Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Balance Related Abstracts

26 The Role of Business Survey Measures in Forecasting Croatian Industrial Production

Authors: M. Cizmesija, N. Erjavec, V. Bahovec


While the European Union (EU) harmonized methodology is a benchmark of worldwide used business survey (BS) methodology, the choice of variables that are components of the confidence indicators, as the leading indicators, is not strictly determined and unique. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate and to quantify the relationship between all business survey variables in manufacturing industry and industrial production as a reference macroeconomic series in Croatia. The assumption is that there are variables in the business survey, that are not components of Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI) and which can accurately (and sometimes better then ICI) predict changes in Croatian industrial production. Empirical analyses are conducted using quarterly data of BS variables in manufacturing industry and Croatian industrial production over the period from the first quarter 2005 to the first quarter 2013. Research results confirmed the assumption: three BS variables which is not components of ICI (competitive position, demand and liquidity) are the best leading indicator then ICI, in forecasting changes in Croatian industrial production instantaneously, with one, two or three quarter ahead.

Keywords: Forecasting, Industrial production, Balance, business survey, confidence indicators

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25 A Pilot Study on the Short Term Effects of Paslop Dance Exercise on Core Strength, Balance and Flexibility

Authors: Wilawan Kanhachon, Yodchai Boonprakob, Uraiwon Chatchawan, Junichiro Yamauchi


Introduction: Paslop is a traditional dance from Laos, which is popular in Laos and northeastern of Thailand. This unique type of Paslop dancing is to control body movement with the song. While dancing to the beat, dancers should contract their abdomen and back muscle all the time. Paslop may be a good alternative to improve strengthening, balance and flexibility. Objective: To investigate the effects of Paslop dance exercise on core strength, balance, and flexibility. Methods: Seven healthy participants (age, 20.57±1.13 yrs; height, 162.29±6.16 cm; body mass, 58.14±7.03 kg; mean± S.D.) were volunteered to perform the 45-minute Paslop dance exercise in three times a week for 8 weeks. Before, during and after the exercise period, core strength, balance and flexibility were measured with the pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), one-leg stance test (OLST), and sit and reach test (SAR), respectively. Result: PBU score for core strength increased from 2.12 mmHg in baseline to 6.34 mmHg at the 4th week and 10.10 mmHg at the 8th week after the Paslop dance training, while OLST and SAR did not change. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that 8-week Paslop dancing exercise can improve the core strength.

Keywords: Flexibility, Balance, core strength, Paslop

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24 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Mohammed K. Mohamed, Nawal A. Abu-Shady


Background: Most of patients with vestibular dysfunction suffering from balance disorders, Abnormality in balance increase effort and exertion which affect the independency, so this study might be a guide in managing balance problem and consequently improve walking with less exertion and maximum function. Purpose: to analyze and discuss the effect of transcranial magnetic therapy on balance in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Methods: forty subjects from both sexes were classified to divided randomly into two equal groups; Group I study group: this group received transcranial magnetic therapy, with a selected physical therapy program for improving balance and vestibular disorders (Balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises) and group II (control group): this group received a selected physical therapy program as group I without transcranial magnetic therapy. This treatment procedure will be applied three times weekly for three months. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and II respectively. The Biodex Balance System, Berge balances scale (BBS) and brain MRI were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment. The treatment program for group I included balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises and pulsed magnetic therapy (Parameters used in the program of 20 minutes, Intensity 2 gausses, Frequency 1 Hz). This selected program was done in approximately one hour every other day for three month. The treatment program group II Patients received the same program as group A without transcranial magnetic therapy. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in BBS scores, overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability between both groups. Moreover, the BBS scores increased and overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with before treatment. Interpretation/Conclusion: Adding pulsed magnetic therapy to balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises has no effect on static and dynamic balance in patients with balance problems due to benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.

Keywords: Balance, transcranial magnetic therapy, vestibular dysfunction, biomechanic

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23 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann


Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: Visual, Balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, vestibular

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22 Does Mirror Therapy Improve Motor Recovery After Stroke? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

Authors: Xiaolin Huang, Hassan Abo Salem, Guo Feng


The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy on motor recovery and functional abilities after stroke. The following databases were searched from inception to May 2014: Cochrane Stroke, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, PsycINFO, and PEDro. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all randomized controlled trials that evaluate the effect of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.12 randomized controlled trials studies met the inclusion criteria; 10 studies utilized the effect of mirror therapy for the upper limb and 2 studies for the lower limb. Mirror therapy had a positive effect on motor recover and function; however, we found no consistent influence on activity of daily living, Spasticity and balance. This meta-analysis suggests that, Mirror therapy has additional effect on motor recovery but has a small positive effect on functional abilities after stroke. Further high-quality studies with greater statistical power are required in order to accurately determine the effectiveness of mirror therapy following stroke.

Keywords: Stroke, Balance, mirror therapy, motor recovery

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21 Assessment of Influence of Short-Lasting Whole-Body Vibration on Joint Position Sense and Body Balance–A Randomised Masked Study

Authors: Sebastian Wójtowicz, Anna Slupik, Anna Mosiolek, Dariusz Bialoszewski


Introduction: Whole-body vibration (WBV) uses high frequency mechanical stimuli generated by a vibration plate and transmitted through bone, muscle and connective tissues to the whole body. Research has shown that long-term vibration-plate training improves neuromuscular facilitation, especially in afferent neural pathways, responsible for the conduction of vibration and proprioceptive stimuli, muscle function, balance and proprioception. Some researchers suggest that the vibration stimulus briefly inhibits the conduction of afferent signals from proprioceptors and can interfere with the maintenance of body balance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a single set of exercises associated with whole-body vibration on the joint position sense and body balance. Material and methods: The study enrolled 55 people aged 19-24 years. These individuals were randomly divided into a test group (30 persons) and a control group (25 persons). Both groups performed the same set of exercises on a vibration plate. The following vibration parameters: frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 3mm, were used in the test group. The control group performed exercises on the vibration plate while it was off. All participants were instructed to perform six dynamic exercises lasting 30 seconds each with a 60-second period of rest between them. The exercises involved large muscle groups of the trunk, pelvis and lower limbs. Measurements were carried out before and immediately after exercise. Joint position sense (JPS) was measured in the knee joint for the starting position at 45° in an open kinematic chain. JPS error was measured using a digital inclinometer. Balance was assessed in a standing position with both feet on the ground with the eyes open and closed (each test lasting 30 sec). Balance was assessed using Matscan with FootMat 7.0 SAM software. The surface of the ellipse of confidence and front-back as well as right-left swing were measured to assess balance. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 10.0 PL software. Results: There were no significant differences between the groups, both before and after the exercise (p> 0.05). JPS did not change in both the test (10.7° vs. 8.4°) and control groups (9.0° vs. 8.4°). No significant differences were shown in any of the test parameters during balance tests with the eyes open or closed in both the test and control groups (p> 0.05). Conclusions. 1. Deterioration in proprioception or balance was not observed immediately after the vibration stimulus. This suggests that vibration-induced blockage of proprioceptive stimuli conduction can have only a short-lasting effect that occurs only as long as a vibration stimulus is present. 2. Short-term use of vibration in treatment does not impair proprioception and seems to be safe for patients with proprioceptive impairment. 3. These results need to be supplemented with an assessment of proprioception during the application of vibration stimuli. Additionally, the impact of vibration parameters used in the exercises should be evaluated.

Keywords: Whole body vibration, Balance, proprioception, joint position sense

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20 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth


The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: parkinson's disease, Balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest

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19 Ten Basic Exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya on Balance and Strength in Male Older Adults

Authors: K. Thawichai, R. Pornthep


This study examined the effects of ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training for balance and strength in male older adults. Thirty male older adult volunteer from Thayang elderly clubs, Thayang, Petchaburi, Thailand. All participants were randomly assigned to two groups a training group and a control group. The training group (n=15) participated in eight week training program of ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training and not to change or increase another exercise during of the study. In the control group, (n=15) did not participate in ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training. Both groups were tested before and after eight weeks of the study period on balance in terms of single leg stance with eyes closed and strength in terms of the thirty second chair stand. The data of the study show that the participants of the training group perform significantly different higher scores in single leg stance with eyes closed and thirty second chair stand than the participants in the control group. The results of this study suggested that ten basic exercises of Muay Thai Chaiya training can use to improve balance and strength in male older adults.

Keywords: Older Adults, Balance, Strength, Muay Thai Chaiya

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18 Nonlinear Analysis of Postural Sway in Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Hua Cao, Laurent Peyrodie, Olivier Agnani, Cécile Donzé


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease, which affects the central nervous system, and causes balance problem. In clinical, this disorder is usually evaluated using static posturography. Some linear or nonlinear measures, extracted from the posturographic data (i.e. center of pressure, COP) recorded during a balance test, has been used to analyze postural control of MS patients. In this study, the trend (TREND) and the sample entropy (SampEn), two nonlinear parameters were chosen to investigate their relationships with the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score. Forty volunteers with different EDSS scores participated in our experiments with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC). TREND and two types of SampEn (SampEn1 and SampEn2) were calculated for each combined COP’s position signal. The results have shown that TREND had a weak negative correlation to EDSS while SampEn2 had a strong positive correlation to EDSS. Compared to TREND and SampEn1, SampEn2 showed a better significant correlation to EDSS and an ability to discriminate the MS patients in the EC case. In addition, the outcome of the study suggests that the multi-dimensional nonlinear analysis could provide some information about the impact of disability progression in MS on dynamics of the COP data.

Keywords: Nonlinear Analysis, Multiple Sclerosis, Balance, postural sway

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17 Effect of Motor Imagery of Truncal Exercises on Trunk Function and Balance in Early Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Elsa Reethu, S. Karthik Babu, N. Syed


Background: Studies in the past focused on the additional benefits of action observation in improving upper and lower limb functions and improving activities of daily living when administered along with conventional therapy. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of literature proving the effects of motor imagery of truncal exercise in improving trunk control in patients with stroke. Aims/purpose: To study the effect of motor imagery of truncal exercises on trunk function and balance in early stroke. Methods: A total of 24 patients were included in the study. 12 were included in the experimental group and 12 were included in control group Trunk function was measured using Trunk Control Test (TCT), Trunk Impairment Scale Verheyden (TIS Verheyden) and Trunk Impairment Scale Fujiwara (TIS Fujiwara). The balance was assessed using Brunel Balance Assessment (BBA) and Tinetti POMA. For the experimental group, each session was for 30 minutes of physical exercises and 15 minutes of motor imagery, once a day, six times a week for 3 weeks and prior to the exercise session, patients viewed a video tape of all the trunk exercises to be performed for 15minutes. The control group practiced the trunk exercises alone for the same duration. Measurements were taken before, after and 4 weeks after intervention. Results: The effect of treatment in motor imagery group showed better improvement when compared with control group when measured after 3 weeks on values of static sitting balance, dynamic balance, total TIS (Verheyden) score, BBA, Tinetti balance and gait with a large effect size of 0.86, 1.99, 1.69, 1.06, 1.63 and 0.97 respectively. The moderate effect size was seen in values of TIS Fujiwara (0.58) and small effect size was seen on TCT (0.12) and TIS coordination component (0.13).at the end of 4 weeks after intervention, the large effect size was identified on values of dynamic balance (2.06), total TIS score (1.59) and Tinetti balance (1.24). The moderate effect size was observed on BBA (0.62) and Tinetti gait (0.72). Conclusion: Trunk motor imagery is effective in improving trunk function and balance in patients with stroke and has a carryover effect in the aspects of mobility. The therapy gain that was observed during the time of discharge was seen to be maintained at the follow-up levels.

Keywords: Stroke, Motor imagery, Balance, trunk rehabilitation, trunk function

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16 Balance of Natural Resources to Manage Land Use Changes in Subosukawonosraten Area

Authors: Sri E. Wati, D. Roswidyatmoko, N. Maslahatun, Gunawan, Andhika B. Taji


Natural resource is the main sources to fulfill human needs. Its utilization must consider not only human prosperity but also sustainability. Balance of natural resources is a tool to manage natural wealth and to control land use change. This tool is needed to organize land use planning as stated on spatial plan in a certain region. Balance of natural resources can be calculated by comparing two-series of natural resource data obtained at different year. In this case, four years data period of land and forest were used (2010 and 2014). Land use data were acquired through satellite image interpretation and field checking. By means of GIS analysis, its result was then assessed with land use plan. It is intended to evaluate whether existing land use is suitable with land use plan. If it is improper, what kind of efforts and policies must be done to overcome the situation. Subosukawonosraten is rapid developed areas in Central Java Province. This region consists of seven regencies/cities which are Sukoharjo Regency, Boyolali Regency, Surakarta City, Karanganyar Regency, Wonogiri Regency, Sragen Regency, and Klaten Regency. This region is regarding to several former areas under Karasidenan Surakarta and their location is adjacent to Surakarta. Balance of forest resources show that width of forest area is not significantly changed. Some land uses within the area are slightly changed. Some rice field areas are converted into settlement (0.03%) whereas water bodies become vacant areas (0.09%). On the other hand, balance of land resources state that there are many land use changes in this region. Width area of rice field decreases 428 hectares and more than 50% of them have been transformed into settlement area and 11.21% is converted into buildings such as factories, hotels, and other infrastructures. It occurs mostly in Sragen, Sukoharjo, and Karanganyar Regency. The results illustrate that land use change in this region is mostly influenced by increasing of population number. Some agricultural lands have been converted into built-up area since demand of settlement, industrial area, and other infrastructures also increases. Unfortunately, recent utilization of more than a half of total area is not appropriate with land use plan declared in spatial planning document. It means, local government shall develop a strict regulation and law enforcement related to any violation in land use management.

Keywords: land, Forest, Balance, spatial plan

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15 Relationship Between Dynamic Balance, Jumping Performance and Q-angle in Soccer Players

Authors: Tarik Ozmen


The soccer players need good dynamic balance and jumping performance for dribbling, crossing rival, and to be effective in high balls during soccer game. The quadriceps angle (Q-angle) is used to assess biomechanics of the patellofemoral joint in the musculoskeletal medicine. The Q angle is formed by the intersection of two lines drawing from the anterior superior iliac spine to the centre of the patella and to the midline of the tibia tuberosity. Studies have shown that the Q angle is inversely associated with quadriceps femoris strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate relationship between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Thirty male soccer players (mean ± SD: age, 15.23 ± 0.56 years, height, 170 ± 8.37 cm, weight, 61.36 ± 6.04 kg) participated as volunteer in this study. Dynamic balance of the participants were evaluated at directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) with Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Each participant was instructed to reach as far as with the non-dominant leg in each of the 3 directions while maintaining dominant leg stance. Leg length was used to normalize excursion distances by dividing the distance reached by leg length and then multiplying the result by 100. The jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump using a contact mat. A universal (standard) goniometer was used to measure the Q angle in standing position. The Q angle was not correlated with directions of SEBT (A: p = 0.32, PM: p = 0.06, PL: p = 0.37). The squat jump height was not correlated with Q-angle (p = 0.21). The findings of this study suggest that there are no significant relationships between dynamic balance, jumping performance and Q-angle in soccer players. Further studies should investigate relationship between balance ability, athletic performance and Q-angle with larger sample size in soccer players.

Keywords: Balance, soccer, jump height, Q angle

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14 Effect of High-Intensity Core Muscle Exercises Training on Sport Performance in Dancers

Authors: Che Hsiu Chen, Su Yun Chen, Hon Wen Cheng


Traditional core stability, core endurance, and balance exercises on a stable surface with isometric muscle actions, low loads, and multiple repetitions, which may not improvements the swimming and running economy performance. However, the effects of high intensity core muscle exercise training on jump height, sprint, and aerobic fitness remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine whether high intensity core muscle exercises training could improve sport performances in dancers. Thirty healthy university dancer students (28 women and 2 men; age 20.0 years, height 159.4 cm, body mass 52.7 kg) were voluntarily participated in this study, and each participant underwent five suspension exercises (e.g., hip abduction in plank alternative, hamstring curl, 45-degree row, lunge and oblique crunch). Each type of exercise was performed for 30-second, with 30-second of rest between exercises, two times per week for eight weeks and each exercise session was increased by 10-second every week. We measured agility, explosive force, anaerobic and cardiovascular fitness in dancer performance before and after eight weeks of training. The results showed that the 8-week high intensity core muscle training would significantly increase T-test agility (7.78%), explosive force of acceleration (3.35%), vertical jump height (8.10%), jump power (6.95%), lower extremity anaerobic ability (7.10%) and oxygen uptake efficiency slope (4.15%). Therefore, it can be concluded that eight weeks of high intensity core muscle exercises training can improve not only agility, sprint ability, vertical jump ability, anaerobic and but also cardiovascular fitness measures as well.

Keywords: Balance, sprint, jump height, maximal oxygen uptake

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13 Effect of the Community Chair-Based Exercise Programme on the Balance of the Elderly in Hong Kong

Authors: Wai Sang Wu, Florence Pik Sze Mok


Introduction: Ageing population is one of the hot topics nowadays in the world and this phenomenon is believed to exacerbate continuously in the future. According to the latest information from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016, the proportion of people aged more than 60 years is projected to be doubled from 12% in 2015 to 22% in 2050 of the world's population. Similarly, according to figures released by the Census and Statistic Department of Hong Kong in 2015, the contribution of elderly aged more than 65 years olds is projected to increase from 15% in 2014 to 34% in 2064 in local community. On the other hand, falls in elderly is a common problem, and it can bring along many negative consequences among elders, such as reducing their mobility level as well as their quality of life. In addition, it can also increase the caring stress of their family caregivers and as well increase the reliance and burden on the medical care system of Hong Kong. Therefore, appropriate measures should be implemented in order to minimize the risk of fall among elders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the chair-based exercise programme in affecting the balance of the elderly in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects (males = 2; females = 11; mean age: 76.2 ± 7.8 years old) were recruited from an elderly social centre in the community to participate in a structural chair-based exercise programme for 6 weeks (1 session per week; 60-minutes per session). Subjects were being assessed on their balance ability using three commonly used clinical assessments, namely, 1) single leg stance (SLS) test, 2) functional reach test, and 3) 360-degree turn test, before and after their participation in the chair-based exercise programme. Pre and post within-subject comparison was adopted to assess the effectiveness of the programme. Results: There was significant improvement (p < 0.05) in all balance parameters of the subjects after their participation in the exercise programme. Elderly demonstrated significant improvement in SLS (p < 0.012), functional reach (p < 0.030) and 360 degree turn (p < 0.043). Conclusions: This study showed that a community chair-based exercise programme is effective in improving the balance ability of the elders. It seems to be another exercise regime that should be promoted among the elders in order to minimize their risk of falls and its negative consequence.

Keywords: Community, Elderly, Balance, chair-based exercise programme

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12 The Nexus between Counter Terrorism and Human Rights with a Perspective on Cyber Terrorism

Authors: Allan Munyao Mukuki


The nexus between terrorism and human rights has become a big challenge in the fight against terrorism globally. This is hinged on the fact that terrorism and human rights are interrelated to the extent that, when the former starts, the latter is violated. This direct linkage was recognised in the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action as adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna on 25 June 1993 which agreed that acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations are aimed at the destruction of human rights. Hence, terrorism constitutes an assault on our most basic human rights. To this end, the first part of this paper will focus on the nexus between terrorism and human rights and endeavors to draw a co-relation between these two concepts. The second part thereafter will analyse the emerging concept of cyber-terrorism and how it takes place. Further, an analysis of cyber counter-terrorism balanced as against human rights will also be undertaken. This will be done through the analysis of the concept of ‘securitisation’ of human rights as well as the need to create a balance between counterterrorism efforts as against the protection of human rights at all costs. The paper will then concludes with recommendations on how to balance counter-terrorism and human rights in the modern age.

Keywords: Security, Human Rights, Counter-Terrorism, Balance, Cyber-Terrorism, violation

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11 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Ismail Saracoglu, Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar


Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: Body Composition, Balance, young adults, body mass

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10 A Top-down vs a Bottom-up Approach on Lower Extremity Motor Recovery and Balance Following Acute Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Vijaya Kumar, Vidayasagar Pagilla, Abraham Joshua, Rakshith Kedambadi, Prasanna Mithra


Background: Post stroke rehabilitation are aimed to accelerate for optimal sensorimotor recovery, functional gain and to reduce long-term dependency. Intensive physical therapy interventions can enhance this recovery as experience-dependent neural plastic changes either directly act at cortical neural networks or at distal peripheral level (muscular components). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a traditional bottom-up approach, mirror therapy (MT), a relatively new top down approach have found to be an effective adjuvant treatment methods for lower extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. However there is a scarcity of evidence to compare their therapeutic gain in stroke recovery.Aim: To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and mirror therapy (MT) in very early phase of post stroke rehabilitation addressed to lower extremity motor recovery and balance. Design: observer blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Setting: Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals. Subjects: 32 acute stroke subjects with first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis, referred for rehabilitation (onset < 3 weeks), Brunnstorm lower extremity recovery stages ≥3 and MMSE score more than 24 were randomized into two group [Group A-NMES and Group B-MT]. Interventions: Both the groups received eclectic approach to remediate lower extremity recovery which includes treatment components of Roods, Bobath and Motor learning approaches for 30 minutes a day for 6 days. Following which Group A (N=16) received 30 minutes of surface NMES training for six major paretic muscle groups (gluteus maximus and medius,quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius). Group B (N=16) was administered with 30 minutes of mirror therapy sessions to facilitate lower extremity motor recovery. Outcome measures: Lower extremity motor recovery, balance and activities of daily life (ADLs) were measured by Fugyl Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI) before and after intervention. Results: Pre Post analysis of either group across the time revealed statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all the outcome variables for the either group. All parameters of NMES had greater change scores compared to MT group as follows: FMA-LE (25.12±3.01 vs. 23.31±2.38), BBS (35.12±4.61 vs. 34.68±5.42) and BI (40.00±10.32 vs. 37.18±7.73). Between the groups comparison of pre post values showed no significance with FMA-LE (p=0.09), BBS (p=0.80) and BI (p=0.39) respectively. Conclusion: Though either groups had significant improvement (pre to post intervention), none of them were superior to other in lower extremity motor recovery and balance among acute stroke subjects. We conclude that eclectic approach is an effective treatment irrespective of NMES or MT as an adjunct.

Keywords: Stroke, Neuromuscular electrical stimulation, Balance, mirror therapy, motor recovery

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9 Examining the Impact of Intelligence Quotients on Balance and Coordination in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Suat Erel, Sehmus Aslan, Bilge B. Calik, Ummuhan B. Aslan


Objective: Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by limitations in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the balance and coordination performance determined between mild and moderate ID adolescents who regularly play sport. Methods: The study comprised a total of 179 participants, of which 135 were male adolescents with mild and moderate-level ID who regularly play sports (16.52 ± 2.17 years) and 44 age-matched male adolescents with typical development without ID who do not do any sports (16.52 ± 0.99 years). The participants with ID were students of Special Education Schools for the mentally disabled and had been diagnosed with ID at a Ministry of Health Hospital. The adolescents with mild and moderate ID had been playing football in their school teams at least 2 days a week, for at least one year. Balance and coordination of adolescents were assessed by Bilateral coordination and balance subtests of Short Form Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-2 SF). Results: As a result of the evaluations comparing coordination and balance scores significant differences were determined between all three groups in favor of the peers without ID (p<0.05). Conclusions: It was observed that balance and coordination levels of adolescents with mild ID were better than those of adolescents with moderate-level ID but lower than those of peers without ID. These results indicate a relationship between IQ level and motor performance. Further comparative studies are needed on individuals with ID who play and do not play sports in order to examine the impact of participation in sports on the motor skills of individuals with ID.

Keywords: Sport, coordination, Intellectual Disability, Balance, motor skills

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8 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: Balance, adults, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

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7 The Effect of Six-Weeks of Elastic Exercises with Reactionary Ropes on Nerve Conduction Velocity and Balance in Females with Multiple Sclerosis

Authors: Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Masoumeh Helalizadeh, Seyyed Mahmoud Hejazi


Multiple Sclerosis is considered as diseases related to central nerve system, the chronic and progressive disease impress on sensory and motor function of people. Due to equilibrium problems in this patients that related to disorder of nerve conduction transmission from central nerve system to organs and the nature of elastic bands that can make changes in neuromuscular junctions and momentary actions, the aim of this research is evaluate elastic training effect by reactionary ropes on nerve conduction velocity (in lower and upper limb) and functional balance in female patients with Multiple Sclerosis. The study was a semi-experimental study that was performed based on pre and post-test method, The statistical community consisted of 16 women with MS in the age mean 25-40yrs, at low and intermediate levels of disease EDSS 1-4 (Expanded Disability Status Scale) that were divided randomly into elastic and control groups, so the training program of experimental group lasted six weeks, 3 sessions per week of elastic exercises with reactionary ropes. Electroneurography parameters (nerve conduction velocity- latency) of Upper and lower nerves (Median, Tibial, Sural, Peroneal) along with balance were investigated respectively by the Electroneurography system (ENG) and Timed up and go (TUG) functional test two times in before and after the training period. After that, To analyze the data were used of Dependent and Independent T-test (with sig level p<0.05). The results showed significant increase in nerve conduction velocity of Sural (p=0.001), Peroneal (p=0.01), Median (p=0.03) except Tibial and also development Latency Time of Tibial (p= 0), Peroneal (p=0), Median (p=0) except Sural. The TUG test showed significant decreases in execution time too (p=0.001). Generally, based on what the obtained data can indicate, modern training with elastic bands can contribute to enhanced nerve conduction velocity and balance in neurosis patients (MS) so lead to reduce problems, promotion of mobility and finally more life expectancy in these patients.

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Balance, velocity, elastic bands, nerve conduction

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6 The Amount of Information Processing and Balance Performance in Children: The Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Chungyu Chen, Chin-Chih Chiou, Tai-Yuan Su, Ti-Yu Chen, Wen-Yu Chiu


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction time (RT) or balance performance as the number of stimulus-response choices increases, the amount of information processing of 0-bit and 1-bit conditions based on Hick’s law, using the dual-task design. Eighteen children (age: 9.38 ± 0.27 years old) were recruited as the participants for this study, and asked to assess RT and balance performance separately and simultaneously as following five conditions: simple RT (0-bit decision), choice RT (1-bit decision), single balance control, balance control with simple RT, and balance control with choice RT. Biodex 950-300 balance system and You-Shang response timer were used to record and analyze the postural stability and information processing speed (RT) respectively for the participants. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with HSD post-hoc test and 2 (balance) × 2 (amount of information processing) repeated measures two-way ANOVA were used to test the parameters of balance performance and RT (α = .05). The results showed the overall stability index in the 1-bit decision was lower than in 0-bit decision, and the mean deflection in the 1-bit decision was lower than in single balance performance. Simple RTs were faster than choice RTs both in single task condition and dual task condition. It indicated that the chronometric approach of RT could use to infer the attention requirement of the secondary task. However, this study did not find that the balance performance is interfered for children by the increasing of the amount of information processing.

Keywords: Balance, reaction time, capacity theory, Hick’s law

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5 Efficiency of Virtual Reality Exercises with Nintendo Wii System on Balance and Independence in Motor Functions in Hemiparetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study

Authors: Ayça Utkan Karasu, Elif Balevi Batur, Gülçin Kaymak Karataş


The aim of this study was to examine the efficiency of virtual reality exercises with Nintendo Wii system on balance and independence in motor functions. This randomized controlled assessor-blinded study included 23 stroke inpatients with hemiparesis all within 12 months poststroke. Patients were randomly assigned to control group (n=11) or experimental group (n=12) via block randomization method. Control group participated in a conventional balance rehabilitation programme. Study group received a four-week balance training programme five times per week with a session duration of 20 minutes in addition to the conventional balance rehabilitation programme. Balance was assessed by the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, the postural assessment scale for stroke, the static balance index. Also, displacement of centre of pressure sway and centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting was calculated by Emed-SX system. Independence in motor functions was assessed by The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) ambulation and FIM transfer subscales. The outcome measures were evaluated at baseline, 4th week (posttreatment), 8th week (follow-up). Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed for each of the outcome measure. Significant group time interaction was detected in the scores of the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, eyes open anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, eyes closed anteroposterior center of pressure sway distance, center of pressure displacement during weight shifting to effected side, unaffected side and total centre of pressure displacement during weight shifting (p < 0.05). Time effect was statistically significant in the scores of the Berg’s balance scale, the functional reach test, the timed up and go test, the postural assessment scale for stroke, the static balance index, eyes open anteroposterior and mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, eyes closed mediolateral center of pressure sway distance, the center of pressure displacement during weight shifting to effected side, the functional independence measure ambulation and transfer scores (p < 0.05). Virtual reality exercises with Nintendo Wii system combined with a conventional balance rehabilitation programme enhances balance performance and independence in motor functions in stroke patients.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Stroke Rehabilitation, Balance, hemiplegia

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4 The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance’s Evaluation

Authors: Péricles Maia Andrade, Temístocles Damasceno Silva, Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro


The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the Mountain Bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the Mountain Bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the Cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the Mountain Bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, Balance, evaluating Immobility, Static Balance and Dynamic Balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in Static and Dynamic Balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.

Keywords: Education, Balance, psychomotricity, mountain biking

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3 The Comparison of Backward and Forward Running Program on Balance Development and Plantar Flexion Force in Pre Seniors: Healthy Approach

Authors: Mostafa Sarabzadeh, Neda Dekamei, Masoumeh Bigdeli


Backward running is commonly used in different sports conditioning, motor learning, and neurological purposes, and even more commonly in physical rehabilitation. The present study evaluated the effects of six weeks backward and forward running methods on balance promotion adaptation in students. 12 male and female preseniors with the age range of 45-60 years participated and were randomly classified into two groups of backward running (n: 6) and forward running (n: 6) training interventions. During six weeks, 3 sessions per week, all subjects underwent stated different models of backward and forward running training on treadmill (65-80 of HR max). Pre and post-tests were performed by force plate and electromyogram, two times before and after intervention. Data were analyzed using by T test. On the basis of obtained data, significant differences were recorded on balance and plantar flexion force in backward running (BR) and no difference for forward running (FR). It seems the training model of backward running can generate more stimulus to achieve better plantar flexion force and strengthening ankle protectors which leads to balance improvement in pre aging period. It can be recommended as an effective method to promote seniors life quality especially in balance neuromuscular parameters.

Keywords: Balance, backward running, plantar flexion, pre seniors

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2 The Effects of a Hippotherapy Simulator in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Pilot Study

Authors: Canan Gunay Yazici, Zubeyir Sarı, Devrim Tarakci


Background: Hippotherapy considered as global techniques used in rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy as it improved gait pattern, balance, postural control, balance and gross motor skills development but it encounters some problems (such as the excess of the cost of horses' care, nutrition, housing). Hippotherapy simulator is being developed in recent years to overcome these problems. These devices aim to create the effects of hippotherapy made with a real horse on patients by simulating the movements of a real horse. Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of hippotherapy simulator on gross motor functions, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Fourteen children with CP, aged 6–15 years, seven with a diagnosis of spastic hemiplegia, five of diplegia, two of triplegia, Gross Motor Function Classification System level I-III. The Horse Riding Simulator (HRS), including four-speed program (warm-up, level 1-2-3), was used for hippotherapy simulator. Firstly, each child received Neurodevelopmental Therapy (NDT; 45min twice weekly eight weeks). Subsequently, the same children completed HRS+NDT (30min and 15min respectively, twice weekly eight weeks). Children were assessed pre-treatment, at the end of 8th and 16th week. Gross motor function, sitting postural control, dynamic sitting and standing balance were evaluated by Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88, Dimension B, D, E and Total Score), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Pedalo® Sensamove Balance Test and Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS) respectively. Unit of Scientific Research Project of Marmara University supported our study. Results: All measured variables were a significant increase compared to baseline values after both intervention (NDT and HRS+NDT), except for dynamic sitting balance evaluated by Pedalo®. Especially HRS+NDT, increase in the measured variables was considerably higher than NDT. After NDT, the Total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline 62,2 ± 23,5; mean NDT: 66,6 ± 22,2; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 12,1 ± 3; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 39,6 ± 12,9; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 92,3 ± 5,2; p > 0,05) and Pedalo® standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 82,5 ± 11,5; p < 0,05) increased by 7,1%, 2%, 3,9%, 5,2% and 6 % respectively. After HRS+NDT treatment, the total scores of GMFM-88 (mean baseline: 62,2 ± 23,5; mean HRS+NDT: 71,6 ± 21,4; p < 0,05), TIS (10,4 ± 3,4; 15,6 ± 2,9; p < 0,05), PBS (37,4 ± 14,6; 42,5 ± 12; p < 0,05), Pedalo® sitting (91,2 ± 6,7; 93,8 ± 3,7; p > 0,05) and standing balance points (80,2 ± 10,8; 86,2 ± 5,6; p < 0,05) increased by 15,2%, 6%, 7,3%, 6,4%, and 11,9%, respectively, compared to the initial values. Conclusion: Neurodevelopmental therapy provided significant improvements in gross motor functions, sitting postural control, sitting and standing balance of children with CP. When the hippotherapy simulator added to the treatment program, it was observed that these functions were further developed (especially with gross motor functions and dynamic balance). As a result, this pilot study showed that the hippotherapy simulator could be a useful alternative to neurodevelopmental therapy for the improvement of gross motor function, sitting postural control and dynamic balance of children with CP.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Cerebral Palsy, Balance, hippotherapy

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1 Bio-Psycho-Social Consequences and Effects in Fall-Efficacy Scale in Seniors Using Exercise Intervention of Motor Learning According to Yoga Techniques

Authors: Milada Krejci, Martin Hill, Vaclav Hosek, Dobroslava Jandova, Jiri Kajzar, Pavel Blaha


The paper declares effects of exercise intervention of the research project “Basic research of balance changes in seniors”, granted by the Czech Science Foundation. The objective of the presented study is to define predictors, which influence bio-psycho-social consequences and effects of balance ability in senior 65 years old and above. We focused on the Fall-Efficacy Scale changes evaluation in seniors. Comprehensive hypothesis of the project declares, that motion uncertainty (dyskinesia) can negatively affect the well-being of a senior in bio-psycho-social context. In total, random selection and testing of 100 seniors (30 males, 70 females) from Prague and Central Bohemian region was provided. The sample was divided by stratified random selection into experimental and control groups, who underwent input and output testing. For diagnostics the methods of Medical Anamnesis, Functional anthropological examinations, Tinetti Balance Assessment Tool, SF-36 Health Survey, Anamnestic comparative self-assessment scale were used. Intervention method called "Life in Balance" based on yoga techniques was applied in four-week cycle. Results of multivariate regression were verified by repeated measures ANOVA: subject factor, phase of intervention (between-subject factor), body fluid (within-subject factor) and phase of intervention × body fluid interaction). ANOVA was performed with a repetition involving the factors of subjects, experimental/control group, phase of intervention (independent variable), and x phase interaction followed by Bonferroni multiple comparison assays with a test strength of at least 0.8 on the probability level p < 0.05. In the paper results of the first-year investigation of the three years running project are analysed. Results of balance tests confirmed no significant difference between females and males in pre-test. Significant improvements in balance and walking ability were observed in experimental group in females comparing to males (F = 128.4, p < 0.001). In the females control group, there was no significant change in post- test, while in the female experimental group positive changes in posture and spine flexibility in post-tests were found. It seems that females even in senior age react better to incentives of intervention in balance and spine flexibility. On the base of results analyses, we can declare the significant improvement in social balance markers after intervention in the experimental group (F = 10.5, p < 0.001). In average, seniors are used to take four drugs daily. Number of drugs can contribute to allergy symptoms and balance problems. It can be concluded that static balance and walking ability of seniors according Tinetti Balance scale correlate significantly with psychic and social monitored markers.

Keywords: Health, exercises, Balance, seniors 65+, mental and social balance

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