculated. A MATLAB Simulink model for calculating the friction in bearings and worm gear in C-EPS were done and the total friction value was estimated.

Keywords: bearing, simulink, friction, EPS, worm gear, column electric power steering system

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8 The Effects of External Daminozide (ALAR) Application on Nutrient Contents in Memecik Olive Trees

Authors: Mustafa Kaplan, Sahriye Sonmez, Salih Ulger, Mustafa Karhan


The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of external ALAR application on nutrients contents in leaf and node in ‘on (bearing)’ and ‘off (non-bearing)’ years in Memecik olive trees. For this purpose; 2000 mg L-1 ALAR was externally applied to Memecik olive trees, and leaf and node samples from olive trees were taken during the induction, initiation and differentiation periods in ‘on’ and ‘off’ years. Nutrients contents (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu) in leaf and node samples were determined. The K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, Nitrogen by Kjeldahl procedure, and P by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that the N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents in ‘on’ year were higher than ‘off’ year while the K contents in ‘on’ year were lower than ‘off ‘ year, but the P content was not different. The N, Ca, Mg, Fe and Mn contents in leaf samples were higher in the node samples except for K while the P, Zn and Cu contents were not different. The N, K, Ca, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu contents were lowest during the initiation period while the P content was highest in this period. The Mg content was not different in all period.

Keywords: bearing, olive, differentiation period, induction period, initiation period, non bearing

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7 A Study on the Application of Accelerated Life Test to Electric Motor for Machine Tools

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim


This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out, and it is compared with the life expectancy by finite element method (FEM) and bearing theory.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, bearing, motor, acceleration coefficient, HALT

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6 A Study on the Calculation of Bearing Life of Electric Motor Using Accelerated Life Test

Authors: Youn-Hwan Kim, Jae-Won Moon, Hae-Joong Kim


This paper introduces the results of the study on the development of accelerated life test methods for the motor used in machine tools. In recent years, as well as efficiency for motors, there is a growing need for research on life expectancy of motors. It is considered impossible to calculate the acceleration coefficient by increasing the rotational load or temperature load as the acceleration stress in the motor system because the temperature of the copper exceeds the wire thermal class rating. This paper describes the equipment development procedure for the highly accelerated life test (HALT) of the 12kW three-phase squirrel-cage induction motors (SCIMs). After the test, the lifetime analysis was carried out and it is compared with the bearing life expectancy by ISO 281.

Keywords: Life Expectancy, bearing, motor, acceleration coefficient, HALT

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5 Application of Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with Adaptive Noise and Multipoint Optimal Minimum Entropy Deconvolution in Railway Bearings Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Yao Cheng, Weihua Zhang


Although the measured vibration signal contains rich information on machine health conditions, the white noise interferences and the discrete harmonic coming from blade, shaft and mash make the fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings difficult. In order to overcome the interferences of useless signals, a new fault diagnosis method combining Complete Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN) and Multipoint Optimal Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MOMED) is proposed for the fault diagnosis of high-speed train bearings. Firstly, the CEEMDAN technique is applied to adaptively decompose the raw vibration signal into a series of finite intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Compared with Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), the CEEMDAN can provide an exact reconstruction of the original signal and a better spectral separation of the modes, which improves the accuracy of fault diagnosis. An effective sensitivity index based on the Pearson's correlation coefficients between IMFs and raw signal is adopted to select sensitive IMFs that contain bearing fault information. The composite signal of the sensitive IMFs is applied to further analysis of fault identification. Next, for propose of identifying the fault information precisely, the MOMED is utilized to enhance the periodic impulses in composite signal. As a non-iterative method, the MOMED has better deconvolution performance than the classical deconvolution methods such Minimum Entropy Deconvolution (MED) and Maximum Correlated Kurtosis Deconvolution (MCKD). Third, the envelope spectrum analysis is applied to detect the existence of bearing fault. The simulated bearing fault signals with white noise and discrete harmonic interferences are used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Finally, the superiorities of the proposed method are further demonstrated by high-speed train bearing fault datasets measured from test rig. The analysis results indicate that the proposed method has strong practicability.

Keywords: Fault diagnosis, bearing, complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise, multipoint optimal minimum entropy deconvolution

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4 Comparison of Tribological and Mechanical Properties of White Metal Produced by Laser Cladding and Conventional Methods

Authors: Jin-Young Park, Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Joo-Young Oh, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim, Jae-Il Jeong, Yang-Gon Kim, Seock-Sam Kim


Bearing component has strongly required to decrease vibration and wear to achieve high durability and life time. In the industry field, bearing durability is improved by surface treatment on the bearing surface by centrifugal casting or gravity casting production method. However, this manufacturing method has caused problems such as long processing time, defect rate, and health harmful effect. To solve this problem, there is a laser cladding deposition treatment, which provides fast processing and food adhesion. Therefore, optimum conditions of white metal laser deposition should be studied to minimize bearing contact axis wear using laser cladding techniques. In this study, we deposit a soft white metal layer on SCM440, which is mainly used for shaft and bolt. On laser deposition process, the laser power and powder feed rate and laser head speed factors are controlled to find out the optimal conditions. We also measure hardness using micro Vickers, analyze FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) to study the mechanical properties and surface characteristics with various parameters change. Furthermore, this paper suggests the optimum condition of laser cladding deposition to apply in industrial fields. This work was supported by the Industrial Innovation Project of the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (Research no. 10051653).

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, bearing, white metal, laser deposition

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3 Diagnosis of Intermittent High Vibration Peaks in Industrial Gas Turbine Using Advanced Vibrations Analysis

Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Abubakar Rashid, Muhammad Saad


This paper provides a comprehensive study pertaining to diagnosis of intermittent high vibrations on an industrial gas turbine using detailed vibrations analysis, followed by its rectification. Engro Polymer & Chemicals Limited, a Chlor-Vinyl complex located in Pakistan has a captive combined cycle power plant having two 28 MW gas turbines (make Hitachi) & one 15 MW steam turbine. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of high vibrations on one of the gas turbines. These high vibration peaks appeared intermittently on both compressor’s drive end (DE) & turbine’s non-drive end (NDE) bearing. The amplitude of high vibration peaks was between 150-170% on the DE bearing & 200-300% on the NDE bearing from baseline values. In one of these episodes, the gas turbine got tripped on “High Vibrations Trip” logic actuated at 155µm. Limited instrumentation is available on the machine, which is monitored with GE Bently Nevada 3300 system having two proximity probes installed at Turbine NDE, Compressor DE &at Generator DE & NDE bearings. Machine’s transient ramp-up & steady state data was collected using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408. Since only 01 key phasor is installed at Turbine high speed shaft, a derived drive key phasor was configured in ADRE to obtain low speed shaft rpm required for data analysis. By analyzing the Bode plots, Shaft center line plot, Polar plot & orbit plots; rubbing was evident on Turbine’s NDE along with increased bearing clearance of Turbine’s NDE radial bearing. The subject bearing was then inspected & heavy deposition of carbonized coke was found on the labyrinth seals of bearing housing with clear rubbing marks on shaft & housing covering at 20-25 degrees on the inner radius of labyrinth seals. The collected coke sample was tested in laboratory & found to be the residue of lube oil in the bearing housing. After detailed inspection & cleaning of shaft journal area & bearing housing, new radial bearing was installed. Before assembling the bearing housing, cleaning of bearing cooling & sealing air lines was also carried out as inadequate flow of cooling & sealing air can accelerate coke formation in bearing housing. The machine was then taken back online & data was collected again using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408 for health analysis. The vibrations were found in acceptable zone as per ISO standard 7919-3 while all other parameters were also within vendor defined range. As a learning from subject case, revised operating & maintenance regime has also been proposed to enhance machine’s reliability.

Keywords: Vibration, Gas Turbine, bearing, ADRE, GE Bently Nevada, Hitachi

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2 Rolling Contact Fatigue Failure Analysis of Ball Bearing in Gear Box

Authors: Jitendra Mathur, Piyas Palit, Urbi Pal, Santanu Das


Bearing is an important machinery part in the industry. When bearings fail to meet their expected life the consequences are increased downtime, loss of revenue and missed the delivery. This article describes the failure of a gearbox bearing in rolling contact fatigue. The investigation consists of visual observation, chemical analysis, characterization of microstructures using optical microscopes and hardness test. The present study also considers bearing life as well as the operational condition of bearings. Surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, leading to a surface failure known as pitting, is a life-limiting failure mode in many modern machine elements, particularly rolling element bearings. Metallography analysis of crack propagation, crack morphology was also described. Indication of fatigue spalling in the ferrography test was also discussed. The analysis suggested the probable reasons for such kind of failure in operation. This type of spalling occurred due to (1) heavier external loading condition or (2) exceeds its service life.

Keywords: bearing, rolling contact fatigue, bearing life

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1 Development of a Real Time Axial Force Measurement System and IoT-Based Monitoring for Smart Bearing

Authors: Wei Tao, Hassam Ahmed, Yuanzhi Liu, Yassine Selami, Hui Zhao


The purpose of this research is to develop a real time axial force measurement system for a smart bearing through the use of strain-gauges, whereby the data acquisition is performed by an Arduino microcontroller due to its easy manipulation and low-cost. The measured signal is acquired and then discretized using a Wheatstone Bridge and an Analog-Digital Converter (ADC) respectively. For bearing monitoring, a real time monitoring system based on Internet of things (IoT) and Bluetooth were developed. Experimental tests were performed on a bearing within a force range up to 600 kN. The experimental results show that there is a proportional linear relationship between the applied force and the output voltage, and the error R squared is within 0.9878 based on the regression analysis.

Keywords: IoT, bearing, force measurement, strain gauge

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