Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

basement complex Related Abstracts

5 Estimation of Source Parameters Using Source Parameters Imaging Method From Digitised High Resolution Airborne Magnetic Data of a Basement Complex

Authors: O. T. Oluriz, O. D. Akinyemi, J. A.Olowofela, O. A. Idowu, S. A. Ganiyu

Abstract:

This study was carried out using aeromagnetic data which record variation in the magnitude of the earth magnetic field in order to detect local changes in the properties of the underlying geology. The aeromagnetic data (Sheet No. 261) was acquired from the archives of Nigeria Geological Survey Agency of Nigeria, obtained in 2009. The study present estimation of source parameters within an area of about 3,025 square kilometers on geographic latitude to and longitude to within Ibadan and it’s environs in Oyo State, southwestern Nigeria. The area under study belongs to part of basement complex in southwestern Nigeria. Estimation of source parameters of aeromagnetic data was achieve through the application of source imaging parameters (SPI) techniques that provide delineation, depth, dip contact, susceptibility contrast and mineral potentials of magnetic signatures within the region. The depth to the magnetic sources in the area ranges from 0.675 km to 4.48 km. The estimated depth limit to shallow sources is 0.695 km and depth to deep sources is 4.48 km. The apparent susceptibility values of the entire study area obtained ranges from 0.01 to 0.005 [SI]. This study has shown that the magnetic susceptibility within study area is controlled mainly by super paramagnetic minerals.

Keywords: aeromagnetic, basement complex, meta-sediment, precambrian

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4 Analysis of High Resolution Seismic Reflection Data to Identify Different Regional Lithologies of the Zaria Batholith Located in the Basement Complex of North Central Nigeria

Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, A. Onugba, P. Sule

Abstract:

High resolution seismic reflection has recently been carried out on Zaria batholith, with the aim of characterizing the granitic Zaria batholiths in terms of its lithology. The geology of the area has revealed that the older granite outcrops in the vicinity of Zaria are exposures of a syntectonics to late-tectonic granite batholiths which intruded a crystalline gneissic basement during the Pan-African Orogeny. During the data acquisition the geophone were placed at interval of 1 m, variable offset of 1 and 10 m was used. The common midpoint (CMP) method with 12 fold coverage was employed for the survey. Analysis of the generated 3D surface of the p wave velocities from different profiles for densities and bulk modulus revealed that the rock material is more consolidated in South East part of the batholith and less consolidated in the North Western part. This was in conformity with earlier identified geology of the area, with the South Eastern part majorly of granitic outcrop, while the North Western part is characterized with the exposure of gneisses and thick overburden cover. The difference in lithology was also confirmed by the difference in seismic sections and Arial satellite photograph. Hence two major lithologies were identified, the granitic and gneisses complex which are characterized by gradational boundaries.

Keywords: basement complex, batholith, high resolution, lithologies, seismic reflection

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3 Evaluating the Water Balance of Sokoto Basement Complex to Address Water Security Challenges

Authors: Murtala Gada Abubakar, Aliyu T. Umar

Abstract:

A substantial part of Nigeria is part of semi-arid areas of the world, underlain by basement complex (hard) rocks which are very poor in both transmission and storage of appreciable quantity of water. Recently, a growing attention is being paid on the need to develop water resources in these areas largely due to concerns about increasing droughts and the need to maintain water security challenges. While there is ample body of knowledge that captures the hydrological behaviours of the sedimentary part, reported research which unambiguously illustrates water distribution in the basement complex of the Sokoto basin remains sparse. Considering the growing need to meet the water requirements of those living in this region necessitated the call for accurate water balance estimations that can inform a sustainable planning and development to address water security challenges for the area. To meet this task, a one-dimensional soil water balance model was developed and utilised to assess the state of water distribution within the Sokoto basin basement complex using measured meteorological variables and information about different landscapes within the complex. The model simulated the soil water storage and rates of input and output of water in response to climate and irrigation where applicable using data from 2001 to 2010 inclusive. The results revealed areas within the Sokoto basin basement complex that are rich and deficient in groundwater resource. The high potential areas identified includes the fadama, the fractured rocks and the cultivated lands, while the low potential areas are the sealed surfaces and non-fractured rocks. This study concludes that the modelling approach is a useful tool for assessing the hydrological behaviour and for better understanding the water resource availability within a basement complex.

Keywords: Hydrological Processes, Water Security, basement complex, Sokoto Basin

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2 Exploration for Magnetic Minerals Using Geophysical Logging Techniques in the Northwestern Part of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Selim Reza, Mohammad Zohir Uddin

Abstract:

Geophysical logging technique was conducted in a borehole in the north-western part of Bangladesh. The main objectives of this study were to identify the subsurface lithology and the presence of magnetic minerals within the basement complex. In this survey, full waveform sonic, magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma logs were conducted up to the depth of 660 m. From sonic log, three distinct velocity zones were observed at depths ranging from 20 m to 81 m, 81m to 360 m and 420 m to 660 m having the average velocity of 1600 m/s indicating unconsolidated sediment, 2500 m/s indicating hard, compact and matured sediments and 6300 m/s indicating basement complex respectively. Some low-velocity zones within the basement were identified as fractures/fissures. Natural gamma log was carried out only in the basement complex. According to magnetic susceptibility log, broadly three important zones were identified which had good agreement with the natural gamma, sonic as well as geological logs. The zone at the depth from 460 m to 470 m had the average susceptibility value of 3445 cgs unit. The average natural gamma value and sonic velocity in this zone are 150 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. The zone at the depth from 571 m to 598 m had the average susceptibility value of 5158 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity are 160 cps and 6000 m/s respectively. On the other hand, the zone at the depth from 598 m to 620 m had the average susceptibility value of 1998 cgs unit with the average natural gamma value and sonic velocity show 200 cps and 3000 m/s respectively. From the interpretation of geophysical logs the 1st and 3rd zones within the basement complex are considered to be less significant whereas the 2nd zone is described as the most significant for magnetic minerals. Therefore, more drill holes are recommended on the anomalous body to delineate the extent, thickness and reserve of the magnetic body and further research are needed to determine the quality of mineral resources.

Keywords: basement complex, lithology, magnetic susceptibility, fractures/fissures, geophysical logging

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1 Delineation of the Geoelectric and Geovelocity Parameters in the Basement Complex of Northwestern Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai, G. C. Afuwai

Abstract:

The geology of Northern Nigeria is under intense investigation particularly that of the northwest believed to be of the basement complex. The variability of the lithology is consistently inconsistent. Hence, the need for a close range study, it is, in view of the above that, two geophysical techniques, the vertical electrical sounding employing the Schlumberger array and seismic refraction methods, were used to delineate the geoelectric and geovelocity parameters of the basement complex of northwestern Nigeria. A total area of 400,000 m² was covered with sixty geoelectric stations established and sixty sets of seismic refraction data collected using the forward and reverse method. From the interpretation of the resistivity data, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by not more than five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities when a maximum half electrode spread of 100m was used. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. The results of the two techniques, suggests that the area of study has an undulating bedrock topography with geoeletric and geovelocity layers composed of weathered rock materials.

Keywords: Nigeria, basement complex, delineation, geoelectric, geovelocity

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