Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

bacteremia Related Abstracts

7 Trends in the Incidence of Bloodstream Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancies in the Period 1991–2012

Authors: V. N. Chebotkevich, E. E. Schetinkina, V. V. Burylev, E. I. Kaytandzhan, N. P. Stizhak

Abstract:

Objective: Blood stream infections (BSI) are severe, life-threatening illness for immuno compromised patients with hematological malignancies. We report the trend in blood-stream infections in this group of patients in the period 1991-2013. Methods: A total of 4742 blood samples investigated. All blood cultures were incubated in a continuous monitoring system for 7 days before discarding negative. On signaled positive, organism was identified by conventional methods. The Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the indication of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6), Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Results: Between 1991 and 2001 the incidence of Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus) being the most common germs isolated (70,9%) were as Gram-negative rods (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp.) – 29,1%. In next decade 2002-2012 the number of Gram-negative bacteria was increased up to 40.2%. It is shown that the incidence of bacteremia was significantly more frequent at the background of detectable Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus-specific DNA in blood. Over recent years, an increased frequency of micro mycetes was registered in blood of the patients with hematological malignancies (Candida spp. was predominant). Conclusion: Accurate and timely detection of BSI is important in determining appropriate treatment of infectious complications in patients with hematological malignancies. The isolation of Staphylococcus epidermidis from blood cultures remains a clinical dilemma for physicians and microbiologists. But in many cases this agent is of the clinical significance in immunocompromised patients with hematological malignancies. The role of CMV and EBV in development of bacteremia was demonstrated.

Keywords: infectious complications, blood stream infections, bacteremia, hemoblastosis

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6 Species Distribution and Incidence of Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Blood Cultures of Patients with True Bacteremia in Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Cakirlar, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Nuri Kiraz

Abstract:

During the last few decades, the increasing prevalence of methicillin resistant-CoNS isolates has become a common problem worldwide. Macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics are effectively used for the treatment of CoNS infections. However, resistance to MLSB antibiotics is prevalent among staphylococci. The aim of this study is to determine species distribution and the incidence of inducible clindamycin resistance in CoNS isolates caused nosocomial bacteremia in our hospital. Between January 2014 and October 2015, a total of 484 coagulase-negative CoNS isolates were isolated from blood samples of patients with true bacteremia who were hospitalized in intensive care units and in other departments of Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical Hospital. Blood cultures were analyzed with the BACTEC 9120 system (Becton Dickinson, USA). The identification and antimicrobial resistance of isolates were determined by Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). Inducible clindamycin resistance was detected using D-test. The species distribution was as follows: Staphylococcus epidermidis 211 (43%), S. hominis 154 (32%), S. haemolyticus 69 (14%), S. capitis 28 (6%), S. saprophyticus 11 (2%), S. warnerii 7 (1%), S. schleiferi 5 (1%) and S. lugdunensis 1 (0.2%). Resistance to methicillin was detected in 74.6% of CoNS isolates. Methicillin resistance was highest in S.hemoliticus isolates (89%). Resistance rates of CoNS strains to the antibacterial agents, respectively, were as follows: ampicillin 77%, gentamicin 20%, erythromycin 71%, clindamycin 22%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 45%, ciprofloxacin 52%, tetracycline 34%, rifampicin 20%, daptomycin 0.2% and linezolid 0.2%. None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Fifteen (3%) CoNS isolates were D-test positive, inducible MLSB resistance type (iMLSB-phenotype), 94 (19%) were constitutively resistant (cMLSB -phenotype), and 237 (46,76%) isolates were found D-test negative, indicating truly clindamycin-susceptible MS phenotype (M-phenotype resistance). The incidence of iMLSB-phenotypes was higher in S. epidermidis isolates (4,7%) compared to other CoNS isolates.

Keywords: bacteremia, inducible MLSB resistance phenotype, methicillin-resistant, staphylococci

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5 Bacteremia Caused by Nontoxigenic Vibrio cholerae in an Immunocompromised Patient in Istanbul, Turkey

Authors: Fatma Koksal Çakirlar, Si̇nem Ozdemir, Selcan Akyol, Revazi̇ye Gulesen, Murat Gunaydin, Nevri̇ye Gonullu, Belkis Levent, Nuri̇ Kiraz

Abstract:

Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 are the causative agent of epidemic or pandemic cholera. V. cholerae O1 is generally accepted as a non-invasive enterotoxigenic organism causing gastroenteritis of various severities. Non-O1 V. cholerae can cause small outbreaks of diarrhea due to consumption of contaminated food and water. Particularly, the patients with achlorydria have a risk for vibrio infections. There are numerous case reports of bacteremia caused by vibrio in patients with predisposing conditions like cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes, hematologic malignancy, gastrectomy, and AIDS. We described in this study the first case of nontoxigenic, non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae isolated from the blood culture of a 77-year-old female patient with hipertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, gout and about 9 years ago migrated breast cancer history. The patient with complaints of shortness of breath, fever and malaise admitted to our emergency clinic were evaluated. There was no diarrhea or abdominal symptoms in the patient. No growth in her urine culture, but blood culture (BACTEC 9120 system, Becton Dickinson, USA) was positive for non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that was identified by conventional methods and Phoenix automated system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, MD). It does not secrete the cholera toxin. The agglutination test was negative with polyvalent O1 antisera and O139 antiserum. Empirically ceftriaxone was administered to the patient and she was discharged with improvement in general condition. In this study we report bacteremia by non-01/non-O139 V. cholerae that is rare in the worldwide and first in Turkey.

Keywords: bacteremia, blood culture, immunocompromised patient, Non-O1 vibrio cholerae

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4 Evaluation of DNA Microarray System in the Identification of Microorganisms Isolated from Blood

Authors: Merih Şimşek, Recep Keşli, Özgül Çetinkaya, Cengiz Demir, Adem Aslan

Abstract:

Bacteremia is a clinical entity with high morbidity and mortality rates when immediate diagnose, or treatment cannot be achieved. Microorganisms which can cause sepsis or bacteremia are easily isolated from blood cultures. Fifty-five positive blood cultures were included in this study. Microorganisms in 55 blood cultures were isolated by conventional microbiological methods; afterwards, microorganisms were defined in terms of the phenotypic aspects by the Vitek-2 system. The same microorganisms in all blood culture samples were defined in terms of genotypic aspects again by Multiplex-PCR DNA Low-Density Microarray System. At the end of the identification process, the DNA microarray system’s success in identification was evaluated based on the Vitek-2 system. The Vitek-2 system and DNA Microarray system were able to identify the same microorganisms in 53 samples; on the other hand, different microorganisms were identified in the 2 blood cultures by DNA Microarray system. The microorganisms identified by Vitek-2 system were found to be identical to 96.4 % of microorganisms identified by DNA Microarrays system. In addition to bacteria identified by Vitek-2, the presence of a second bacterium has been detected in 5 blood cultures by the DNA Microarray system. It was identified 18 of 55 positive blood culture as E.coli strains with both Vitek 2 and DNA microarray systems. The same identification numbers were found 6 and 8 for Acinetobacter baumanii, 10 and 10 for K.pneumoniae, 5 and 5 for S.aureus, 7 and 11 for Enterococcus spp, 5 and 5 for P.aeruginosa, 2 and 2 for C.albicans respectively. According to these results, DNA Microarray system requires both a technical device and experienced staff support; besides, it requires more expensive kits than Vitek-2. However, this method should be used in conjunction with conventional microbiological methods. Thus, large microbiology laboratories will produce faster, more sensitive and more successful results in the identification of cultured microorganisms.

Keywords: Microarray, bacteremia, blood culture, Vitek-2

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3 Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report

Authors: Parimalakrishnan Sundararjan, Madheswaran Murugan, Dhanya Dharman, Yatindra Kumar, Sudhir Singh Gangwar, Guru Prasad Mohanta

Abstract:

Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.

Keywords: Intervention, bacteremia, antibiotics resistance, multivariate modeling

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2 Myroides Bacteremia: A Case Report

Authors: Jamie Lynn Co, Mary Shiela Ariola-Ramos

Abstract:

Myroides are aerobic, yellow-pigmented, non-motile, non-fermenting gram-negative rods. They are commonly found in the environment such as water and soil. Although found in the environment, Myroides are rare pathogens of humans. Myroides spp. primarily infect immunocompromised patients, often with diabetes mellitus, liver cirrhosis, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or prolonged corticosteroid therapy. We present a case of a 70-year-old immunocompromised patient with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, diagnosed with sepsis caused by Myroides spp. The primary portal and source of infection were the pustules and boils found on the lower extremities of the patient. Susceptibility testing showed that our isolate was only susceptible to ciprofloxacin and meropenem; and following the treatment, the patient recovered. Myroides continues to be a rare pathogen of humans that is prevalent in our environment. It primarily affects immunocompromised patients such as those with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, etc. Despite their low virulence, physicians should consider this opportunistic pathogen as possible etiologic agent especially in cases wherein there is lack of response to commonly used antibiotics.

Keywords: bacteremia, immunocompromised, gram negative rods, Myroides

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1 Streptococcus anginosus Infections; Clinical and Bacteriologic Characteristics: A 6-Year Retrospective Study of Adult Patients in Qatar

Authors: Adila Shaukat, Hussam Al Soub, Muna Al Maslamani, Abdullatif Al Khal

Abstract:

Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical presentation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus (S.) anginosus group infections in Hamad General Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the state of Qatar, which is a multinational community. The S. anginosus group is a subgroup of viridans streptococci that consist of 3 different species: S. anginosus, S. constellatus, and S. intermedius. Although a part of the human bacteria flora, they have potential to cause suppurative infections. Method: We studied a total of 101 patients with S. anginosus group infections from January 2006 until March 2012 by reviewing medical records and identification of organisms by VITEK 2 and MALDI-TOF. Results: The most common sites of infection were skin and soft tissue, intra-abdominal, and bacteremia (28.7%, 24.8%, and 22.7%, respectively). Abscess formation was seen in approximately 30% of patients. Streptococcus constellatus was the most common isolated species (40%) followed by S. anginosus(30%) and S. intermedius(7%). In 23% of specimens, the species was unidentified. The most common type of specimen for organism isolation was blood followed by pus and tissue (50%, 22%, and 8%, respectively). Streptococcus constellatus was more frequently associated with abdominal and skin and soft tissue infections than the other 2 species, whereas S. anginosus was isolated more frequently from blood. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ceftriaxone, and vancomycin. Susceptibility to erythromycin and clindamycin was also good, reaching 91% and 95%, respectively. Forty percent of patients needed surgical drainage along with antibiotic therapy. Conclusions: Identification of S. anginosus group to species level is helpful in clinical practice because different species exhibit different pathogenic potentials.

Keywords: Bacterial Infection, bacteremia, abscess, Streptococcus anginosus

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