Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 65

Bangladesh Related Abstracts

65 To Compare the Visual Outcome, Safety and Efficacy of Phacoemulsification and Small-Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) at CEITC, Bangladesh

Authors: Rajib Husain, Munirujzaman Osmani, Mohammad Shamsal Islam

Abstract:

Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy and visual outcome of phacoemulsification vs. manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) for the treatment of cataract in Bangladesh. Objectives: 1. To assess the Visual outcome after cataract surgery 2. To understand the post-operative complications and early rehabilitation 3. To identified which surgical procedure more attractive to the patients 4. To identify which surgical procedure is occurred fewer complications. 5. To find out the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of study patients Setting: Chittagong Eye Infirmary and Training Complex, Chittagong, Bangladesh. Design: Retrospective, randomised comparison of 300 patients with visually significant cataracts. Method: The present study was designed as a retrospective hospital-based research. The sample size was 300 and study period was from July, 2012 to July, 2013 and assigned randomly to receive either phacoemulsification or manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS). Preoperative and post-operative data were collected through a well designed collection format. Three follow-up were done; i) during discharge ii) 1-3 weeks & iii) 4-11 weeks post operatively. All preoperative and surgical complications, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and astigmatism were taken into consideration for comparison of outcome Result: Nearly 95% patients were more than 40 years of age. About 52% patients were female, and 48% were male. 52% (N=157) patients came to operate their first eye where 48% (N=143) patients were visited again to operate their second eye. Postoperatively, five eyes (3.33%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds, and six eyes (4%) had corneal oedema with <10 Descemets folds for Phacoemulsification surgeries. For SICS surgeries, seven eyes (4.66%) developed corneal oedema with >10 Descemets folds and eight eyes (5.33%) had corneal oedema with < 10 descemets folds. However, both the uncorrected and corrected (4-11 weeks) visual acuities were better in the eyes that had phacoemulsification (p=0.02 and p=0.03), and there was less astigmatism (p=0.001) at 4-11 weeks in the eye that had phacoemulsification. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of final follow-up 95% (N=253) had a good outcome, borderline 3.10% (N=40) and poor outcome was 1.6% (N=7). The individual surgeon outcome were closer, 95% (BCVA) in SICS and 96% (BCVA) in Phacoemulsification at 4-11 weeks follow-up respectively. Conclusion: outcome of cataract surgery both Phacoemulsification and SICS in CEITC was more satisfactory according to who norms. Both Phacoemulsification and manual small-incision cataract surgery (SICS) shows excellent visual outcomes with low complication rates and good rehabilitation. Phacoemulsification is significantly faster, and modern technology based surgical procedure for cataract treatment.

Keywords: Cataract, phacoemulsification, SICS, Bangladesh, visual outcome of SICS

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64 Prevalence and Pattern of Modern Contraceptive Use among Chittagong City Slum Dwellers in Bangladesh

Authors: Tahera Begum, Sabina Yeasmin, Jalal Uddin

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Ten slums of ten wards of Chittagong city corporation of Bangladesh were conveniently selected to know about modern contraceptive use by the slum dwellers. Total 300 family heads or their wives were interviewed with a questionnaire in February 2014. Family size was 4.62. Among 300 families 248 eligible couples were found. 57% eligible couples use different modern contraceptive measures. Remaining 43% eligible couples do not use modern contraceptive measures. Among the users 58% use oral pill, 30% injectables, 8% use condom, 3% were found with ligation and only 1% with vasectomy. Contraceptive prevalence rate has been increased and pattern as changed. A discussion is made with literature review.

Keywords: Family, Bangladesh, conraceptive, pill

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63 Empowerment Means Decision-Making: How Does It Empower Women: Case of Slum Areas of Dhaka City, Bangladesh

Authors: Nurunnaher Nurunnaher

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This paper examines the impact of women’s participation in microcredit on women’s decision making in the slum areas of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. There is confusion in the literature about whether women’s empowerment is or is not a trickle down impact of poverty alleviation or household well-being, and the studies use more or less similar indicators to measure the status of household and the status of women. Studies very rarely conceptualize and operationalize the term ‘empowerment’ as the word is often used without proper care by policy makers and development practitioners instead of household wellbeing. Currently, decision making in many studies has been used as an indicator of women’s empowerment when assessing the impact of microcredit programs on women. Based on a qualitative and feminist study this paper operationalizes women’s empowerment through the development of a conceptual framework, the identification of assessment criteria and the development of proper indicators that guided the whole study. The testimonies of participants, both men and women, were the basis of exploration of women’s lived experiences, which is the most appropriate method to explore the impact of such programs on women’s empowerment. The study considers empowerment as a process that affects various levels of life and gender relationships. The study found that there is a positive change in women’s position in decision making when women have developed an independent economic base with credit money. However, predominantly, women’s decision making is shared with men with the final decision still in the men’s hands. It can be said that women’s microcredit participation has not significantly challenged the social norms, therefore it is not surprising that women who hand over credit to their husband rarely have any power in intra-household bargaining process. Nevertheless, overall it is evident that women are continuously struggling toward the freedom to have the authority over household, economic and personal matters. It is concluded that while making strategic choices or gaining empowerment requires several steps, women’s participation in decision-making has several implications on their lives and potentially challenges patriarchy.

Keywords: Decision Making, Women, Microcredit, Empowerment, Bangladesh, gender inequality/equality, slums, Dhaka

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62 Organic Geochemical Characteristics of Cenozoic Mudstones, NE Bengal Basin, Bangladesh

Authors: H. M. Zakir Hossain

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Cenozoic mudstone samples, obtained from drilled cored and outcrop in northeastern Bengal Basin of Bangladesh were organic geochemically analyzed to identify vertical variations of organic facies, thermal maturity, hydrocarbon potential and depositional environments. Total organic carbon (TOC) content ranges from 0.11 to 1.56 wt% with an average of 0.43 wt%, indicating a good source rock potential. Total sulphur content is variable with values ranging from ~0.001 to 1.75 wt% with an average of 0.065 wt%. Rock-Eval S1 and S2 yields range from 0.03 to 0.14 mg HC/g rock and 0.01 to 0.66 mg HC/g rock, respectively. The hydrogen index values range from 2.71 to 56.09 mg HC/g TOC. These results revealed that the samples are dominated by type III kerogene. Tmax values of 426 to 453 °C and vitrinite reflectance of 0.51 to 0.66% indicate the organic matter is immature to mature. Saturated hydrocarbon ratios such as pristane, phytane, steranes, and hopanes, indicate mostly terrigenous organic matter with small influence of marine organic matter. Organic matter in the succession was accumulated in three different environmental conditions based on the integration of biomarker proxies. First phase (late Eocene to early Miocene): Deposition occurred entirely in seawater-dominated oxic conditions, with high inputs of land plants organic matter including angiosperms. Second phase (middle to late Miocene): Deposition occurred in freshwater-dominated anoxic conditions, with phytoplanktonic organic matter and a small influence of land plants. Third phase (late Miocene to Pleistocene): Deposition occurred in oxygen-poor freshwater conditions, with abundant input of planktonic organic matter and high influx of angiosperms. The lower part (middle Eocene to early Miocene) of the succession with moderate TOC contents and primarily terrestrial organic matter could have generated some condensates and oils in and around the study area.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Bangladesh, hydrocarbon potential, mudstone

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61 Modeling Intention to Use 3PL Services: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

Authors: Nasrin Akter, Prem Chhetri, Shams Rahman

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The present study tested Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model to explain the formation of business customers’ intention to use 3PL services in Bangladesh. The findings show that the TPB model has a good fit to the data. Based on theoretical support and suggested modification indices, a refined TPB model was developed afterwards which provides a better predictive power for intention. Consistent with the theory, the results of a structural equation analysis revealed that the intention to use 3PL services is predicted by attitude and subjective norms but not by perceived behavioral control. Further investigation indicated that the paths between (attitude and intention) and (subjective norms and intention) did not statistically differ between 3PL user and non-user. Findings of this research provide an evidence base to formulate business strategies to increase the use of 3PL services in Bangladesh to enhance productivity and to gain economic efficiency.

Keywords: Bangladesh, theory of planned behavior, intention, third-party logistics

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60 Influences of Emerging Beauty Industry for Men on Construction of Masculinities of Male Students of Dhaka City

Authors: Abu Saleh Mohammad Sowad

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Back in history, muscular and strong male body has always been used to promulgate masculinity; for physically representing supreme manliness there were not many other options. This idealized male figure was proliferated mainly for spreading the notion of male superiority in relation to power and to give a strong base to the social construction of masculinity. This study targets to disclose the perception about the attributes masculinities among the male students of Dhaka city regarding male beautification. It is an attempt to unveil young men’s perspectives regarding their masculinities and beauty. Till the very recent past, beauty was always seen as sole feminine trait in Bangladeshi society. From history we can see men have always been assumed as the ambassador of roughness but in recent time the emergence of fashion-conscious men can be seen, who are slowly occupying a handsome position in the society. Concerning study attempts to bring out the way in which such changing trend of male beauty is perceived among the male students of Dhaka city. What could be the ideologies of these young men who are being involved with it? What is influencing them to be part of such arena which, to a great extent, is still considered as female domain? Is their perception about construction of masculinity is shifting from the so called idealized masculinity? The study tries to find out the answers.

Keywords: Identity, body, Bangladesh, masculinity, male beauty

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59 Community Level Vulnerabilities to Climate Change in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Coastal Area of Bangladesh

Authors: Pronob Kumar Mozumder, M. Abdur Rob Mollah

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This research was conducted in two coastal locations of Bangladesh from February, 2013 to January, 2014.The objective of this research was to assess the potential vulnerabilities of climate change on local ecosystem and people and to identify and recommend local level adaptation strategies to climate change. Focus group discussions, participatory rural appraisal, interviewing local elderly people were conducted. Perceptions about climate change indicate that local people are experiencing impacts of climate change. According to local people, temperature, cyclone, rain, water-logging, siltation, salinity, erosion, and flash flood are increasing. Vulnerability assessment revealed that local people are variously affected by abnormal climate related disasters. This is jeopardizing their livelihoods, risking their lives, health, and their assets. This prevailing climatic situation in the area is also impacting their environmental conditions, biodiversity and natural resources, and their economic activities. The existing adaptation includes using traditional boat and mobile phone while fishing and making house on high land and lower height. Proposed adaptation for fishing boat are using more than 60 feet length with good timber, putting at least 3 longitudinal bar along upper side, using enough vertical side bars. The homestead measures include use of cross bracing of wall frame, roof tying with extra-post by ropes and plantation of timber tree against wind.

Keywords: Climate Change, Bangladesh, community level vulnerabilities, Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Coastal Area

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58 Conservation of Sea Turtle in Cox’s Bazar- Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Area (ECA) of Bangladesh

Authors: M. Abdur Rob Mollah, Pronob Kumar Mozumder M. Nazrul Islam

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This study was conducted in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island Ecologically Critical Areas during the period of October, 2011 to June, 2013. Six species of marine turtle are found in the Indian Ocean. Among them, olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) listed as endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Marine turtle populations in the Indian Ocean have been depleted through long-term exploitation of eggs and adults, incidental capture (fisheries bycatch) and many other sources of mortality. The specific objective of the study was to conserve the sea turtles specially the olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea) with a view to contribute towards protection of the turtle species from extinction and to facilitate hatching of eggs through providing protection to turtle eggs or nest through ex-situ conservation efforts. In order to achieve the desired outputs and success, a total of five turtle hatcheries were established at Pechardwip, Khurermukh, Hazompara, Bodormokam, and Sonadia Eastpara sites. In total, 31,853 eggs were collected from 260 nests and were transferred to five hatcheries. The number of eggs/nest varied from 38 to 190 with an average clutch size of 122 eggs/ nest. Hatching of eggs took place during January to June with a peak in April. Sea turtle eggs were incubated by metabolic heat and the heat of the sun. The incubation period of turtle eggs in Cox’s Bazar-Teknaf Peninsula and Sonadia Island ECAs extended from 54 to 75 days depending on the month with an average of 66 days. During study period the temperature in the ECAs varied between 10.5-34.5°C. A total of 27,937 hatchlings of turtle were produced from the five hatcheries and all the hatchlings produced were released into the sea. Hatching rates varied from 74-98 % depending on the location and months with an average of 88 %. Sea turtles spend the majority of their lives in the sea, only emerging on beaches to nest. Despite the intense conservation efforts on the beaches, some populations have still declined to the edge of extinction. So proper conservation and awareness measure should be taken for prevention of turtle extinction.

Keywords: Bangladesh, conservation of sea turtle, ecologically critical area, ECA, Lepidochelys olivacea

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57 Ageing, the Reality, and Its Gender Dimension

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

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The image of old age in Bangladesh is associated with graying of hair, wrinkling of skin, with poor physical health, and decreased ability to work. The common expression “bura hoechi”, to be aged, means to be limited in terms of performing economically productive activities, known as ‘work’. For ‘old-old’ age, there is a saying, “uthan akhon onek dure”, which literally means “even the courtyard is like a very distant place (for an old person).” Traditionally, Bengali society had a structure caring the life of older people. It was common in the joint families of Bangladeshi culture. The situation has been changing. Complexities of the societies with growing rapid urbanization are influencing the traditional respects and caring structure of the elderly persons and facing social challenges. Bangladesh is projected to have 10 percent of its population of age 60 years and above in the year 2025. The ageing process is expected to accelerate in the next century, mainly because the large cohorts born in 1950s and 1960s respectively will be joining the ranks of 60 years and over during this period. The decline in mortality, particularly at young ages, also means that a higher proportion of the large cohorts will survive to old age. The country does not have enough policy or strategy to face this upcoming challenge for the aged persons which needs immediate attention.

Keywords: Gender, Ageing, Bangladesh, dimension, elderly population

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56 Time Bound Parallel Processing of a Disaster Management Alert System Using Random Selection of Target Audience: Bangladesh Context

Authors: Hasan Al Bashar Abul Ulayee, AKM Saifun Nabi, MD Mesbah-Ul-Awal

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Alert system for disaster management is common now a day and can play a vital role reducing devastation and saves lives and costs. An alert in right time can save thousands of human life, help to take shelter, manage other assets including live stocks and above all, a right time alert will help to take preparation to face and early recovery of the situation. In a country like Bangladesh where populations is more than 170 million and always facing different types of natural calamities and disasters, an early right time alert is very effective and implementation of alert system is challenging. The challenge comes from the time constraint of alerting the huge number of population. The other method of existing disaster management pre alert is traditional, sequential and non-selective so efficiency is not good enough. This paper describes a way by which alert can be provided to maximum number of people within the short time bound using parallel processing as well as random selection of selective target audience.

Keywords: Parallel Processing, Disaster Management, Bangladesh, SMS, alert system

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55 Serum Zinc Level in Patients with Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Nilima Barman, M. Atiqul Haque, Debabrata Ghosh

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Background: Zinc, one of the vital micronutrients, has an incredible role in the immune system. Hypozincemia affects host defense by reducing the number of circulating T cells and phagocytosis activity of other cells which ultimately impair cell-mediated immunity 1, 2. The immune system is detrimentally suppressed in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) 3, 4, a major threat of TB control worldwide5. As zinc deficiency causes immune suppression, we assume that it might have a role in the development of MDR-TB. Objectives: To estimate the serum zinc level in newly diagnosed multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in comparison with that of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB (NdPTB) and healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in the department of Public Health and Informatics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka in collaboration with National Institute of Diseases of the Chest Hospital (NIDCH), Bangladesh from March’ 2012 to February 2013. A total of 337 respondents, of them 107 were MDR TB patients enrolled from NIDCH, 69 were NdPTB and 161 were healthy adults. All NdPTB patients and healthy adults were randomly selected from Sirajdikhan subdistrict of Munshiganj District. It is a rural community 22 kilometer south from capital city Dhaka. Serum zinc level was estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method from early morning fasting blood sample. The evaluation of serum zinc level was done according to normal range from 70 to120 µgm/dL6. Results: Males were predominant in study groups (p>0.05). Mean (sd) serum zinc levels in MDR-TB, NdPTB and healthy adult group were 65.14 (12.52), 75.22(15.89), and 87.98 (21.80) μgm/dL respectively and differences were statistically significant (F=52.08, P value<0.001). After multiple comparison test (Bonferroni test) significantly lower level of serum zinc was found in MDRTB group than NdPTB and healthy adults (p<.001). Point biserial correlation showed a negative association of having MDR TB and serum zinc level (r= -.578; p value <0.001). Conclusion: The significant low level of serum zinc in MDR-TB patients suggested impaired immune status. We recommended for further exploration of low level of serum zinc as risk factor of MDR TB.

Keywords: Bangladesh, immune status, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, serum zinc

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54 Education as an Important Correlate for Age at Marriage in Bangladesh

Authors: Forhana Rahman Noor, Shafia Jannat Khanam

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A girl’s schooling is disrupted by the very act of marriage which requires her to move away from home and her school area to live with her husband’s family, according to custom and practice. Once in her new home, her husband or her in-laws decide her continuation of schooling. A plethora of research has confirmed the inter-relationship between education and age at marriage of girls. The primary data was collected from both urban and rural area in Bangladesh. The study revealed that mean age at marriage for girls was 15.69 years, as a whole and it was lower (15.21 years) in the rural area than that of the urban area (17.13 years). These readings confirm early marriage still exists. The most important determinant of age at marriage was found as low education level of the girls. The bi-variate analysis of this study discovered the relationship or association between education and age at marriage. The study also found the education level of husbands of girls has a significant effect on age at marriage of a girl.

Keywords: Education, Bangladesh, girl, age at marriage, correlate

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53 Pattern of Substance Use: Study in a De-Addiction Clinic

Authors: Mohammad Muntasir Maruf, Muhammad Zillur Rahman Khan, Nasim Jahan, Md. Waziul Alam Chowdhury, Satparkash, Md. Nozrul Islam

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Background: Substance use disorders have become a major public health problem in Bangladesh. Objectives: The present study was designed to assess the pattern of substance use and factors related to it among the hospitalized patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. All the patients who were admitted in a private drug de-addiction clinic in the capital city (Dhaka) of Bangladesh during 1 July-31 December, 2013 and diagnosed as a case of substance use disorder by applying Structured Clinical Interview for DSM- Clinician Version were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through face to face interview by a semi-structured questionnaire and the information was complemented by the case-notes. Study subjects were 105 in number. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: Most (90.5%) of the respondents were male. The mean age of the respondents was 28.8 (± 8.0) years. Majority (91.4%) were poly-substance users. Most (27.6%) respondents used 3 types of substances. Smoking or inhalation was the route used by most (90.5%) respondents. More than three-fourth (81%) of the respondents used nicotine. Among the other substances, majority (79%) used opiates group, followed by cannabinoids group (55.2%) and alcohol (41%). Curiosity, peer pressure and to have enjoyment or fun were identified as the common reasons for initiating substance use. Conclusions: A high proportion of poly-substance use was found. The study findings would help in management and prevention strategy of substance use in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, de-addiction clinic, poly-substance users, substance use disorder

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52 Conceptualization of Value Co-Creation for Shrimp Products in Bangladesh

Authors: Subarna Ferdous, Mitsuru Ikeda

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For the shrimp companies to remain relevant to its local and international consumers, they must offer new shrimp product and services. It must work actively not just to create value for the consumer, but to involve the consumer in co-creating value for shrimp product innovation in the market. In this theoretical work, we conceptualize the business concept of value co-creation in the context of shrimp products, and propose a framework of value co-creation for shrimp product innovation in shrimp industries. With guidance on value co-creation in in shrimp industry, and shrimp value chain actors mapped to the co-creation cycle, companies can use the framework to offer new shrimp product to consumer communities. Although customer co-creation is known approach in the world, it is not commonly used by the companies in Bangladesh. This paper makes an original contribution by conceptualizing co-creation and set the examples of best co-creation practices in food sector. The results of the study provide management with guidelines for successful co-creation projects with an innovation- and market-oriented approach. The framework also provides a basis for further research in this area.

Keywords: Bangladesh, value co-creation, shrimp industry, shrimp product

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51 Friction and Wear, Including Mechanisms, Modeling,Characterization, Measurement and Testing (Bangladesh Case)

Authors: Gor Muradyan

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The paper is about friction and wear, including mechanisms, modeling, characterization, measurement and testing case in Bangladesh. Bangladesh is a country under development, A lot of people live here, approximately 145 million. The territory of this country is very small. Therefore buildings are very close to each other. As the pipe lines are very old, and people get almost dirty water, there are a lot of ongoing projects under ADB. In those projects the contractors using HDD machines (Horizontal Directional Drilling ) and grundoburst. These machines are working underground. As ground in Bangladesh is very sludge, machine can't work relevant because of big friction in the soil. When drilling works are finished machine is pulling the pipe underground. Very often the pulling of the pipes becomes very complicated because of the friction. Therefore long section of the pipe laying can’t be done because of a big friction. In that case, additional problems rise, as well as additional work must be done. As we mentioned above it is not possible to do big section of the pipe laying because of big friction in the soil, Because of this it is coming out that contractors must do more joints, more pressure test. It is always connected with additional expenditure and losing time. This machine can pull in 75 mm to 500 mm pipes connected with the soil condition. Length is possible till 500m related how much friction it will had on the puller. As less as much it can pull. Another machine grundoburst is not working at this soil condition at all. The machine is working with air compressor. This machine are using for the smaller diameter pipes, 20 mm to 63 mm. Most of the cases these machines are being used for the installing of the house connection pipes, for making service connection. To make a friction less contractors using bigger pulling had then the pipe. It is taking down the friction, But the problem of this machine is that it can't work at sludge. Because of mentioned reasons the friction has a big mining during this kind of works. There are a lot of ways to reduce the friction. In this paper we'll introduce the ways that we have researched during our practice in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, friction and wear, HDD machines, reducing friction

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50 Feasibility of Solar Distillation as Household Water Supply in Saline Zones of Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rezaul Karim, Md. Ashikur Rahman, Dewan Mahmud Mim

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Scarcity of potable water as the result of rapid climate change and saltwater intrusion in groundwater has been a major problem in the coastal regions over the world. In equinoctial countries like Bangladesh, where sunlight is available for more than 10 hours a day, Solar Distillation provides a promising sustainable way for safe drinking water supply in coastal poor households with negligible major cost and difficulty of construction and maintenance. In this paper, two passive type solar stills- a Conventional Single Slope Solar still (CSS) and a Pyramid Solar Sill (PSS) is used and relationship is established between distill water output corresponding to four different factors- temperature, solar intensity, relative humidity and wind speed for Gazipur, Bangladesh. Comparison is analyzed between the two different still outputs for nine months period (January- September) and efficiency is calculated. Later a thermal mathematical model is developed and the distilled water output for Khulna, Bangladesh is computed. Again, difference between the output of the two cities- Gazipur and Khulna is demonstrated and finally an economic analysis is prepared. The distillation output has a positive correlation with temperature and solar intensity, inverse relation with relative humidity and wind speed has nugatory consequence. The maximum output of Conventional Solar Still is obtained 3.8 L/m2/day and Pyramid still is 4.3 L/m2/day for Gazipur and almost 15% more efficiency is found for Pyramid still. Productivity in Khulna is found almost 20% more than Gazipur. Based on economic analysis, taking 10 BDT, per liter, the net profit, benefit cost ratio, payback period all indicates that both stills are feasible but pyramid still is more feasible than Conventional Still. Finally, for a 3-4 member family, area of 4 m2 is suggested for Conventional Still and 3m2 for Pyramid Solar Still.

Keywords: Bangladesh, solar distillation, household water supply, saline zones

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49 Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Corporate Governance: Effectiveness of CSR in Human Rights

Authors: Md. Awal Hossain Mollah

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Corporate governance is playing a crucial role for ensuring social accountability and responsibility of business organization through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for the last two decades. In Bangladesh, CSR is a growing and popular concept and a recent development. Various business and corporate organizations are playing crucial role for helping vulnerable sections of our society now. For instance, Dutch Bangla Bank has been providing scholarship for under graduate and graduate students in our country which is very helpful for promoting poor and meritorious students in Bangladesh. In this study, how far CSR is playing its role for ensuring human right in Bangladesh will be examined with specific case studies. The study focus will reflect on both developed and developing nations based on literature review and possible empirical evidence.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Social Security, CSR, Bangladesh, graduate students, scholarships, Dutch angla Bank

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48 Free, Fair, and Credible Election and Democratic Governance in Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Awal Hossain Mollah

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between the free, fair and credible election in ensuring democratic governance in Bangladesh. The paper is a case (Bangladesh) study and qualitative in nature and based on secondary sources of materials. For doing this study, conceptual clarification has been done first and identified few elements of free, fair and credible elections. Then, how far these elements have been ensured in Bangladeshi elections has been evaluated by analyzing all the national elections held since independence. Apart from these, major factors and challenges of holding a free, fair and credible election in Bangladesh have been examined through using the following research questions: 1. Does role of election commission matter for free, fair and credible elections to form a democratic government? 2. Does role of political parties matter for democratic governance? 3. Do role of government matter for conducting the free, fair and credible election in ensuring democratic governance? 4. Does non-party caretaker government matter for conducting a free, fair and credible election? 5. Does democratic governance depend on multi-dimensional factors and actors? Major findings of this study are: Since the independence of Bangladesh, 10 national elections held in various regimes. 4 out of 10 national elections have been found free, fair and credible which have been conducted by the non-party caretaker government. Rests of the elections are not out of controversy and full of manipulation held under elected government. However, the caretaker government has already been abolished by the AL government through 15th amendment of the constitution. The present AL government is elected by the 10th parliamentary election under incumbent (AL) government, but a major opposition allies (20 parties) lead by BNP boycotted this election and 154 of the total 300 seats being uncontested. As a result, AL again came to the power without a competitive election and most of the national and International election observers including media world consider this election as unfair and the government is suffering from lack of legitimacy. Therefore, the governance of present Bangladesh is not democratic at all and it is to be considered as one party (14 parties’ allies lead by AL) authoritarian governance in the shade of parliamentary governance. Both the position and opposition of the parliament is belonging in 14 parties’ alliances lead by AL.

Keywords: Democracy, Governance, free, Bangladesh, fair and credible elections

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47 Genetic Diversity Based Population Study of Freshwater Mud Eel (Monopterus cuchia) in Bangladesh

Authors: H. Ali, M. F. Miah, M. N. Naser, K. M. A. Zinnah, M. J. Raihan

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As genetic diversity is most important for existing, breeding and production of any fish; this study was undertaken for investigating genetic diversity of freshwater mud eel, Monopterus cuchia at population level where three ecological populations such as flooded area of Sylhet (P1), open water of Moulvibazar (P2) and open water of Sunamganj (P3) districts of Bangladesh were considered. Four arbitrary RAPD primers (OPB-12, C0-4, B-03 and OPB-08) were screened and RAPD banding patterns were analyzed among the populations considering 15 individuals of each population. In total 174, 138 and 149 bands were detected in the populations of P1, P2 and P3 respectively; however, each primer revealed less number of bands in each population. 100% polymorphic loci were recorded in P2 and P3 whereas only one monomorphic locus was observed in P1, recorded 97.5% polymorphism. Different genetic parameters such as inter-individual pairwise similarity, genetic distance, Nei genetic similarity, linkage distances, cluster analysis and allelic information, etc. were considered for measuring genetic diversity. The average inter-individual pairwise similarity was recorded 2.98, 1.47 and 1.35 in P1, P2 and P3 respectively. Considering genetic distance analysis, the highest distance 1 was recorded in P2 and P3 and the lowest genetic distance 0.444 was found in P2. The average Nei genetic similarity was observed 0.19, 0.16 and 0.13 in P1, P2 and P3, respectively; however, the average linkage distance was recorded 24.92, 17.14 and 15.28 in P1, P3 and P2 respectively. Based on linkage distance, genetic clusters were generated in three populations where 6 clades and 7 clusters were found in P1, 3 clades and 5 clusters were observed in P2 and 4 clades and 7 clusters were detected in P3. In addition, allelic information was observed where the frequency of p and q alleles were observed 0.093 and 0.907 in P1, 0.076 and 0.924 in P2, 0.074 and 0.926 in P3 respectively. The average gene diversity was observed highest in P2 (0.132) followed by P3 (0.131) and P1 (0.121) respectively.

Keywords: Population, Genetic Diversity, Bangladesh, RAPD, Monopterus cuchia

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46 An Exploratory Study on the Level of Awareness and Common Barriers of Physicians on Overweight and Obesity Management in Bangladesh

Authors: Kamrun Nahar Koly, Saimul Islam

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Overweight and obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and a leading risk factor for morbidity throughout the world. In a country like Bangladesh where under nutrition and overweight both co-exist at the same time, but this issue has been underexplored as expected. The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and identify the barriers of the physicians regarding overweight and obesity management on an urban hospital of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. A simple cross sectional study was conducted at two selected government and two private hospital to assess the knowledge, attitude and common barriers regarding overweight and obesity management among healthcare professionals. One hundred and fifty five physicians were surveyed. A standard questionnaire was constructed in local language and interview was administrated. Among the 155 physicians, majority 53 (34.20%) were working on SMC, 36 (23.20%) from DMC, 33 (21.30%) were based on SSMC and the rest 33 (21.30%) were from HFRCMH. Mean age of the study physicians were 31.88±5.92. Majority of the physicians 80 (51.60%) were not able to answer the correct prevalence of obesity but also a substantial number of them 75(48.40%) could mark the right answer. Among the physicians 150 (96.77%) reported BMI as a diagnostic index for overweight and obesity, where as 43 (27.74%) waist circumference, 30 (19.35%) waist hip ratio and 26 (16.77%) marked mid-arm circumference. A substantial proportion 71 (46.70%) of the physicians thought that they do not have much to do controlling weight problem in Bangladesh context though it has been opposed by 42 (27.60%) of the physicians and 39(25.70%) was neutral to comment. The majority of them 147 (96.1%) thought that a family based education program would be beneficial followed by 145 (94.8%) physicians mentioned about raising awareness among mothers as she is the primary caregiver. The idea of a school based education program will also help to early intervene referred by 142 (92.8%) of the physicians. Community based education program was also appreciated by 136 (89.5%) of the physicians. About 74 (47.7%) of them think that the patients still lack in motivation to maintain their weight properly at the same time too many patients to deal with can be a barrier as well assumed by 73 (47.1%) of them. Lack of national policy or management guideline can act as an obstacle told by 60 (38.7%) of the physicians. The relationship of practicing as a part of the general examination and chronic disease management was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. As besides, perceived barriers like lack of parents support, lack of a national policy was statistically significant (p<0.05) with physician occupational status. For the young physician, more training programme will be needed to transform their knowledge and attitude into practice. However, several important barriers interface for the physician treatment efforts and need to address.

Keywords: Physician, awareness, obesity management, barriers, Bangladesh

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45 Climate Change Adaptation Success in a Low Income Country Setting, Bangladesh

Authors: Tanveer Ahmed Choudhury

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Background: Bangladesh is one of the largest deltas in the world, with high population density and high rates of poverty and illiteracy. 80% of the country is on low-lying floodplains, leaving the country one of the most vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change: sea level rise, cyclones and storms, salinity intrusion, rising temperatures and heavy monsoon downpours. Such climatic events already limit Economic Development in the country. Although Bangladesh has had little responsibility in contributing to global climatic change, it is vulnerable to both its direct and indirect impacts. Real threats include reduced agricultural production, worsening food security, increased incidence of flooding and drought, spreading disease and an increased risk of conflict over scarce land and water resources. Currently, 8.3 million Bangladeshis live in cyclone high risk areas. However, by 2050 this is expected to grow to 20.3 million people, if proper adaptive actions are not taken. Under a high emissions scenario, an additional 7.6 million people will be exposed to very high salinity by 2050 compared to current levels. It is also projected that, an average of 7.2 million people will be affected by flooding due to sea level rise every year between 2070-2100 and If global emissions decrease rapidly and adaptation interventions are taken, the population affected by flooding could be limited to only about 14,000 people. To combat the climate change adverse effects, Bangladesh government has initiated many adaptive measures specially in infrastructure and renewable energy sector. Government is investing huge money and initiated many projects which have been proved very success full. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to describe some successful measures initiated by Bangladesh government in its effort to make the country a Climate Resilient. Methodology: Review of operation plan and activities of different relevant Ministries of Bangladesh government. Result: The following initiative projects, programs and activities are considered as best practices for Climate Change adaptation successes for Bangladesh: 1. The Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL); 2. Climate Change and Health Promotion Unit (CCHPU); 3. The Climate Change Trust Fund (CCTF); 4. Community Climate Change Project (CCCP); 5. Health, Population, Nutrition Sector Development Program (HPNSDP, 2011-2016)- "Climate Change and Environmental Issues"; 6. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Bangladesh and WHO Collaboration; - National Adaptation Plan. -"Building adaptation to climate change in health in least developed countries through resilient WASH". 7. COP-21 “Climate and health country profile -2015 Bangladesh. Conclusion: Due to a vast coastline, low-lying land and abundance of rivers, Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to climate change. Having extensive experience with facing natural disasters, Bangladesh has developed a successful adaptation program, which led to a significant reduction in casualties from extreme weather events. In a low income country setting, Bangladesh had successfully adapted various projects and initiatives to combat future Climate Change challenges.

Keywords: Climate, Change, Bangladesh, success

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44 Wood Energy in Bangladesh: An Overview of Status, Challenges and Development

Authors: Ari Pappinen, Md. Kamrul Hassan

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Wood energy is the single most important form of renewable energy in many parts of the world especially in the least developing countries in South Asia like Bangladesh. The last portion of the national population of this country depends on wood energy for their daily primary energy need. This paper deals with the estimation of wood fuel at the current level and identifies the challenges and strategies related to the development of this resource. Desk research, interactive research and field survey were conducted for gathering and analyzing of data for this study. The study revealed that wood fuel plays a significant role in total primary energy supply in Bangladesh, and the contribution of wood fuel in final energy consumption in 2013 was about 24%. Trees on homestead areas, secondary plantation on off forest lands, and forests are the main sources of supplying wood fuel in the country. Insufficient supply of wood fuel against high upward demand is the main cause of concern for sustainable consumption, which eventually leads deterioration and depletion of the resources. Inadequate afforestation programme, lack of initiatives towards the utilization of set-aside lands for wood energy plantations, and inefficient management of the existing resources have been identified as the major impediments to the development of wood energy in Bangladesh. The study argued that enhancement of public-private-partnership afforestation programmes, intensifying the waste and marginal lands with short-rotation tree species, and formulation of biomass-based rural energy strategies at the regional level are relevant to the promotion of sustainable wood energy in the country.

Keywords: Supply, Wood Energy, Bangladesh, challenge

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43 Microfinance and Microenterprise Development: Evidence from Bangladesh

Authors: Rahat Dewan

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The debate surrounding the efficacy of microfinance and the importance of microenterprise is fierce, lengthy and multifaceted. This paper reviews key issues, theory and evidence surrounding microfinance and microenterprise development for poverty alleviation. We report on a recently completed, large-scale microenterprise development intervention in Bangladesh using the rudimentary data available to us, and also our own qualitative field research. We find reasonable evidence for significant returns to several development outcomes.

Keywords: Development, Microfinance, Bangladesh, microenterprise

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42 Cross-Cultural Study of Stroop Interference among Juvenile Delinquents

Authors: Anjali Ghosh, Tanusree Moitra, Garga Chatterjee, Diganta Mukherjee

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Stroop task is considered to be an important measure of selective attention. However, the color – word Stroop task cannot be administered to the illiterate population. Some of the participants in the present study are illiterate, therefore, object – color Stroop task was used among male juvenile delinquents of India and Bangladesh citizenship (IC & BC), housed in delinquent home in India. The purpose of the study is to test the hypothesis that over - selective attention is present among juvenile delinquents across both the countries. Eighty juvenile delinquents and matched control of 12 – 18 years (50 IC juvenile delinquents, 30 BC juvenile delinquents and 50 Indian control) were shown 24 familiar objects in both typical (e.g. a red apple) and atypical (e.g. a blue apple) color. Repeated – measure factorial ANOVA was used and it was found that all the three groups have taken longer response time in the atypical condition compared to the typical condition. However, contrary to the over - selective attention hypothesis, both groups of juvenile delinquents displayed higher Stroop interference in comparison to the matched control group. The findings of the study can be explained on the basis of anxiety score. IC and BC juvenile delinquents have high anxiety score compared to the control group which indicates that increased anxiety is correlated with the interference produced by the atypical color object stimuli when compared with the typical object stimuli. Funding acknowledgement: Authors acknowledge Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for financial support to the first author of the paper vide Reference no. SR/CSRI/PDF -01/2013 under Cognitive Science Research Initiative (CSRI) to carry out this work.

Keywords: India, Bangladesh, male juvenile delinquent, objects - color Stroop task

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41 Human Rights, Ethics, Medical Care and HIV/AIDS in Bangladesh: A Philosophical Investigation

Authors: Asm Habibullah Choudhury

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Background: This study is an investigation into medical care, ethics, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in the context of Bangladesh. The low prevalence of HIV and high prevalence of STDs in Bangladesh, in common with the global experience of HIV epidemics, has been characterized by tremendous stigmatization of those affected. Stigmatization has resulted in an extraordinary degree of unjust discrimination and in numerous human rights violations of PLWHA. Methodology: This will be a cross-sectional descriptive study and will be conducted at different points of Bangladesh. Result: PLWHA will be identified as many as possible and will be interviewed. Medical care providers will be interviewed to assess their attitude and will be observed for stigma while providing medical services. Some of the religious leaders, local influential people will be interviewed to assess their attitude towards PLWHA. Conclusion: If effective responses to HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are to be promoted in the region, work has to occur simultaneously on several fronts: Legal challenge, where necessary, to bring to account governments, employers, institutions and individuals. To create enabling environment in which PLWHA and their families, women, boys, and girls are able to access prevention and care services. Access to quality and comprehensive care. The fundamental objective, however, is to strive for action based on this understanding—action that will promote egalitarian and gender-progressive role models, and that will help guide the manner in which we interact with one another.

Keywords: Human Rights, HIV, AIDS, Bangladesh

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40 Challenges to Ensure Food Safety through Sanitation and Hygiene Coverage in Bangladesh

Authors: Moshiur Rahman, Tahmida Jakia

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Bangladesh, a densely populated South Asian country is home to more than 160 million people. In two decades ago, the people of this developing nation drank heavily contaminated surface water. Over the past thirty years, the country, and its development partners, has undertaken extensive efforts to provide microbiologically safe groundwater based drinking water through the use of tube-wells. About 85% of the people now drink tube-well water from about 11 million tube-wells/hand pumps. However, diarrhoeal and other water-related diseases are still reported among the major causes of morbidity and mortality among Bangladeshi children. This implies that the mode of transmission of pathogens through water and/or other modes continue. In addition, massive scale arsenic contamination has been recently reported in the ground water. Thirty five million people may be at risk of consuming arsenic contaminated water exceeding 0.05 mg/l in Bangladesh. Drinking of arsenic contaminated water has been linked with skin problems, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, eye problems, cancer of the internal organs, and other diseases. In the study area, Narail district, recent investigations about existing water quality situations indicated presence of low to high levels of arsenic, salinity, iron, manganese and bacteriological contamination risks. As challenges for safe water exist; it is likely that sanitation and food hygiene practices are poor which lead threat to ensure food security.The main attempt of this study is to find out the challenges to ensure food security andprovide probable solutions to ensure food safety towards 0.7 million of people in study area. A survey has been conducted at Lohagara and Kalia sub district of Narail district with a pretested questionnaire. Primary data are collected through a questionnaire, while secondary data are collected from pertinent offices as well as academic journals. FGD has also been done to know the knowledge regarding water, sanitation as well as food preparation and consumption practice of community people in study area. The major focus of this study is to assess the state of sanitation and food hygiene condition of rural people. It is found that most of the villagers have lack of knowledge about food safety. Open defecation rate is high which lead threat to ensure food security.

Keywords: Challenges, Food Safety, Hygiene, Bangladesh

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39 Nutrition Transition in Bangladesh: Multisectoral Responsiveness of Health Systems and Innovative Measures to Mobilize Resources Are Required for Preventing This Epidemic in Making

Authors: Shusmita Khan, Shams El Arifeen, Kanta Jamil

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Background: Nutrition transition in Bangladesh has progressed across various relevant socio-demographic contextual issues. For a developing country like Bangladesh, its is believed that, overnutrition is less prevalent than undernutrition. However, recent evidence suggests that a rapid shift is taking place where overweight is subduing underweight. With this rapid increase, for Bangladesh, it will be challenging to achieve the global agenda on halting overweight and obesity. Methods: A secondary analysis was performed from six successive national demographic and health surveys to get the trend on undernutrition and overnutrition for women from reproductive age. In addition, national relevant policy papers were reviewed to determine the countries readiness for whole of the systems approach to tackle this epidemic. Results: Over the last decade, the proportion of women with low body mass index (BMI<18.5), an indicator of undernutrition, has decreased markedly from 34% to 19%. However, the proportion of overweight women (BMI ≥25) increased alarmingly from 9% to 24% over the same period. If the WHO cutoff for public health action (BMI ≥23) is used, the proportion of overweight women has increased from 17% in 2004 to 39% in 2014. The increasing rate of obesity among women is a major challenge to obstetric practice for both women and fetuses. In the long term, overweight women are also at risk of future obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and heart disease. These diseases have serious impact on health care systems. Costs associated with overweight and obesity involves direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include preventive, diagnostic, and treatment services related to obesity. Indirect costs relate to morbidity and mortality costs including productivity. Looking at the Bangladesh Health Facility Survey, it is found that the country is bot prepared for providing nutrition-related health services, regarding prevention, screening, management and treatment. Therefore, if this nutrition transition is not addressed properly, Bangladesh will not be able to achieve the target of the NCD global monitoring framework of the WHO. Conclusion: Addressing this nutrition transition requires contending ‘malnutrition in all its forms’ and addressing it with integrated approaches. Whole of the systems action is required at all levels—starting from improving multi-sectoral coordination to scaling up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive mainstreamed interventions keeping health system in mind.

Keywords: Obesity, Nutrition Transition, Health System, Overnutrition, Bangladesh, undernutrition

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38 Environmental Degradation and Biodiversity Loss in Bangladesh

Authors: Mohammad Atiqur Rahman

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The study aimed at inventorying the threatened biodiversity of Bangladesh and assessing the rate of loss of biodiversity caused due to environmental degradation for conservation management. The impact assessment of environmental depletion and rate of biodiversity loss determination have been made by a long term field investigation, examination of preserved herbarium specimens and survey of relevant floristic literature following the IUCN’s threatened criteria of assessing Red List Plants under the Flora Bangladesh Project. Biodiversity of Bangladesh, as evaluated, has been affected to a large extent during the last four and half decades due to spontaneous environmental degradation caused by frequent occurrence of cyclonic storms and tidal bores since 1970 and flooding, draught, unilateral diversion of trans-boundary waters by operating Farakka Barrage since 1975, indiscriminate destruction and over exploitation of natural resources, unplanned development and industrialization, overpopulation etc. Depletion of world’s largest mangrove biodiversity in Sundarbans, coastal and island biodiversity in southern part, agro-biodiversity and agro-fisheries all over the country, Haor and wetland biodiversity of plain lands, terrestrial and forest biodiversity in central and eastern hilly part of Bangladesh, as assessed, have greatly been occurred at a higher rate due to environmental degradation which in turn affect directly or indirectly the economy, food security and environmental health of the country. Complete inventory of 30 plant families resulted in the recognition of 45.18% species of Bangladesh as threatened environmentally and 13.23% species as possibly extinct from the flora since these have neither been reported or could be traced in the field for more than 100 years. The rate of extinction is determined to be 2.65% per 20 years. Hence the study indicates that the loss of biodiversity and environmental degradation in Bangladesh occurring at an alarming rate. The study focuses on the issues of environment, the extent of loss of different plant biodiversities in Bangladesh, prioritizing and implementing national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the environment.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Biodiversity, Conservation, Bangladesh

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37 Erectile Dysfunction among Bangladeshi Men with Diabetes

Authors: Shahjada Selim

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Background: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an important impediment to quality of life of men. ED is approximate, three times more common in diabetic than non-diabetic men, and diabetic men develop ED earlier than age-matched non-diabetic subjects. Glycemic control and other factors may contribute in developing and or deteriorating ED. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of ED and its risk factors in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) men in Bangladesh. Methods: During 2013-2014, 3980 diabetic men aged 30-69 years were interviewed at the out-patient departments of seven diabetic centers in Dhaka by using the validated Bengali version of the questionnaire of the International index of erectile function (IIEF) for evaluation of baseline erectile function (EF). The indexes indicate a very high correlation between the items and the questionnaire is consistently reliable. Data were analyzed with Chi-squared (χ²) test using SPSS software. P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Out of 3790, ED was found in 2046 (53.98%) of T2DM men. The prevalence of ED was increased with age from 10.5% in men aged 30-39 years to 33.6% in those aged over 60 years (P < 0.001). In comparison with patients with reported diabetes lasting ≤ 5 years (26.4%), the prevalence of ED was less than in those with diabetes of 6-11 years (35.3%) and of 12-30 years (42.5%, P <0.001). ED increased significantly in those who had poor glycemic control. The prevalence of ED in patients with good, fair and poor glycemic control was 22.8%, 42.5% and 47.9% respectively (P = 0.004). Treatment modalities (medical nutrition therapy, oral agents, insulin, and insulin plus oral agents) had significant association with ED and its severity (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence of ED is very high among T2DM men in Bangladesh and can be reduced the burden by improving glycemic status. Glycemic control, duration of diabetes, treatment modalities, increasing age are associated with ED.

Keywords: Diabetes, Bangladesh, erectile dysfunction, men

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36 Prevalence of Uropathogens in Diabetic Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern at Bangladesh

Authors: Shahjada Selim, Mohammad Saifuddin

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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are prone to develop infection, especially urinary tract infection (UTI) in comparison with non-diabetics. Due to the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) uropathogenic strains, the choice of antimicrobial agent is sometimes difficult. This study is designed to reveal the distribution of uropathogens in Diabetic patients and corresponding sensitivity patterns and to correlate the microbiological results with various clinical parameters. A nine-month retrospective review of 100 urine culture reports of Diabetic patients from January 2015 to September 2015 from semiurbanmultispeciality hospital of Feni, Bangladesh were analyzed. Only Diabetic patients were included in this study who were clinically diagnosed as UTI patients with a corresponding urine culture showing a bacterial count of ˃105cfu/ml.Out of 100 patients with UTI, 39 (39%) were male, and 61 (61%) were female. Organisms grown in urine culture were Escherichia coli (64) followed by Klebsiella (11), Proteus (7), Staph Aureus (4), Pseudomonas (4), Acinetobacter (3), Sreptococcus(3), Enterococcus (2 ) and one each of Enterobacter and Fungi. Overall sensitivity pattern in decreasing order of various commonly used antibiotics was Meropenem (89%), Nitrofurantoin (86%), Amikacin (81%), Ceftriaxone (68%), Cefuroxime (61%), Cefixime (39%), Quinolones (28%), Amoxicillin (16%). The significance of the study lies in the determination of common pathogens in diabetic patients with UTI and the resistance pattern of antibiotics so that physicians and pharmacists get the proper information rationalizing the rational use of antibiotics.

Keywords: Urinary tract infection, diabetes mellitus, E. coli, Bangladesh

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