Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Banking Related Abstracts

13 Measuring Banking Risk

Authors: Mike Tsionas

Abstract:

The paper develops new indices of financial stability based on an explicit model of expected utility maximization by financial institutions subject to the classical technology restrictions of neoclassical production theory. The model can be estimated using standard econometric techniques, like GMM for dynamic panel data and latent factor analysis for the estimation of co-variance matrices. An explicit functional form for the utility function is not needed and we show how measures of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion) can be derived and estimated from the model. The model is estimated using data for Eurozone countries and we focus particularly on (i) the use of the modeling approach as an “early warning mechanism”, (ii) the bank- and country-specific estimates of risk aversion and prudence (downside risk aversion), and (iii) the derivation of a generalized measure of risk that relies on loan-price uncertainty.

Keywords: Banking, Financial Crisis, Financial Stability, expected utility maximization, sub-prime crisis, eurozone, PIIGS

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12 A Data Mining Approach for Analysing and Predicting the Bank's Asset Liability Management Based on Basel III Norms

Authors: Nidhin Dani Abraham, T. K. Sri Shilpa

Abstract:

Asset liability management is an important aspect in banking business. Moreover, the today’s banking is based on BASEL III which strictly regulates on the counterparty default. This paper focuses on prediction and analysis of counter party default risk, which is a type of risk occurs when the customers fail to repay the amount back to the lender (bank or any financial institutions). This paper proposes an approach to reduce the counterparty risk occurring in the financial institutions using an appropriate data mining technique and thus predicts the occurrence of NPA. It also helps in asset building and restructuring quality. Liability management is very important to carry out banking business. To know and analyze the depth of liability of bank, a suitable technique is required. For that a data mining technique is being used to predict the dormant behaviour of various deposit bank customers. Various models are implemented and the results are analyzed of saving bank deposit customers. All these data are cleaned using data cleansing approach from the bank data warehouse.

Keywords: Data Mining, Banking, asset liability management, BASEL III

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11 Optimal Diversification and Bank Value Maximization

Authors: Chien-Chih Lin

Abstract:

This study argues that the optimal diversifications for the maximization of bank value are asymmetrical; they depend on the business cycle. During times of expansion, systematic risks are relatively low, and hence there is only a slight effect from raising them with a diversified portfolio. Consequently, the benefit of reducing individual risks dominates any loss from raising systematic risks, leading to a higher value for a bank by holding a diversified portfolio of assets. On the contrary, in times of recession, systematic risks are relatively high. It is more likely that the loss from raising systematic risks surpasses the benefit of reducing individual risks from portfolio diversification. Consequently, more diversification leads to lower bank values. Finally, some empirical evidence from the banks in Taiwan is provided.

Keywords: Banking, Business Cycle, Systemic Risk, diversification, default probability

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10 Discouraged Borrowers: Evidence for Eurozone SMEs

Authors: Javier Sanchez Vidal, Ciarán Mac An Bhaird, Brian Lucey

Abstract:

This study examines the decision by firm owners not to apply for intermediated debt due to a perception that their application will be rejected. Based on a sample of SMEs in 9 European countries over the period 2009-2011, we examine potential explanatory factors for borrower discouragement, including firm, macroeconomic, regulatory and banking industry variables. Compared with firms that applied for bank loans, discouraged borrowers are smaller, younger, have declining turnover and an increasing debt/assets ratio. Perceived willingness of banks to lend rather than the company’s own credit history is more important to encourage applications. Perceptions of refusal are procyclical and may be self-perpetuating. Increased concentration in the banking sector reduces discouragement, indicating the importance of relationship banking. Transmission of macro effects through the banking system and economic environment may also lead to higher levels of discouragement. A good regulatory scheme is also advisable, either for the lenders or the borrowers (overall the good ones).

Keywords: Banking, Entrepreneurial Finance, Financial Crisis, eurozone, discouraged borrowers

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9 The Mediating Role of Bank Image in Customer Satisfaction Building

Authors: H. Emari, Z. Emari

Abstract:

The main objective of this research was to determine the dimensions of service quality in the banking industry of Iran. For this purpose, the study empirically examined the European perspective suggesting that service quality consists of three dimensions, technical, functional and image. This research is an applied research and its strategy is casual strategy. A standard questionnaire was used for collecting the data. 287 customers of Melli Bank of Northwest were selected through cluster sampling and were studied. The results from a banking service sample revealed that the overall service quality is influenced more by a consumer’s perception of technical quality than functional quality. Accordingly, the Gronroos model is a more appropriate representation of service quality than the American perspective with its limited concentration on the dimension of functional quality in the banking industry of Iran. So, knowing the key dimensions of the quality of services in this industry and planning for their improvement can increase the satisfaction of customers and productivity of this industry.

Keywords: Image, Banking, technical quality, functional quality, mediating role

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8 SIM (Subscriber Identity Module) Banking

Authors: Okanta Andrew, Richmond Kweku Frempong

Abstract:

As mobile networks are upgraded with technologies like WAP, GPRS and UMTS to deliver next-generation multimedia services, so are the banks and other financial institutions also getting ready to unleash the financial products on the mobile platform to meet growing demand for mobile based application services. Hence, the onset of Unstructured Supplementary Services (USSD) Banking which would make banking services available at anywhere, anytime through a string of interactive SMS sessions between a mobile device and an application server of a service provider. The aim of this studies was to find out whether the public will accept the sim banking service when it is implemented. Our target group includes: Working class. E. g. Businessmen/women, office workers, fishermen, market women, teachers etc. Nonworking class. E. g. Students (Tertiary, Senior High School), housewives. etc. The survey was in the form of a questionnaire and a verbal interview (video) which was to investigate their idea about the current banking system and the yet to be introduced sim banking concept. Meanwhile, some challenges accompanied the progression of data gathering because some populace showed reluctance in freeing their information. One other suggestion was that government should put measures against foremost challenges obstructing sim banking in Ghana counter to computers hackers. Government and individual have a key role to undertake to give suitable support to facelift the sim banking industry in the country. It was also suggested that Government put strong regulations on the use of sim banking products and services to streamline all the activities and also create awareness of the need for sim banking and emphasize its relevance in the aspect of national GDP.

Keywords: Banking, Mobile Banking, SIM banking, mobile banking in Ghana

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7 Bank Failures: A Question of Leadership

Authors: Alison L. Miles

Abstract:

Almost all major financial institutions in the world suffered losses due to the financial crisis of 2007, but the extent varied widely. The causes of the crash of 2007 are well documented and predominately focus on the role and complexity of the financial markets. The dominant theme of the literature suggests the causes of the crash were a combination of globalization, financial sector innovation, moribund regulation and short termism. While these arguments are undoubtedly true, they do not tell the whole story. A key weakness in the current analysis is the lack of consideration of those leading the banks pre and during times of crisis. This purpose of this study is to examine the possible link between the leadership styles and characteristics of the CEO, CFO and chairman and the financial institutions that failed or needed recapitalization. As such, it contributes to the literature and debate on international financial crises and systemic risk and also to the debate on risk management and regulatory reform in the banking sector. In order to first test the proposition (p1) that there are prevalent leadership characteristics or traits in financial institutions, an initial study was conducted using a sample of the top 65 largest global banks and financial institutions according to the Banker Top 1000 banks 2014. Secondary data from publically available and official documents, annual reports, treasury and parliamentary reports together with a selection of press articles and analyst meeting transcripts was collected longitudinally from the period 1998 to 2013. A computer aided key word search was used in order to identify the leadership styles and characteristics of the chairman, CEO and CFO. The results were then compared with the leadership models to form a picture of leadership in the sector during the research period. As this resulted in separate results that needed combining, SPSS data editor was used to aggregate the results across the studies using the variables ‘leadership style’ and ‘company financial performance’ together with the size of the company. In order to test the proposition (p2) that there was a prevalent leadership style in the banks that failed and the proposition (P3) that this was different to those that did not, further quantitative analysis was carried out on the leadership styles of the chair, CEO and CFO of banks that needed recapitalization, were taken over, or required government bail-out assistance during 2007-8. These included: Lehman Bros, Merrill Lynch, Royal Bank of Scotland, HBOS, Barclays, Northern Rock, Fortis and Allied Irish. The findings show that although regulatory reform has been a key mechanism of control of behavior in the banking sector, consideration of the leadership characteristics of those running the board are a key factor. They add weight to the argument that if each crisis is met with the same pattern of popular fury with the financier, increased regulation, followed by back to business as usual, the cycle of failure will always be repeated and show that through a different lens, new paradigms can be formed and future clashes avoided.

Keywords: Leadership, Banking, Risk, Financial Crisis

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6 Improving the Quantification Model of Internal Control Impact on Banking Risks

Authors: M. Ndaw, G. Mendy, S. Ouya

Abstract:

Risk management in banking sector is a key issue linked to financial system stability and its importance has been elevated by technological developments and emergence of new financial instruments. In this paper, we improve the model previously defined for quantifying internal control impact on banking risks by automatizing the residual criticality estimation step of FMECA. For this, we defined three equations and a maturity coefficient to obtain a mathematical model which is tested on all banking processes and type of risks. The new model allows an optimal assessment of residual criticality and improves the correlation rate that has become 98%.

Keywords: Banking, Control, Risk, criticality, FMECA

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5 Procyclicality of Leverage: An Empirical Analysis from Turkish Banks

Authors: Emin Avcı, Çiydem Çatak

Abstract:

The recent economic crisis have shown that procyclicality, which could threaten the stability and growth of the economy, is a major problem of financial and real sector. The term procyclicality refers here the cyclical behavior of banks that lead them to follow the same patterns as the real economy. In this study, leverage which demonstrate how a bank manage its debt, is chosen as bank specific variable to see the effect of changes in it over the economic cycle. The procyclical behavior of Turkish banking sector (commercial, participation, development-investment banks) is tried to explain with analyzing the relationship between leverage and asset growth. On the basis of theoretical explanations, eight different leverage ratios are utilized in eight different panel data models to demonstrate the procyclicality effect of Turkish banks leverage using monthly data covering the 2005-2014 period. It is tested whether there is an increasing (decreasing) trend in the leverage ratio of Turkish banks when there is an enlargement (contraction) in their balance sheet. The major finding of the study indicates that asset growth has a significant effect on all eight leverage ratios. In other words, the leverage of Turkish banks follow a cyclical pattern, which is in line with those of earlier literature.

Keywords: Banking, economic cycles, leverage, procyclicality

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4 A Study on the Interest of Muslims towards Syariah Bank in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Hikmah

Abstract:

Based on the population census in 2015, Indonesia consists of 254.9 millions of people, and 80% of them are Muslims (Data of Central Bureau of Statistic). Indonesia becomes the highest number of Muslims civilization in the world. The question would be, is the number of population proportional to the growth of Syariah transaction in Indonesia? It is going to be discussed in this research. The problem limitation of this research is in Syariah Banking. Therefore, Syariah transaction in this study is described as transaction only in Syariah Banking. The researcher focused on the study in Yogyakarta, a city in Indonesia. The development of Syariah Bank assets until January 2016, based on statistic data launched by Financial Services Authority (FSA), has increased Rp 287.44 trillion, however, a total amount of bank achieves Rp 6.198,15 trillions. It means that the assets of Syariah Bank are only 4.64% from the total amount of banking assets in Indonesia, though, Syariah Banking was first established in 1991, known as Bank Muamalat. As we can see that in these 25 years, Syariah Banking could only reach that number. Based on the press conference of FSA and Syariah Banking Exhibition iB Vaganza in 2015, the number of Syariah Bank’s customers are under 10 millions. With 80% of Muslims, Syariah Bank is not able to be a market leader in Indonesia. This will be answered in this research, how much the interest if Muslims in Yogyakarta towards Syariah Bank compared to conventional bank. This study will be conducted in Yogyakarta. The sampling will represent to the muslims having good knowledge of Islam, such as dawn prayer worshipers in some mosques in Yogyakarta. There are some reasons why Indonesian muslims are not interested in Syariah Bank, such as the people do not put trust in Syariah Bank; there are some obligation where they work to have conventional bank; business matters services which is not covered by Syariah Bank where most of them are limited to the laws authorities; and there is no sufficient knowledge about the importance of syariah transaction from religion point of view. Each of them is going to be discussed in this research. The suggestions of this study are we should share our knowledge about Islamic transaction anywhere and we need to support Syariah Bank to have Syariah principles. For those who have the authority should be active as well to announce the rules of the constitution supporting the development of syariah transaction in order to be apply perfectly. We hope that trust from the people will increase, and we should provide Syariah Banking products which fulfill business needs. Finally, syariah transaction will be the solution for all people in the world in bussiness transaction.

Keywords: Banking, Islamic, Indonesia, Shariah

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3 Urgency of Islamic Economic System Implementation in Indonesian Banking

Authors: Muhammad Rifqi Hafizhudin Arif, Mukhamad Zulfal Faradis, Ahmad Hidayatullah

Abstract:

Indonesia is the country that uses conventional financial system adopted from European countries as a form of finance in the national banking system. Many of the derivative products of conventional banks either investment, buy and sell, saving and loan, which is not in accordance with Islamic Ethics. While the majority population in Indonesia are belief in Islam, which Islam has had financial management guide is written in the Quran, the Hadith, as well as the opinions of experts who strongly prohibits the use of interest in each transaction activities. Many different expert opinions on the application of the Islamic financial system in Indonesia. However, as the majority of the population of Indonesia, Islamic community have not been able to get the opportunities to choose the Islamic financial system that has mutual benefit between consumers and banks, particularly fairness in transactions, ethical investment, uphold the values of solidarity and brotherhood in every transaction activities, and avoid speculation. In this paper, we will discuss the reasons for the importance of providing an option for Islamic community as the majority of the population of Indonesia to use the banking system which adopted the Islamic ethical values that have been much discussed by other researchers in various countries. The existence of this research is expected to Government, academia and the general public aware of the urgency of Islamic economic system implementation in Indonesian banking as the solution and justice especially for the Islamic community to use the values which they held.

Keywords: Banking, Islamic Economic System, conventional system, Islamic value

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2 Leveraging on Application of Customer Relationship Management Strategy as Business Driving Force: A Case Study of Major Industries

Authors: Odunayo S. Faluse, Roger Telfer

Abstract:

Customer relationship management is a business strategy that is centred on the idea that ‘Customer is the driving force of any business’ i.e. Customer is placed in a central position in any business. However, this belief coupled with the advancement in information technology in the past twenty years has experienced a change. In any form of business today it can be concluded that customers are the modern dictators to whom the industry always adjusts its business operations due to the increase in availability of information, intense market competition and ever growing negotiating ideas of customers in the process of buying and selling. The most vital role of any organization is to satisfy or meet customer’s needs and demands, which eventually determines customer’s long-term value to the industry. Therefore, this paper analyses and describes the application of customer relationship management operational strategies in some of the major industries in business. Both developed and up-coming companies nowadays value the quality of customer services and client’s loyalty, they also recognize the customers that are not very sensitive when it comes to changes in price and thereby realize that attracting new customers is more tasking and expensive than retaining the existing customers. However, research shows that several factors have recently amounts to the sudden rise in the execution of CRM strategies in the marketplace, such as a diverted attention of some organization towards integrating ideas in retaining existing customers rather than attracting new one, gathering data about customers through the use of internal database system and acquiring of external syndicate data, also exponential increase in technological intelligence. Apparently, with this development in business operations, CRM research in Academia remain nascent; hence this paper gives detailed critical analysis of the recent advancement in the use of CRM and key research opportunities for future development in using the implementation of CRM as a determinant factor for successful business optimization.

Keywords: Education, Banking, Healthcare, Agriculture, Business strategies, crm

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1 A Qualitative Evidence of the Markedness of Code Switching during Commercial Bank Service Encounters in Ìbàdàn Metropolis

Authors: A. Robbin

Abstract:

In a multilingual setting like Nigeria, the success of service encounters is enhanced by the use of a language that ensures the linguistic and persuasive demands of the interlocutors. This study examined motivations for code switching as a negotiation strategy in bank-hall desk service encounters in Ìbàdàn metropolis using Myers-Scotton’s exploration on markedness in language use. The data consisted of transcribed audio recording of bank-hall service encounters, and direct observation of bank interactions in two purposively sampled commercial banks in Ìbàdàn metropolis. The data was subjected to descriptive linguistic analysis using Myers Scotton’s Markedness Model.  Findings reveal that code switching is frequently employed during different stages of service encounter: greeting, transaction and closing to fulfil relational, bargaining and referential functions. Bank staff and customers code switch to make unmarked, marked and explanatory choices. A strategy used to identify with customer’s cultural affiliation, close status gap, and appeal to begrudged customer; or as an explanatory choice with non-literate customers for ease of communication. Bankers select English to maintain customers’ perceptions of prestige which is retained or diverged from depending on their linguistic preference or ability.  Yoruba is seen as an efficient negotiation strategy with both bankers and their customers, making choices within conversation to achieve desired conversational and functional aims.

Keywords: Banking, bilingualism, Code-switching, markedness, service encounter

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