Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

bacillus Related Abstracts

9 Survival and Retention of the Probiotic Properties of Bacillus sp. Strains under Marine Stress Starvation Conditions and Their Potential Use as a Probiotic for Aquaculture Objectives

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food-production sector. However, one of the most serious problems regarding the culture of marine fishes is the mortality associated with pathogenic bacteria that occurs in the critical phases of larval development. Conventional approaches, such as the use of antimicrobial drugs to control diseases, have had limited success in the prevention or cure of aquatic diseases. Promising alternatives to antibiotics are probiotics, which are food supplements consisting of live microorganisms that benefit the host organism. In the search for more effective and environmentally friendly treatments with probionts against pathogenic species in shrimp larval culture, the probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture such as antibacterial activity, adhesion, pathogenicity, toxicity and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that these strains have an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in vivo conditions and are fairly adherent. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

Keywords: Stress Response, bacillus, probiotic, cell viability

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8 Effect of Marine Stress Starvation Conditions on Survival and Retention of the Properties of Potential Probiotic Bacillus Strains

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Pathogenic bacteria are considered to be responsible for several infectious diseases in aquaculture. To overcome diseases in fish culture, the use of antimicrobial drugs as strategy, have been adopted. The use of probiotic was a promising approach to avoid the risk associated to pathogenic bacteria. To find a biological control treatment against pathogens, we undertook this investigation to study the maintain of the probiotic properties of Bacillus sp., such as viability, adhesive ability to abiotic surface, antibacterial activity and pathogenicity/toxicity, under marine starvation conditions. Our data revealed that the tested strains maintained their capacity to inhibit pathogens in vivo and in vitro conditions. These strains maintain their adhesive capacity to polystyrene and do not demonstrate the pathogenic or toxic effect to the host. The obtained results give insight about the effect of starvation conditions on the physiological responses of these Bacillus strains that can be considered as a potential candidate’s probiotic.

Keywords: bacillus, probiotic, cell viability, starvation conditions

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7 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi, Sarisha Devnath

Abstract:

In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: Milk, bacillus, activation, sporeformers, spores

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6 Discrimination Between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus Isolates in Apple Juice by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: Murada Alholy, Mengshi Lin, Omar Alhaj, Mahmoud Abugoush

Abstract:

Alicyclobacillus is a causative agent of spoilage in pasteurized and heat-treated apple juice products. Differentiating between this genus and the closely related Bacillus is crucially important. In this study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify and discriminate between four Alicyclobacillus strains and four Bacillus isolates inoculated individually into apple juice. Loading plots over the range of 1350 and 1700 cm-1 reflected the most distinctive biochemical features of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus. Multivariate statistical methods (e.g. principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA)) were used to analyze the spectral data. Distinctive separation of spectral samples was observed. This study demonstrates that FT-IR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis could serve as a rapid and effective tool for fruit juice industry to differentiate between Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus and to distinguish between species belonging to these two genera.

Keywords: Spectroscopy, bacillus, PCA, FT-IR, alicyclobacillus

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5 Diversity, Phyto Beneficial Activities and Agrobiotechnolody of Plant Growth Promoting Bacillus and Paenibacillus

Authors: Cheba Ben Amar

Abstract:

Bacillus and Paenibacillus are Gram-positive aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) and most abundant in the rhizosphere, they mediated plant growth promotion and disease protection by several complex and interrelated processes involving direct and indirect mechanisms that include nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophores production, phytohormones production and plant diseases control. In addition to their multiple PGPR properties, high secretory capacity, spore forming ability and spore resistance to unfavorable conditions enabling their extended commercial applications for long shelf-life. Due to these unique advantages, Bacillus species were the most an ideal candidate for developing efficient PGPR products such as biopesticides, fungicides and fertilizers. This review list all studied and reported plant growth promoting Bacillus species and strains, discuss their capacities to enhance plant growth and protection with special focusing on the most frequent species Bacillus subtilis, B. pumilus ,B. megaterium, B. amyloliquefaciens , B. licheniformis and B. sphaericus, furthermore we recapitulate the beneficial activities and mechanisms of several species and strains of the genus Paenibacillus involved in plant growth stimulation and plant disease control.

Keywords: Mechanisms, Agrobiotechnology, Disease Control, bacillus, PGPR, paenibacillus, beneficial activities, growth promotion

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4 Identification and Application of Biocontrol Agents against Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease in Gossypium hirsutum under Green House Conditions

Authors: Muhammad Tariq, Anwar Khan, Tayyab Husnain, Idrees Ahmad Nasir, Bushra Tabassum, Memoona Ramzan, Mudassar Fareed Awan, Zahida Qamar, Naila Shahid

Abstract:

Biological control is a novel approach being used in crop protection nowadays. Bacteria like Bacillus and Pseudomonas are reported for this purpose and few of their products are commercially available too. Rhizosphere and phyllosphere of healthy cotton plants were used as a source to isolate bacteria capable of exhibiting properties worthy for selection as biocontrol agent. For this purpose all isolated strains were screened for the activities like phosphate solubilization, Indole acetic acid (IAA) production and biocontrol against fungi. Two strains S1HL3 and S1HL4 showed phosphate solubilization and IAA production simultaneously while two other JS2HR4 and JS3HR2 were good inhibitors of fungal pathogens. Through biochemical and molecular characterization these bacteria were identified as P. aeruginosa, Burkholderia and Bacillus respectively. In green house trials of these isolates against Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), seven treatments including individual bacterial isolate and consortia were included. Treated plants were healthy as compared to control plants in which upto 74% CLCuV symptomatic plants exist. Maximum inhibition of CLCuV was observed in T7 treated plants where viral load was only 0.4% as compared to control where viral load was upto 74%. This treatment consortium included Bacillus and Pseudomonas isolates; S1HL3, S1HL4, JS2HR4 and JS3HR2. Principal Component Biplot depicted highly significant correlation between percentage viral load and the disease incidence.

Keywords: Pseudomonas, Biological Control, bacillus, cotton leaf curl virus

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3 Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Biosurfactants on Residual-Oil Recovery

Authors: G. G. Nasr, S. V. Ukwungwu, A. J. Abbas

Abstract:

The increasing high price of natural gas and oil with attendant increase in energy demand on world markets in recent years has stimulated interest in recovering residual oil saturation across the globe. In order to meet the energy security, efforts have been made in developing new technologies of enhancing the recovery of oil and gas, utilizing techniques like CO2 flooding, water injection, hydraulic fracturing, surfactant flooding etc. Surfactant flooding however optimizes production but poses risk to the environment due to their toxic nature. Amongst proven records that have utilized other type of bacterial in producing biosurfactants for enhancing oil recovery, this research uses a technique to combine biosurfactants that will achieve a scale of EOR through lowering interfacial tension/contact angle. In this study, three biosurfactants were produced from three Bacillus species from freeze dried cultures using sucrose 3 % (w/v) as their carbon source. Two of these produced biosurfactants were screened with the TEMCO Pendant Drop Image Analysis for reduction in IFT and contact angle. Interfacial tension was greatly reduced from 56.95 mN.m-1 to 1.41 mN.m-1 when biosurfactants in cell-free culture (Bacillus licheniformis) were used compared to 4. 83mN.m-1 cell-free culture of Bacillus subtilis. As a result, cell-free culture of (Bacillus licheniformis) changes the wettability of the biosurfactant treatment for contact angle measurement to more water-wet as the angle decreased from 130.75o to 65.17o. The influence of microbial treatment on crushed rock samples was also observed by qualitative wettability experiments. Treated samples with biosurfactants remained in the aqueous phase, indicating a water-wet system. These results could prove that biosurfactants can effectively change the chemistry of the wetting conditions against diverse surfaces, providing a desirable condition for efficient oil transport in this way serving as a mechanism for EOR. The environmental friendly effect of biosurfactants applications for industrial purposes play important advantages over chemically synthesized surfactants, with various possible structures, low toxicity, eco-friendly and biodegradability.

Keywords: Wettability, Enhanced Oil Recovery, bacillus, biosurfactant, residual oil

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2 Isolation, Characterization and Optimization of Alkalophilic and Thermotolerant Lipase from Bacillus subtilis Strain

Authors: Indu Bhushan Sharma, Rashmi Saraswat

Abstract:

The thermotolerant, solvent stable and alkalophilic lipase producing bacterial strain was isolated from the water sample of the foothills of Trikuta Mountain in Kakryal (Reasi district) in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lipase-producing microorganisms were screened using tributyrin agar plates. The selected microbe was optimized for maximum lipase production by subjecting to various carbon and nitrogen sources, incubation period and inoculum size. The selected strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strain kakrayal_1 (BSK_1) using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Effect of pH, temperature, metal ions, detergents and organic solvents were studied on lipase activity. Lipase was found to be stable over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8. Lipolytic activity was highest at 37°C and the enzyme activity remained at 60°C for 24hrs, hence, established as thermo-tolerant. Production of lipase was significantly induced by vegetable oil and the best nitrogen source was found to be peptone. The isolated Bacillus lipase was stimulated by pre-treatment with Mn2+, Ca2+, K+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. Lipase was stable in detergents such as triton X 100, tween 20 and Tween 80. The 100% ethyl acetate enhanced lipase activity whereas, lipase activity were found to be stable in Hexane. The optimization resulted in 4 fold increase in lipase production. Bacillus lipases are ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) and are industrially interesting. The inducible alkaline, thermo-tolerant lipase exhibited the ability to be stable in detergents and organic solvents. This could be further researched as a potential biocatalyst for industrial applications such as biotransformation, detergent formulation, bioremediation and organic synthesis.

Keywords: bacillus, lipase, thermotolerant, alkalophilic

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1 Polyhydroxybutyrate Production in Bacteria Isolated from Estuaries along the Eastern Coast of India

Authors: Shubhashree Mahalik, Dhanesh Kumar, Jatin Kumar Pradhan

Abstract:

Odisha is one of the coastal states situated on the eastern part of India with 480 km long coastline. The coastal Odisha is referred to as "Gift of Six Rivers". Balasore, a major coastal district of Odisha is bounded by Bay of Bengal in the East having 26 km long seashore. It is lined with several estuaries rich in biodiversity.Several studies have been carried out on the macro flora and fauna of this area but very few documented information are available regarding microbial biodiversity. In the present study, an attempt has been made to isolate and identify bacteria found along the estuaries of Balasore.Many marine microorganisms are sources of natural products which makes them potential industrial organisms. So the ability of the isolated bacteria to secrete one such industrially significant product, PHB (Polyhydroxybutyrate) has been elucidated. Several rounds of sampling, pure culture, morphological, biochemical and phylogenetic screening led to the identification of two PHB producing strains. Isolate 5 was identified to be Brevibacillus sp. and has maximum similarity to Brevibacillus parabrevis (KX83268). The isolate was named as Brevibacillus sp.KEI-5. Isolate 8 was identified asLysinibacillus sp. having closest similarity withLysinibacillus boroni-tolerance (KP314269) and named as Lysinibacillus sp. KEI-8.Media, temperature, carbon, nitrogen and salinity requirement were optimized for both isolates. Submerged fermentation of both isolates in Terrific Broth media supplemented with optimized carbon and nitrogen source at 37°C led to significant accumulation of PHB as detected by colorimetric method.

Keywords: Marine, bacillus, Odisha, estuary, polyhydroxy butyrate

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