Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

banks Related Abstracts

23 Islamic Finance: What is the Outlook for Italy?

Authors: Paolo Pietro Biancone

Abstract:

The spread of Islamic financial instruments is an opportunity to offer integration for the immigrant population and to attract, through the specific products, the richness of sovereign funds from the "Arab" countries. However, it is important to consider the possibility of comparing a traditional finance model, which in recent times has given rise to many doubts, with an "alternative" finance model, where the ethical aspect arising from religious principles is very important.

Keywords: Islamic Finance, Europe, banks, Italy

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22 Banks Profitability Indicators in CEE Countries

Authors: I. Erins, J. Erina

Abstract:

The aim of the present article is to determine the impact of the external and internal factors of bank performance on the profitability indicators of the CEE countries banks in the period from 2006 to 2012. On the basis of research conducted abroad on bank and macroeconomic profitability indicators, in order to obtain research results, the authors evaluated return on average assets (ROAA) and return on average equity (ROAE) indicators of the CEE countries banks. The authors analyzed profitability indicators of banks using descriptive methods, SPSS data analysis methods as well as data correlation and linear regression analysis. The authors concluded that most internal and external indicators of bank performance have no direct effect on the profitability of the banks in the CEE countries. The only exceptions are credit risk and bank size which affect one of the measures of bank profitability–return on average equity.

Keywords: banks, CEE countries, profitability ROAA, ROAE

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21 An Evaluation of the Impact of E-Banking on Operational Efficiency of Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Ibrahim Rabiu Darazo

Abstract:

The research has been conducted on the impact of E-banking on the operational efficiency of Banks in Nigeria, A case of some selected banks (Diamond Bank Plc, GTBankPlc, and Fidelity Bank Plc) in Nigeria. The research is a quantitative research which uses both primary and secondary sources of data collection. Questionnaire were used to obtained accurate data, where 150 Questionnaire were distributed among staff and customers of the three Banks , and the data collected where analysed using chi-square, whereas the secondary data where obtained from relevant text books, journals and relevant web sites. It is clear from the findings that, the use of e-banking by the banks has improved the efficiency of these banks, in terms of providing efficient services to customers electronically, using Internet Banking, Telephone Banking ATMs, reducing time taking to serve customers, e-banking allow new customers to open an account online, customers have access to their account at all the time 24/7.E-banking provide access to customers information from the data base and cost of check and postage were eliminated using e-banking. The recommendation at the end of the research include; the Banks should try to update their electronic gadgets, e-fraud(internal & external) should also be controlled, Banks shall employ qualified man power, Biometric ATMs shall be introduce to reduce fraud using ATM Cards, as it is use in other countries like USA.

Keywords: Electronic Banking, banks, operational efficiency of banks, biometric ATMs

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20 Effect of Training and Development on Employee Performance in the Banking Industry: A Case Study of Some Selected Banks within Bauchi Metropolis

Authors: Sagir Abubakar

Abstract:

Organization must move along with the employees, because organization should adapt itself to the changing environment. The paper examines the effect of training and development on employee performance. Training and development has an important role in improve the performance, skills and attitude of employee in an organization. Training and development will also help an employee to do his present job or to prepare him for a higher position with increased responsibilities. The paper analyses the employee performance towards training and development conducted in some selected banks within Bauchi metropolis. Review of related literature was done on, training, training objectives, methods and development and its method. A census survey was carried out using staff of GTB and Skye Banks Bauchi branch where a total of 40 questionnaires were administered personally by the researcher and there were 100% responses. Correlation analysis was adopted for the analysis of data collected. The study concludes that 95% of respondents agreed that training and development are vital for both employee and organizations performance. They also suggest that training and development should be made compulsory for all categories of employee in an organization. Training and Development programmes are necessary in any organization for improving the quality of work of the employee.

Keywords: Development, training, Performance, employee, banks

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19 E-Marketing Strategy: A Competitive Advantage among Commercial Banks Branches in Bauchi State

Authors: Sagir Abubakar

Abstract:

The electronic means of transaction has provided an opportunity especially for commercial banks to entice more customers that will subsequently boost their return on investment. It moves them from traditional marketing into digital marketing and gives them a competitive advantage over others in the same industry.The paper, therefore, examined the competitive advantage of the electronic marketing strategy among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of e-marketing strategy as a competitive advantage among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state and to evaluate the level of enlightenment campaign offered by the commercial banks branches to their customers on e-marketing. The study obtained data from the staff of the five (s) selected banks branches as the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The research is a quantitative research, where the data where obtained using questionnaire. 100 questionnaires were distributed and analyzed using SPSS’s regression analysis. The research among other findings discovered that, the e-marketing has led to a significant improvement in the banking industry and is expected to continue because of the improvement in the ICT sector. It was also found out that most customers are not aware of the electronic products offered by commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. Some of factors affecting the adoption of e-marketing by banks as indicated from the findings include: top management commitment, government policy on ICT and availability of ICT personnel. The study recommended that commercial banks branches should engage in enlightenment campaign about the existing of their e- products/services, management should place an incentives in order to raise the interest of customers to patronize the products/services online.

Keywords: competitive advantage, banks, e-marketing strategy, Bauchi State

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18 Customer Satisfaction and Effective HRM Policies: Customer and Employee Satisfaction

Authors: S. Anastasiou, C. Nathanailides

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the possible link between employee and customer satisfaction. The service provided by employees, help to build a good relationship with customers and can help at increasing their loyalty. Published data for job satisfaction and indicators of customer services were gathered from relevant published works which included data from five different countries. The reviewed data indicate a significant correlation between indicators of customer and employee satisfaction in the Banking sector. There was a significant correlation between the two parameters (Pearson correlation R2=0.52 P<0.05) The reviewed data provide evidence that there is some practical evidence which links these two parameters.

Keywords: Human Resources Management, Job Performance, Job Satisfaction, banks, customer’ service

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17 Customer’s Choice of a Bank: An Empirical Enquiry from the Banked Ghanaian

Authors: Emmanuel Larbi Offei, Felix Agyei-Sasu, Maura Naa Densua Ashong

Abstract:

Ghana has 26 universal banks and several banking and non-banking financial institutions operating in the country. The growing number of banks has heightened competition among banks to attract and retain customers more customers to ensure sustainability. Hence the need to identify and understand factors that influences customers’ choice of banks cannot be overemphasised. This study investigates the determinants of bank selection criteria by banking customers in Ghana. Four banks were purposively sampled for this study namely Barclays, Standard Chartered, Sahel Sahara and Unibank. Convenience sampling was then used to select 114 bank customers in Accra and interviewed. Questionnaires were used to collect data that were analysed in tables and charts with the use of STATA software. The findings of the study revealed that quick/prompt services and complaint handling, safety of funds, networked branches, easy access to functional Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) and low/moderate service charges were the major determinants of customers’ choice of banks. The results further show that 89.5 percent of all deposits are held in either current or savings accounts. About 22.1 percent of the respondents indicated that they have plans of changing their banks in the near future because they are not satisfied with their banks. A gender analysis of the choice criteria showed differences between the choice criteria of the male as compared to the female. The study recommends that banks in Ghana should focus on products and policies that will not compromise on the safety of funds of their customers. Again, banks must address customer complaints and dissatisfactions as promptly as possible by taking pragmatic steps to address administrative bureaucracies and infrastructural challenges that prolong the duration of banking transactions.

Keywords: Competition, banks, determinants, Ghana, customers’ choice

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16 E-Marketing Strategy a Competitive Advantage among Commercial Bank Branches in Bauchi State

Authors: Sagir Abubakar

Abstract:

The electronic means of transaction has provided an opportunity especially for commercial banks to entice more customers that will subsequently boost their return on investment. It moves them from traditional marketing into digital marketing and gives them a competitive advantage over others in the same industry. The paper, therefore, examined the competitive advantage of the electronic marketing strategy among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of e-marketing strategy as a competitive advantage among commercial banks branches in Bauchi state and to evaluate the level of enlightenment campaign offered by the commercial banks branches to their customers on e-marketing. The study obtained data from the staff of the five (s) selected banks branches as the respondents to answer the questionnaire. The research is a quantitative research, where the data where obtained using questionnaire. 100 questionnaires were distributed and analyzed using SPSS’s regression analysis. The research among other findings discovered that the e-marketing has led to a significant improvement in the banking industry and is expected to continue because of the improvement in the ICT sector. It was also found out that most customers are not aware of the electronic products offered by commercial banks branches in Bauchi state. Some of factors affecting the adoption of e-marketing by banks as indicated from the findings include: top management commitment, government policy on ICT and availability of ICT personnel. The study recommended that commercial banks branches should engage in enlightenment campaign about the existing of their e- products/services, management should place an incentive in order to raise the interest of customers to patronize the products/services online.

Keywords: competitive advantage, banks, e-marketing strategy, Bauchi State

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15 Best Option for Countercyclical Capital Buffer Implementation: Scenarios for Baltic States

Authors: Ģirts Brasliņš, Ilja Arefjevs, Nadežda Tarakanova

Abstract:

The objective of countercyclical capital buffer is to encourage banks to build up buffers in good times that can be drawn down in bad times. The aim of the report is to assess such decisions by banks derived from three approaches. The approaches are the aggregate credit-to-GDP ratio, credit growth as well as banking sector profits. The approaches are implemented for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania for the time period 2000-2012. The report compares three approaches and analyses their relevance to the Baltic states by testing the correlation between a growth in studied variables and a growth of corresponding gaps. Methods used in the empirical part of the report are econometric analysis as well as economic analysis, development indicators, relative and absolute indicators and other methods. The research outcome is a cross-Baltic comparison of two alternative approaches to establish or release a countercyclical capital buffer by banks and their implications for each Baltic country.

Keywords: banks, BASEL III, countercyclical capital buffer, credit growth, baltic states

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14 The Effect of Organizational Factors on Knowledge Sharing in the Jordanian Commercial Banks

Authors: Nadera Al Hourani

Abstract:

The study aimed at testing the effect of the organizational factors on reinforcing the knowledge sharing competence in the Jordanian commercial banks. The study population consisted of all the commercial banks working in Jordan according to the statistics of the Jordanian Banks Association by the end of 2010 (n=12). The researchers took a sample of the branch managers (n=240), and constructed a questionnaire to achieve the objective of the study. 235 questionnaires were returned and 16 were discarded due to incompleteness of their data, thus accepting 219 questionnaires. The results of the study indicated statistically significant effect of the organizational factors with their elements: (organizational structure, organizational culture, and human resources policy) in knowledge sharing. The study recommended that the Jordanian commercial banks have to continue attention to the organizational factors through supporting the less important variables and lowest means within the independent variable (organizational factors). The organizational structure came lowest, which urges the management of the commercial banks to adopt a flexible organizational structure capable to reinforce the knowledge sharing competence.

Keywords: Knowledge, sharing, jordan, banks, organizational factors

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13 Hardships Faced by Entrepreneurs in Marketing Projects for Acquiring Business Loans

Authors: Sudipto Sarkar

Abstract:

Capital is the primary fuel for starting and running a business. Since capital is crucial for every business, entrepreneurs must successfully acquire adequate capital for executing their projects. Sources for the necessary capital for entrepreneurs include their own personal funds from existing bank accounts, or lines of credit or loans from banks or financial institutions, or equity funding from investors. The most commonly selected source of capital is a bank loan. However, acquiring a loan by any entrepreneur requires adhering to strict guidelines, conditions and norms. Because not only they have to show evidence for viability of the project, but also the means to return the acquired loan. On the bank’s part, it requires that every loan officer performs a thorough credit appraisal of the prospective borrowers and makes decisions about whether or not to lend money, how much to lend, and what conditions should be attached to it. Moreover, these credit decisions in general were often based on biases, analytical techniques, or prior experience. A loan can either turn out to be good or poor, irrespective of what type of credit decisions were followed. However, based on prior experience, the loan officers seem to differentiate between a good and a bad loan by examining the borrower’s credit history, pattern of borrowing, volume of borrowing, frequency of borrowing, and reasons for borrowing. As per an article written by Maureen Wallenfang on postcrescent.com dated May 10, 2010, it is observed that borrowers with good credit, solid business plans and adequate collateral security were able to procure loans very easily in the Fox Valley region. Since loans are required to run businesses, and also with the propensity of loans to become bad, loan officers tend to be very critical and cautious before approving and disbursing the loans. The pressure to be critical and cautious, at least partly, is a result of increased scrutiny by the Securities and Exchange Commission. As per Wall Street Journal (Sidel & Eaglesham, March, 3 2011, online), the Securities and Exchange Commission scrutinized banks that have restructured troubled loans in order to make them appear healthier than they really are. Therefore, loan officers’ loan criteria are of immense importance for entrepreneurs and banks alike.

Keywords: Marketing, banks, entrepreneur, loans

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12 Accounting and Prudential Standards of Banks and Insurance Companies in EU: What Stakes for Long Term Investment?

Authors: Sandra Rigot, Samira Demaria, Frederic Lemaire

Abstract:

The starting point of this research is the contemporary capitalist paradox: there is a real scarcity of long term investment despite the boom of potential long term investors. This gap represents a major challenge: there are important needs for long term financing in developed and emerging countries in strategic sectors such as energy, transport infrastructure, information and communication networks. Moreover, the recent financial and sovereign debt crises, which have respectively reduced the ability of financial banking intermediaries and governments to provide long term financing, questions the identity of the actors able to provide long term financing, their methods of financing and the most appropriate forms of intermediation. The issue of long term financing is deemed to be very important by the EU Commission, as it issued a 2013 Green Paper (GP) on long-term financing of the EU economy. Among other topics, the paper discusses the impact of the recent regulatory reforms on long-term investment, both in terms of accounting (in particular fair value) and prudential standards for banks. For banks, prudential and accounting standards are also crucial. Fair value is indeed well adapted to the trading book in a short term view, but this method hardly suits for a medium and long term portfolio. Banks’ ability to finance the economy and long term projects depends on their ability to distribute credit and the way credit is valued (fair value or amortised cost) leads to different banking strategies. Furthermore, in the banking industry, accounting standards are directly connected to the prudential standards, as the regulatory requirements of Basel III use accounting figures with prudential filter to define the needs for capital and to compute regulatory ratios. The objective of these regulatory requirements is to prevent insolvency and financial instability. In the same time, they can represent regulatory constraints to long term investing. The balance between financial stability and the need to stimulate long term financing is a key question raised by the EU GP. Does fair value accounting contributes to short-termism in the investment behaviour? Should prudential rules be “appropriately calibrated” and “progressively implemented” not to prevent banks from providing long-term financing? These issues raised by the EU GP lead us to question to what extent the main regulatory requirements incite or constrain banks to finance long term projects. To that purpose, we study the 292 responses received by the EU Commission during the public consultation. We analyze these contributions focusing on particular questions related to fair value accounting and prudential norms. We conduct a two stage content analysis of the responses. First, we proceed to a qualitative coding to identify arguments of respondents and subsequently we run a quantitative coding in order to conduct statistical analyses. This paper provides a better understanding of the position that a large panel of European stakeholders have on these issues. Moreover, it adds to the debate on fair value accounting and its effects on prudential requirements for banks. This analysis allows us to identify some short term bias in banking regulation.

Keywords: Securitization, banks, fair value, basel 3, long term investment, insurers

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11 Factors Influencing Bank Profitability of Czech Banks and Their International Parent Companies

Authors: Libena Cernohorska

Abstract:

The goal of this paper is to specify factors influencing the profitability of selected banks. Next, a model will be created to help establish variables that have a demonstrable influence on the development of the selected banks' profitability ratios. Czech banks and their international parent companies were selected for analyzing profitability. Banks categorized as large banks (according to the Czech National Bank's system, which ranks banks according to balance sheet total) were selected to represent the Czech banks. Two ratios, the return on assets ratio (ROA) and the return on equity ratio (ROE) are used to assess bank profitability. Six endogenous and four external indicators were selected from among other factors that influence bank profitability. The data analyzed were for the years 2001 – 2013. First, correlation analysis, which was supposed to eliminate correlated values, was conducted. A large number of correlated values were established on the basis of this analysis. The strongly correlated values were omitted. Despite this, the subsequent regression analysis of profitability for the individual banks that were selected did not confirm that the selected variables influenced their profitability. The studied factors' influence on bank profitability was demonstrated only for Československá Obchodní Banka and Société Générale using regression analysis. For Československá Obchodní Banka, it was demonstrated that inflation level and the amount of the central bank's interest rate influenced the return on assets ratio and that capital adequacy and market concentration influenced the return on equity ratio for Société Générale.

Keywords: Profitability, Regression analysis, banks, ROA, ROE

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10 Banking Innovation and Customers' Satisfaction in Nigeria: A Case Study of Some Selected Banks

Authors: Jameelah O. Yaqub

Abstract:

The financial industry all over the world has undergone and still undergoing great transformation especially with the introduction of e-products which involves the use of computers and telecommunications to enable banking transactions to be done by telephone or computer rather than by humans. The adoption of e-banking in Nigeria is becoming more popular with customers now being able to use the ATM cards for different transactions. The internet banking, POS machines, telephone banking as well as mobile banking are some other e-products being used in Nigeria. This study examines how satisfied bank customers are with the e-products. The study found that the ATM is the most popular e-products among bank customers in Nigeria; followed by the POS. The least use of the e-products is telephone banking. The study also found that visits to banks for transactions declined with the use of e-products. The chi-square analysis shows that there is significant relationship between the use of banks’ e-products and customers’ satisfaction. One of the major reason adduced by respondents for low usage of e-products is insecurity or fear of cyber fraud, it is therefore recommended that banks should provide adequate. Security for transactions and ensure the proper backing up of critical data files. In addition, government should ensure stable electricity supply to reduce banks’ running costs and consequently, customers’ cost of transactions.

Keywords: Innovation, Nigeria, banks, e-products

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9 The Role of Banks Funding and Promoting the Foreign Trade: Case of Turkey

Authors: Mikail Altan

Abstract:

International trust takes first place in the development of foreign trade in the country. They see an important role in ensuring that trust. Various payment methods that are developed in the banking system provide fast and reliable way to execution and promote foreign trade by financing the foreign trade. In this study, we investigate the influence of bank on foreign trade in Turkey. 26 years of data for 1990-2015 period have been used in this study. After correlation analysis, a simple regression model was established. Payment methods that are developed in the banking system make a positive contribution in Turkey’s foreign trade volume. In addition, the export of Turkey was affected positively more than import’s by these payment methods.

Keywords: Export, Foreign Trade, banks, import

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8 Effects of Macroprudential Policies on BankLending and Risks

Authors: Stefanie Behncke

Abstract:

This paper analyses the effects of different macroprudential policy measures that have recently been implemented in Switzerland. Among them is the activation and the increase of the countercyclical capital buffer (CCB) and a tightening of loan-to-value (LTV) requirements. These measures were introduced to limit systemic risks in the Swiss mortgage and real estate markets. They were meant to affect mortgage growth, mortgage risks, and banks’ capital buffers. Evaluation of their quantitative effects provides insights for Swiss policymakers when reassessing their policy. It is also informative for policymakers in other countries who plan to introduce macroprudential instruments. We estimate the effects of the different macroprudential measures with a Differences-in-Differences estimator. Banks differ with respect to the relative importance of mortgages in their portfolio, their riskiness, and their capital buffers. Thus, some of the banks were more affected than others by the CCB, while others were more affected by the LTV requirements. Our analysis is made possible by an unusually informative bank panel data set. It combines data on newly issued mortgage loans and quantitative risk indicators such as LTV and loan-to-income (LTI) ratios with supervisory information on banks’ capital and liquidity situation and balance sheets. Our results suggest that the LTV cap of 90% was most effective. The proportion of new mortgages with a high LTV ratio was significantly reduced. This result does not only apply to the 90% LTV, but also to other threshold values (e.g. 80%, 75%) suggesting that the entire upper part of the LTV distribution was affected. Other outcomes such as the LTI distribution, the growth rates of mortgages and other credits, however, were not significantly affected. Regarding the activation and the increase of the CCB, we do not find any significant effects: neither LTV/LTI risk parameters nor mortgage and other credit growth rates were significantly reduced. This result may reflect that the size of the CCB (1% of relevant residential real estate risk-weighted assets at activation, respectively 2% at the increase) was not sufficiently high enough to trigger a distinct reaction between the banks most likely to be affected by the CCB and those serving as controls. Still, it might be have been effective in increasing the resilience in the overall banking system. From a policy perspective, these results suggest that targeted macroprudential policy measures can contribute to financial stability. In line with findings by others, caps on LTV reduced risk taking in Switzerland. To fully assess the effectiveness of the CCB, further experience is needed.

Keywords: Financial Stability, banks, macroprudential policy, mortgages

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7 The Impact of Corporate Governance Regulation in the Nigerian Banking Sector

Authors: Simisola I. Akintoye, Sunday K. Iyaniwura

Abstract:

Recent global corporate failures have called for increase in the need to regulate corporate governance across the world. In Nigeria, the impact of corporate governance regulation in the banking sector has reached epidemic levels contributing to the country’s economic depression. This study critically evaluates Nigeria’s corporate governance regime and explores how weak regulation has impacted on the banking sector. By adopting a socio legal methodology, the study analyses both theoretical and empirical works from a socio-scientific point of view to examine the role of Nigeria’s legal, cultural and social arrangements in corporate governance regulation. The study reveals that Nigeria’s institutional arrangement has contributed to its weak system of corporate governance regulation with adverse effects on the banking sector. The research mainly impacts on current global corporate governance literature in sub-Saharan Africa by contributing to knowledge of the peculiarities of corporate governance regulation in different institutional jurisdictions. The particular focus on emerging economies such as Nigeria expands on the need for countries to develop a bespoke system of corporate governance regulation that takes into consideration the peculiarities of individual countries devoid of external influence.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Emerging Economies, Nigeria, banks

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6 Non-Performing Assets and Credit Risk Performance: An Evidence of Commercial Banks in India

Authors: Sirus Sharifi, Arunima Haldar, S. V. D. Nageswara Rao

Abstract:

This research analyzes the effect of credit risk management practices of commercial banks in India and the relationship with their non-performing assets (NPAs). Required data on credit risk performance was collected through a survey questionnaire from top risk officers of 38 Indian banks. NPA data (period from 2012 to 2016) was collected from Prowess database compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). The model was assessed utilizing cross sectional regression method. As expected, the results indicate a negative significant relationship between credit risk management in India banks and their NPA growth. The research has implications for banks given the high level of losses in India and other economies as well, and the implementation of Basel III standards by the central banks. This research would be an evidence on credit risk performance and its relationship with the level of non-performing assets (NPAs) in Indian banks.

Keywords: Risk management, Risk Identification, banks, Non-Performing Assets (NPAs)

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5 Financial Regulations and Insolvency Risk: Empirical Evidence from Commercial Banks of Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Zeb

Abstract:

The proposed study aims to investigate insolvency risk of commercial banks of Pakistan. Furthermore, it empirically estimates the effect of already implemented financial regulations on the insolvency risk of banks. To carry out the empirical analysis, a balanced bank-level panel data covering the period 2008-2016 is used. The Z-score is used for calculating the insolvency risk of each bank. The panel regression is used to investigate the relationship between financial regulations and insolvency risk of banks. The empirics reveal that the financial regulations enforced by State Bank of Pakistan have significant impacts on the insolvency risk of banks. The results further indicate that loan ratio and reserve ratio are positively and significantly related to the insolvency risk of banks.

Keywords: banks, Z-score, insolvency risk, financial regulations

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4 An Examination of Factors Leading to Knowledge-Sharing Behavior of Sri Lankan Bankers

Authors: Eranga N. Somaratna, Pradeep Dharmadasa

Abstract:

In the current competitive environment, the factors leading to organization success are not limited to the investment of capital, labor, and raw material, but in the ability of knowledge innovation from all the members of an organization. However, knowledge on its own cannot provide organizations with its promised benefits unless it is shared, as organizations are increasingly experiencing unsuccessful knowledge sharing efforts. In such a backdrop and due to the dearth of research in this area in the South Asian context, the study set forth to develop an understanding of the factors that influence knowledge-sharing behavior within an organizational framework, using widely accepted social psychology theories. The purpose of the article is to discover the determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and actual knowledge sharing behaviors of bank employees in Sri Lanka using an aggregate model. Knowledge sharing intentions are widely discussed in literature through the application of Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Theory of Social Capital (SCT) separately. Both the theories are rich to explain knowledge sharing intention of workers with limitations. The study, therefore, combines the TPB with SCT in developing its conceptual model. Data were collected through a self-administrated paper-based questionnaire of 199 bank managers from 6 public and private banks of Sri Lanka and analyzed the suggested research model using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The study supported six of the nine hypotheses, where Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, Trust, Anticipated Reciprocal Relationships and Actual Knowledge Sharing Behavior were supported while Organizational Climate, Sense of Self-Worth and Anticipated Extrinsic Rewards were not, in determining knowledge sharing intentions. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of demographic factors of bankers (age, gender, position, education, and experiences) to the actual knowledge sharing behavior. However, findings should be confirmed using a larger sample, as well as through cross-sectional studies. The results highlight the need for theoreticians to combined TPB and SCT in understanding knowledge workers’ intentions and actual behavior; and for practitioners to focus on the perceptions and needs of the individual knowledge worker and the need to cultivate a culture of sharing knowledge in the organization for their mutual benefit.

Keywords: Knowledge Management, Knowledge sharing, banks, employees behavior

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3 A Decade of Creating an Alternative Banking System in Tanzania: The Current State of Affairs of Islamic Banks

Authors: Pradeep Kulshrestha, Maulana Ayoub Ali

Abstract:

The concept of financial inclusion has been tabled in the whole world where practitioners, academicians, policy makers and economists are working hard to look for the best possible opportunities in order to enable the whole society to be in the banking cycle. The Islamic banking system is considered to be one of the said opportunities. Countries like the United Kingdom, United States of America, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, the whole of the United Arab Emirates and many African countries have accommodated the aspect of Islamic banking in the conventional banking system as one of the financial inclusion strategies. This paper tries to analyse the current state of affairs of the Islamic Banking system in Tanzania in order to understand the improvement of the provision of Islamic banking products and services in the said country. The paper discusses the historical background of the banking system in Tanzania, the level of penetration of banking products and services and the coming of the Islamic banking system in the country. Furthermore, the paper discusses banking regulatory bodies, legal instruments governing banking operations as well as number of legal challenges facing Islamic banking operations in the country. Following a critical literature review, the paper discovered that there is no legal instrument which talks about the introduction and provision of Islamic banking system in Tanzania. Furthermore, the Islamic banking system was considered as a banking product which is absolutely incorrect because Islamic banking is considered to be as a banking system of its own. In addition to that, it has been discovered that lack of a proper regulatory system and legal instruments to harmonize the conventional and Islamic banking systems has resulted in the closure of one Islamic window in the country, which in the end affects the credibility of the newly introduced banking system. In its conclusive remarks, the paper suggests that Tanzania should work on all legal challenges affecting the smooth operations of the Islamic banking system. This can be in a way of adopting various Islamic banking legal models which are used in countries like Malaysia and others, or a borrowing legal harmonization process which has been adopted by the UK, Uganda, Nigeria and Kenya.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, Regulations, banks, islamic windows

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2 Italian Central Guarantee Fund: An Analysis of the Guaranteed SMEs’ Default Risk

Authors: M. C. Arcuri, L. Gai, F. Ielasi

Abstract:

Italian Central Guarantee Fund (CGF) has the purpose to facilitate Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)’ access to credit. The aim of the paper is to study the evaluation method adopted by the CGF with regard to SMEs requiring its intervention. This is even more important in the light of the recent CGF reform. We analyse an initial sample of more than 500.000 guarantees from 2012 to 2018. We distinguish between a counter-guarantee delivered to a mutual guarantee institution and a guarantee directly delivered to a bank. We investigate the impact of variables related to the operations and the SMEs on Altman Z’’-score and the score consistent with CGF methodology. We verify that the type of intervention affects the scores and the initial condition changes with the new assessment criterions. 

Keywords: banks, default risk, Italian guarantee fund, mutual guarantee institutions

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1 Evaluation of Key Performance Indicators as Determinants of Dividend Paid on Ordinary Shares in Nigeria Banking Sector

Authors: Oliver Ikechukwu Inyiama, Boniface Uche Ugwuanyi

Abstract:

The aim of the research is to evaluate the key financial performance indicators that help both managers and their shareholders of Nigerian Banks to determine the appropriate dividend payout to their ordinary shareholders in an accounting year. Profitability, total asset, and earnings of commercial banks were selected as key performance indicators in Nigeria Banking Sector. They represent the independent variables of the study while dividend per share is the proxy for the dividend paid on ordinary shares which represent the dependent variable. The effect of profitability, total asset and earnings on dividend per share were evaluated through the ordinary least square method of multiple regression analysis. Test for normality of frequency distribution was conducted through descriptive statistics such as Jacque Bera Statistic, skewness and kurtosis. Rate of dividend payout was subsequently applied as an alternate dependent variable to test for robustness of the earlier results. The 64% adjusted R-squared of the pooled data indicates that profitability, total asset, and earnings explain the variation in dividend per share during the period under research while the remaining 36% variation in dividend per share could be explained by changes in other variables not captured by this study as well as the error term. The study concentrated on four leading Nigeria Commercial Banks namely; First Bank of Nigeria Plc, GTBank Plc, United Bank for Africa Plc and Zenith International Bank Plc. Dividend per share was found to be positively affected by total assets and earnings of the commercial banks. However, profitability which was proxied by profit after tax had a negative effect on dividend per share. The implication of the findings is that commercial banks in Nigeria pay more dividend when they are having a dwindling fortune in order to retain the confidence of the shareholders provided their gross earnings and size is on the increase. Therefore, the management and board of directors of Nigeria commercial banks should apply decent marketing strategies to enhance earnings through investment in profitable ventures for an improved dividend payout rate.

Keywords: Performance, Profitability, indicators, banks, assets, shares

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