Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Battery Related Abstracts

18 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Seongsoo Lee, Jong-Bae Lee


This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: low-power, Battery, recovery effect, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

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17 Realization of Sustainable Urban Society by Personal Electric Transporter and Natural Energy

Authors: Yuichi Miyamoto


In regards to the energy sector in the modern period, two points were raised. First is a vast and growing energy demand, and second is an environmental impact associated with it. The enormous consumption of fossil fuel to the mobile unit is leading to its rapid depletion. Nuclear power is not the only problem. A modal shift that utilizes personal transporters and independent power, in order to realize a sustainable society, is very effective. The paper proposes that the world will continue to work on this. Energy of the future society, innovation in battery technology and the use of natural energy is a big key. And it is also necessary in order to save on energy consumption.

Keywords: Battery, natural energy, modal shift, personal transportation

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16 Battery/Supercapacitor Emulator for Chargers Functionality Testing

Authors: S. Farag, A. Kuperman


In this paper, design of solid-state battery/super capacitor emulator based on dc-dc boost converter is described. The emulator mimics charging behavior of any storage device based on a predefined behavior set by the user. The device is operated by a two-level control structure: high-level emulating controller and low-level input voltage controller. Simulation and experimental results are shown to demonstrate the emulator operation.

Keywords: Energy, Storage, Battery, charger, super capacitor

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15 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Labar Hocine, Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Kelaiaia Samia, Mesbah Tarek


The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: Modeling, Battery, MPPT, PV panel, charging

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14 Fuzzy Adaptive Control of an Intelligent Hybrid HPS (Pvwindbat), Grid Power System Applied to a Dwelling

Authors: M. Helaimi, R. Taleb, A. Derrouazin, N. Mekkakia-M, A. Benbouali


Nowadays the use of different sources of renewable energy for the production of electricity is the concern of everyone, as, even impersonal domestic use of the electricity in isolated sites or in town. As the conventional sources of energy are shrinking, a need has arisen to look for alternative sources of energy with more emphasis on its optimal use. This paper presents design of a sustainable Hybrid Power System (PV-Wind-Storage) assisted by grid as supplementary sources applied to case study residential house, to meet its entire energy demand. A Fuzzy control system model has been developed to optimize and control flow of power from these sources. This energy requirement is mainly fulfilled from PV and Wind energy stored in batteries module for critical load of a residential house and supplemented by grid for base and peak load. The system has been developed for maximum daily households load energy of 3kWh and can be scaled to any higher value as per requirement of individual /community house ranging from 3kWh/day to 10kWh/day, as per the requirement. The simulation work, using intelligent energy management, has resulted in an optimal yield leading to average reduction in cost of electricity by 50% per day.

Keywords: Wind turbine, Battery, MATLAB, microcontroller, photovoltaic (PV), fuzzy control (FC)

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13 Providing Energy Management of a Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Authors: Ahmet Yigit Arabul, Fatma Keskin Arabul, Ibrahim Senol, Ali Rifat Boynuegri


On account of the concern of the fossil fuel is depleting and its negative effects on the environment, interest in alternative energy sources is increasing day by day. However, considering the importance of transportation in human life, instead of oil and its derivatives fueled vehicles with internal combustion engines, electric vehicles which are sensitive to the environment and working with electrical energy has begun to develop. In this study, simulation was carried out for providing energy management and recovering regenerative braking in fuel cell-battery hybrid electric vehicle. The main power supply of the vehicle is fuel cell on the other hand not only instantaneous power is supplied by the battery but also the energy generated due to regenerative breaking is stored in the battery. Obtained results of the simulation is analyzed and discussed.

Keywords: Energy Management, Electric Vehicles, Fuel Cell, Battery, regenerative braking

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12 Rotational Energy Recovery System

Authors: Vijayendra Anil Menon, Ashwath Narayan Murali


The present day vehicles do not reuse the energy expelled in running the vehicle. The energy used to run the vehicle is expelled immediately.This has remained a constant for many decades. With all the vehicles running on non-renewable resources like fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to improve efficiency of the vehicles until a reliable replacement for fossil fuels is found.Our design is based on the concept of Kinetic energy recovery systems. Though our design lies in principle with the KERS, our design can be used in day-to-day driving. With our design, efficiency of vehicles increases and fuel conservation is possible thereby reducing the carbon footprint.

Keywords: Efficiency, Battery, KERS, Wheels

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11 A Photovoltaic Micro-Storage System for Residential Applications

Authors: Alia Al Nuaimi, Ayesha Al Aberi, Faiza Al Marzouqi, Shaikha Salem Ali Al Yahyaee, Ala Hussein


In this paper, a PV micro-storage system for residential applications is proposed. The term micro refers to the size of the PV storage system, which is in the range of few kilo-watts, compared to the grid size (~GWs). Usually, in a typical load profile of a residential unit, two peak demand periods exist: one at morning and the other at evening time. The morning peak can be partly covered by the PV energy directly, while the evening peak cannot be covered by the PV alone. Therefore, an energy storage system that stores solar energy during daytime and use this stored energy when the sun is absent is a must. A complete design procedure including theoretical analysis followed by simulation verification and economic feasibility evaluation is addressed in this paper.

Keywords: energy storage, Smart Grid, Photovoltaic, Battery, peak shaving

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10 The Scanning Vibrating Electrode Technique (SVET) as a Tool for Optimising a Printed Ni(OH)2 Electrode under Charge Conditions

Authors: I. Mabbett, C. F. Glover, J. Marinaccio, A. Barnes, G. Williams


The aim of the current study is to optimise formulations, in terms of charging efficiency, of a printed Ni(OH)2 precursor coating of a battery anode. Through the assessment of the current densities during charging, the efficiency of a range of formulations are compared. The Scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) is used extensively in the field of corrosion to measure area-averaged current densities of freely-corroding metal surfaces when fully immersed in electrolyte. Here, a Ni(OH)2 electrode is immersed in potassium hydroxide (30% w/v solution) electrolyte and charged using a range of applied currents. Samples are prepared whereby multiple coatings are applied to one substrate, separated by a non-conducting barrier, and charged using a constant current. With a known applied external current, electrode efficiencies can be calculated based on the current density outputs measured using SVET. When fully charged, a green Ni(OH)2 is oxidised to a black NiOOH surface. Distinct regions displaying high current density, and hence a faster oxidising reaction rate, are located using the SVET. This is confirmed by a darkening of the region upon transition to NiOOH. SVET is a highly effective tool for assessing homogeneity of electrodes during charge/discharge. This could prove particularly useful for electrodes where there are no visible surface appearance changes. Furthermore, a scanning Kelvin probe technique, traditionally used to assess underfilm delamination of organic coatings for the protection of metallic surfaces, is employed to study the change in phase of oxides, pre and post charging.

Keywords: Electrode, Printed, Battery, nickel hydroxide, SVET

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9 A Study on Long Life Hybrid Battery System Consists of Ni-63 Betavoltaic Battery and All Solid Battery

Authors: Sungho Lee, Bosung Kim, Youngmok Yun, Chanseok Park


There is a limitation to power supply and operation by the chemical or physical battery in the space environment. Therefore, research for utilizing nuclear energy in the universe has been in progress since the 1950s, around the major industrialized countries. In this study, the self-rechargeable battery having a long life relative to the half-life of the radioisotope is suggested. The hybrid system is composed of betavoltaic battery, all solid battery and energy harvesting board. Betavoltaic battery can produce electrical power at least 10 years over using the radioisotope from Ni-63 and the silicon-based semiconductor. The electrical power generated from the betavoltaic battery is stored in the all-solid battery and stored power is used if necessary. The hybrid system board is composed of input terminals, boost circuit, charging terminals and output terminals. Betavoltaic and all solid batteries are connected to the input and output terminal, respectively. The electric current of 10 µA is applied to the system board by using the high-resolution power simulator. The system efficiencies are measured from a boost up voltage of 1.8 V, 2.4 V and 3 V, respectively. As a result, the efficiency of system board is about 75% after boosting up the voltage from 1V to 3V.

Keywords: Nuclear, Energy harvesting, Isotope, Battery, betavoltaic

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8 A Study on Evaluation for Performance Verification of Ni-63 Radioisotope Betavoltaic Battery

Authors: Sungho Lee, Bosung Kim, Youngmok Yun, Kyeongsu Jeon, Hyunwook Hwangbo, Byounggun Choi


A betavoltaic battery converts nuclear energy released as beta particles (β-) directly into electrical energy. Betavoltaic cells are analogous to photovoltaic cells. The beta particle’s kinetic energy enters a p-n junction and creates electron-hole pairs. Subsequently, the built-in potential of the p-n junction accelerates the electrons and ions to their respective collectors. The major challenges are electrical conversion efficiencies and exact evaluation. In this study, the performance of betavoltaic battery was evaluated. The betavoltaic cell was evaluated in the same condition as radiation from radioactive isotope using by FE-SEM(field emission scanning electron microscope). The average energy of the radiation emitted from the Ni-63 radioisotope is 17.42 keV. FE-SEM is capable of emitting an electron beam of 1-30keV. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate betavoltaic cell without radioactive isotopes. The betavoltaic battery consists of radioisotope that is physically connected on the surface of Si-based PN diode. The performance of betavoltaic battery can be estimated by the efficiency of PN diode unit cell. The current generated by scanning electron microscope with fixed accelerating voltage (17keV) was measured by using faraday cup. Electrical characterization of the p-n junction diode was performed by using Nano Probe Work Station and I-V measurement system. The output value of the betavoltaic cells developed by this research team was 0.162 μw/cm2 and the efficiency was 1.14%.

Keywords: Nuclear, Battery, betavoltaic, Ni-63, radio-isotope

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7 Lifetime Improvement of IEEE.802.15.6 Sensors in Scheduled Access Mode

Authors: Latif Adnane, C. E. Ait Zaouiat, M. Eddabbah


In Wireless Body Area Networks, the issue of systems lifetime is a big challenge to complete. In this paper, we have tackled this subject to suggest some solutions. For this aim, we have studied some batteries characteristics related to human body temperature. Moreover, we have analyzed a mathematical model which defines sensors lifetime (battery lifetime). Based on this model, we note that the random access increases the energy consumption, because nodes are waking up during the whole superframe period. Results show that using scheduled mode access of IEEE 802.15.6 maximizes the lifetime function, by setting nodes in the sleep mode in the inactive period of transmission.

Keywords: Energy Consumption, Battery, lifetime, IEEE 802.15.6, polling

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6 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini


This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: Electric Vehicles, Battery, Model Predictive Control, ultra-capacitor

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5 Buck Boost Inverter to Improve the Efficiency and Performance of E-Motor by Reducing the Influence of Voltage Sag of Battery on the Performance of E-Motor

Authors: Shefeen Maliyakkal, Pranav Satheesh, Steve Simon, Sharath Kuruppath


This paper researches the impact of battery voltage sag on the performance and efficiency of E-motor in electric cars. Terminal voltage of battery reduces with the S.o.C. This results in the downward shift of torque-speed curve of E-motor and increased copper losses in E-motor. By introducing a buck-boost inverter between the battery and E-motor, an additional degree of freedom was achieved. By boosting the AC voltage, the dependency of voltage sag on the performance of E-motor was eliminated. A strategy was also proposed for the operation of the buck-boost inverter to minimize copper and iron losses in E-motor to maximize efficiency. MATLAB-SIMULINK model of E-drive was used to obtain simulation results. The temperature rise in the E-motor was reduced by 14% for a 10% increase in AC voltage. From the results, it was observed that a 20% increase in AC voltage can result in improvement of running torque and maximum torque of E-motor by 44%. Hence it was concluded that using a buck-boost inverter for E-drive significantly improves both performance and efficiency of E-motor.

Keywords: Battery, voltage sag, buck-boost, E-motor

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4 Sizing of Hybrid Source Battery/Supercapacitor for Automotive Applications

Authors: Laid Degaa, Bachir Bendjedia, Nassim Rizoug, Abdelkader Saidane


Energy storage system is a key aspect for the development of clean cars. The work proposed here deals with the modeling of hybrid storage sources composed of a combination of lithium-ion battery and supercapacitors. Simulation results show the performance of the active model for a hybrid source and confirm the feasibility of our approach. In this context, sizing of the electrical energy supply is carried out. The aim of this sizing is to propose an 'optimal' solution that improves the performance of electric vehicles in term of weight, cost and aging.

Keywords: Energy, Electric Vehicles, Battery, supercapacitor, hybrid storage

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3 Development and Metrological Validation of a Control Strategy in Embedded Island Grids Using Battery-Hybrid-Systems

Authors: L. Wilkening, G. Ackermann, T. T. Do


This article presents an approach for stand-alone and grid-connected mode of a German low-voltage grid with high share of photovoltaic. For this purpose, suitable dynamic system models have been developed. This allows the simulation of dynamic events in very small time ranges and the operation management over longer periods of time. Using these simulations, suitable control parameters could be identified, and their effects on the grid can be analyzed. In order to validate the simulation results, a LV-grid test bench has been implemented at the University of Technology Hamburg. The developed control strategies are to be validated using real inverters, generators and different realistic loads. It is shown that a battery hybrid system installed next to a voltage transformer makes it possible to operate the LV-grid in stand-alone mode without using additional information and communication technology and without intervention in the existing grid units. By simulating critical days of the year, suitable control parameters for stable stand-alone operations are determined and set point specifications for different control strategies are defined.

Keywords: Smart Grid, Photovoltaic, Battery, e-mobility

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2 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi


The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: Battery, ancillary services, distribution system and optimization

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1 Clean Sky 2 Project LiBAT: Light Battery Pack for High Power Applications in Aviation – Simulation Methods in Early Stage Design

Authors: Tobias Mayer, Jan Dahlhaus, Alejandro Cardenas Miranda, Frederik Scholer, Maximilian Leonhardt, Matthias Moullion, Frank Beutenmuller, Julia Eckhardt, Josef Wasner, Frank Nittel, Sebastian Stoll, Devin Atukalp, Daniel Folgmann, Obrad Dordevic, Paul Riley, Jean-Marc Le Peuvedic


Electrical and hybrid aerospace technologies pose very challenging demands on the battery pack – especially with respect to weight and power. In the Clean Sky 2 research project LiBAT (funded by the EU), the consortium is currently building an ambitious prototype with state-of-the art cells that shows the potential of an intelligent pack design with a high level of integration, especially with respect to thermal management and power electronics. For the latter, innovative multi-level-inverter technology is used to realize the required power converting functions with reduced equipment. In this talk the key approaches and methods of the LiBat project will be presented and central results shown. Special focus will be set on the simulative methods used to support the early design and development stages from an overall system perspective. The applied methods can efficiently handle multiple domains and deal with different time and length scales, thus allowing the analysis and optimization of overall- or sub-system behavior. It will be shown how these simulations provide valuable information and insights for the efficient evaluation of concepts. As a result, the construction and iteration of hardware prototypes has been reduced and development cycles shortened.

Keywords: Battery, Li-Ion, electric aircraft, Multi-Level-Inverter, Novec

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