Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

β-galactosidase Related Abstracts

7 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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6 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera, Shweta Kumari

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: Optimization, Yeast, response surface methodology, β-galactosidase, permeabilization

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5 Utilization of Whey for the Production of β-Galactosidase Using Yeast and Fungal Culture

Authors: RUPINDER KAUR, Parmjit S. Panesar, Ram S. Singh

Abstract:

Whey is the lactose rich by-product of the dairy industry, having good amount of nutrient reservoir. Most abundant nutrients are lactose, soluble proteins, lipids and mineral salts. Disposing of whey by most of milk plants which do not have proper pre-treatment system is the major issue. As a result of which, there can be significant loss of potential food and energy source. Thus, whey has been explored as the substrate for the synthesis of different value added products such as enzymes. β-galactosidase is one of the important enzymes and has become the major focus of research due to its ability to catalyze both hydrolytic as well as transgalactosylation reaction simultaneously. The enzyme is widely used in dairy industry as it catalyzes the transformation of lactose to glucose and galactose, making it suitable for the lactose intolerant people. The enzyme is intracellular in both bacteria and yeast, whereas for molds, it has an extracellular location. The present work was carried to utilize the whey for the production of β-galactosidase enzyme using both yeast and fungal cultures. The yeast isolate Kluyveromyces marxianus WIG2 and various fungal strains have been used in the present study. Different disruption techniques have also been investigated for the extraction of the enzyme produced intracellularly from yeast cells. Among the different methods tested for the disruption of yeast cells, SDS-chloroform showed the maximum β-galactosidase activity. In case of the tested fungal cultures, Aureobasidium pullulans NCIM 1050, was observed to be the maximum extracellular enzyme producer.

Keywords: Yeast, β-galactosidase, whey, fungus

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4 Sorbitol Galactoside Synthesis Using β-Galactosidase Immobilized on Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Milica Carević, Katarina Banjanac, Marija ĆOrović, Ana Milivojević, Nevena Prlainović, Aleksandar Marinković, Dejan Bezbradica

Abstract:

Nowadays, considering the growing awareness of functional food beneficial effects on human health, due attention is dedicated to the research in the field of obtaining new prominent products exhibiting improved physiological and physicochemical characteristics. Therefore, different approaches to valuable bioactive compounds synthesis have been proposed. β-Galactosidase, for example, although mainly utilized as hydrolytic enzyme, proved to be a promising tool for these purposes. Namely, under the particular conditions, such as high lactose concentration, elevated temperatures and low water activities, reaction of galactose moiety transfer to free hydroxyl group of the alternative acceptor (e.g. different sugars, alcohols or aromatic compounds) can generate a wide range of potentially interesting products. Up to now, galacto-oligosaccharides and lactulose have attracted the most attention due to their inherent prebiotic properties. The goal of this study was to obtain a novel product sorbitol galactoside, using the similar reaction mechanism, namely transgalactosylation reaction catalyzed by β-galactosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. By using sugar alcohol (sorbitol) as alternative acceptor, a diverse mixture of potential prebiotics is produced, enabling its more favorable functional features. Nevertheless, an introduction of alternative acceptor into the reaction mixture contributed to the complexity of reaction scheme, since several potential reaction pathways were introduced. Therefore, the thorough optimization using response surface method (RSM), in order to get an insight into different parameter (lactose concentration, sorbitol to lactose molar ratio, enzyme concentration, NaCl concentration and reaction time) influences, as well as their mutual interactions on product yield and productivity, was performed. In view of product yield maximization, the obtained model predicted optimal lactose concentration 500 mM, the molar ratio of sobitol to lactose 9, enzyme concentration 0.76 mg/ml, concentration of NaCl 0.8M, and the reaction time 7h. From the aspect of productivity, the optimum substrate molar ratio was found to be 1, while the values for other factors coincide. In order to additionally, improve enzyme efficiency and enable its reuse and potential continual application, immobilization of β-galactosidase onto tailored silica nanoparticles was performed. These non-porous fumed silica nanoparticles (FNS)were chosen on the basis of their biocompatibility and non-toxicity, as well as their advantageous mechanical and hydrodinamical properties. However, in order to achieve better compatibility between enzymes and the carrier, modifications of the silica surface using amino functional organosilane (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane, APTMS) were made. Obtained support with amino functional groups (AFNS) enabled high enzyme loadings and, more importantly, extremely high expressed activities, approximately 230 mg proteins/g and 2100 IU/g, respectively. Moreover, this immobilized preparation showed high affinity towards sorbitol galactoside synthesis. Therefore, the findings of this study could provided a valuable contribution to the efficient production of physiologically active galactosides in immobilized enzyme reactors.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, silica nanoparticles, transgalactosylation

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3 Evaluation of the Effect of Lactose Derived Monosaccharide on Galactooligosaccharides Production by β-Galactosidase

Authors: Juan Carlos Serrato Bermúdez, Yenny Paola Morales Cortés, Fabián Rico Rodríguez, Carlos Arturo Martínez Riascos

Abstract:

Numerous benefits of galactooligosaccharides (GOS) as prebiotics have motivated the study of enzymatic processes for their production. These processes have special complexities due to several factors that make difficult high productivity, such as enzyme type, reaction medium pH, substrate concentrations and presence of inhibitors, among others. In the present work the production of galactooligosaccharides (with different degrees of polymerization: two, three and four) from lactose was studied. The study considers the formulation of a mathematical model that predicts the production of GOS from lactose using the enzyme β-galactosidase. The effect of pH in the reaction was studied. For that, phosphate buffer was used and with this was evaluated three pH values (6.0.6.5 and 7.0). Thus it was observed that at pH 6.0 the enzymatic activity insignificant. On the other hand, at pH 7.0 the enzymatic activity was approximately 27 times greater than at 6.5. The last result differs from previously reported results. Therefore, pH 7.0 was chosen as working pH. Additionally, the enzyme concentration was analyzed, which allowed observing that the effect of the concentration depends on the pH and the concentration was set for the following studies in 0.272 mM. Afterwards, experiments were performed varying the lactose concentration to evaluate its effects on the process and to generate the data for the adjustment of the mathematical model parameters. The mathematical model considers the reactions of lactose hydrolysis and transgalactosylation for the production of disaccharides and trisaccharides, with their inverse reactions. The production of tetrasaccharides was negligible and, because of that, it was not included in the model. The reaction was monitored by HPLC and for the quantitative analysis of the experimental data the Matlab programming language was used, including solvers for differential equations systems integration (ode15s) and nonlinear problems optimization (fminunc). The results confirm that the transgalactosylation and hydrolysis reactions are reversible, additionally inhibition by glucose and galactose is observed on the production of GOS. In relation to the production process of galactooligosaccharides, the results show that it is necessary to have high initial concentrations of lactose considering that favors the transgalactosylation reaction, while low concentrations favor hydrolysis reactions.

Keywords: Modeling, MATLAB, Lactose, β-galactosidase, inhibition, galactooligosaccharides

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2 Immobilization of β-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces Lactis on Polyethylenimine-Agarose for Production of Lactulose

Authors: Natan C. G. Silva, Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Thais O. Costa, Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Maria v. P. Rocha

Abstract:

Galactosidases are enzymes responsible for catalyzing lactose hydrolysis reactions and also favoring transgalactosylation reactions for the production of prebiotics, among which lactulose stands out. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers in immobilization processes is a promising alternative in order to extend the useful life of the biocatalysts, for example, the coating with polyethyleneimine (PEI). PEI is a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases and also protects it from environmental variations, for example, pH and temperature. In addition, it can substantially improve the immobilization parameters and also the efficiency of enzymatic reactions. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis immobilized on PEI coated agarose, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in the hydrolysis of lactose and synthesis of lactulose, using whey as a substrate. This immobilization strategy was chosen in order to improve the catalytic efficiency of the enzyme in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, and there are few studies with β-galactosidase from this strain. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in agarose previously functionalized with 48% (w/v) glycidol and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg/g of protein. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey (66.7 g/L of lactose) supplemented with 133.3 g/L fructose at a ratio of 1:2 (lactose/fructose). Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalysts whose supports were coated were named AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL, and those that were not coated were named AGA_GLY_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved immobilization yield (2.6-fold), the biocatalyst activity (1.4-fold), and efficiency (2.2-fold). The biocatalyst AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL was better than AGA_GLY_GAL in hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions, converting 88.92% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and obtaining a residual concentration of 5.24 g/L. Besides that, it was produced 13.90 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting approximately 80% of lactose and producing 10.95 g/L of lactulose even after the tenth cycle. However, the thermal stability of AGA_GLY_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 5 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (AGA_GLY_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as the enzyme, catalyzed reactions. In addition, the use of whey as a raw material for lactulose production has proved to be an industrially advantageous alternative.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, whey, lactulose, polyethylenimine

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1 Improvement of Activity of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis via Immobilization on Polyethylenimine-Chitosan

Authors: Luciana R. B. Goncalves, Carlos A. C. G. Neto, Natan C. G. e Silva, Thaís de O. Costa, Maria V. P. Rocha

Abstract:

β-galactosidases (E.C. 3.2.1.23) are enzymes that have attracted by catalyzing the hydrolysis of lactose and in producing galacto-oligosaccharides by favoring transgalactosylation reactions. These enzymes, when immobilized, can have some enzymatic characteristics substantially improved, and the coating of supports with multifunctional polymers is a promising alternative to enhance the stability of the biocatalysts, among which polyethylenimine (PEI) stands out. PEI has certain properties, such as being a flexible polymer that suits the structure of the enzyme, giving greater stability, especially for multimeric enzymes such as β-galactosidases. Besides that, protects them from environmental variations. The use of chitosan support coated with PEI could improve the catalytic efficiency of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis in the transgalactosylation reaction for the production of prebiotics, such as lactulose since this strain is more effective in the hydrolysis reaction. In this context, the aim of the present work was first to develop biocatalysts of β-galactosidase from K. lactis immobilized on chitosan-coated with PEI, determining the immobilization parameters, its operational and thermal stability, and then to apply it in hydrolysis and transgalactolisation reactions to produce lactulose using whey as a substrate. The immobilization of β-galactosidase in chitosan previously functionalized with 0.8% (v/v) glutaraldehyde and then coated with 10% (w/v) PEI solution was evaluated using an enzymatic load of 10 mg protein per gram support. Subsequently, the hydrolysis and transgalactosylation reactions were conducted at 50 °C, 120 RPM for 20 minutes, using whey supplemented with fructose at a ratio of 1:2 lactose/fructose, totaling 200 g/L. Operational stability studies were performed in the same conditions for 10 cycles. Thermal stabilities of biocatalysts were conducted at 50 ºC in 50 mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.6 with 0.1 mM MnCl2. The biocatalyst whose support was coated was named CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL, and the one that was not coated was named CHI_GLU_GAL. The coating of the support with PEI considerably improved the parameters of immobilization. The immobilization yield increased from 56.53% to 97.45%, biocatalyst activity from 38.93 U/g to 95.26 U/g and the efficiency from 3.51% to 6.0% for uncoated and coated support, respectively. The biocatalyst CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL was better than CHI_GLU_GAL in the hydrolysis of lactose and production of lactulose, converting 97.05% of lactose at 5 min of reaction and producing 7.60 g/L lactulose in the same time interval. QUI_GLU_PEI_GAL biocatalyst was stable in the hydrolysis reactions of lactose during the 10 cycles evaluated, converting 73.45% lactose even after the tenth cycle, and in the lactulose production was stable until the fifth cycle evaluated, producing 10.95 g/L lactulose. However, the thermal stability of CHI_GLU_GAL biocatalyst was superior, with a half-life time 6 times higher, probably because the enzyme was immobilized by covalent bonding, which is stronger than adsorption (CHI_GLU_PEI_GAL). Therefore, the strategy of coating the supports with PEI has proven to be effective for the immobilization of β-galactosidase from K. lactis, considerably improving the immobilization parameters, as well as, the catalytic action of the enzyme. Besides that, this process can be economically viable due to the use of an industrial residue as a substrate.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, immobilization, whey, lactulose, polyethylenimine, kluyveromyces lactis, transgalactosylation reaction

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