Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

β-carotene Related Abstracts

3 Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carotenoids from Tangerine Peel Using Ostrich Oil as a Green Solvent and Optimization of the Process by Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Fariba Tadayon, Nika Gharahgolooyan, Ateke Tadayon, Mostafa Jafarian


Carotenoid pigments are a various group of lipophilic compounds that generate the yellow to red colors of many plants, foods and flowers. A well-known type of carotenoids which is pro-vitamin A is β-carotene. Due to the color of citrus fruit’s peel, the peel can be a good source of different carotenoids. Ostrich oil is one of the most valuable foundations in many branches of industry, medicine, cosmetics and nutrition. The animal-based ostrich oil could be considered as an alternative and green solvent. Following this study, wastes of citrus peel will recycle by a simple method and extracted carotenoids can increase properties of ostrich oil. In this work, a simple and efficient method for extraction of carotenoids from tangerine peel was designed. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) showed significant effect on the extraction rate by increasing the mass transfer rate. Ostrich oil can be used as a green solvent in many studies to eliminate petroleum-based solvents. Since tangerine peel is a complex source of different carotenoids separation and determination was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the ability of ostrich oil and sunflower oil in carotenoid extraction from tangerine peel and carrot was compared. The highest yield of β-carotene extracted from tangerine peel using sunflower oil and ostrich oil were 75.741 and 88.110 (mg/L), respectively. Optimization of the process was achieved by response surface methodology (RSM) and the optimal extraction conditions were tangerine peel powder particle size of 0.180 mm, ultrasonic intensity of 19 W/cm2 and sonication time of 30 minutes.

Keywords: Carotenoids, response surface methodology, β-carotene, citrus peel, ostrich oil, ultrasound-assisted extraction

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2 Optimization of Microencapsulation of β-Carotene by Complex Coacervation Technique Using Casein and Gum Tragacanth

Authors: Gargi Ghoshal, Ashay Jain


Microencapsulation of β-carotene was optimized by complex coacervation technique using casein/gum tragacanth (CAS/GT) coating as a function of pH, initial protein to polysaccharide mixing ratio (Pr:Ps), total biopolymer concentration, core material load, zeta potential, and ionic strength. This study was aimed to understand the influence of experimental parameters on the coacervation kinetics, the coacervate yield, and entrapment efficiency. At a Pr:Ps = 2:1, an optimum pH of complex coacervation was found 4.35, at which the intensity of electrostatic interaction was maximum. At these ratios of coating, the phase separation occurred the fastest and the final coacervate yield and entrapment efficiency was the highest. Varying the Pr: Ps shifted the value of optimum pH. This incident was due to the level of charge compensation of the CAS/GT complexes. Finally, electrostatic interaction and formation of coacervates between CAS and GT were confirmed by Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra. The size and surface properties of coacervates were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resultant formulation (β-carotene loaded microcapsules) was evaluated for in vitro release study and antioxidant activity. Stability of encapsulated β-carotene was also evaluated under three levels of temperature (5, 25 and 40 °C) for 3 months. Encapsulation strongly increased the stability of micronutrients. Our results advocate potential of microcapsules as a novel carrier for the safeguard and sustained release of micronutrient.

Keywords: controlled release, Microcapsules, casein, complex coacervation, β-carotene, gum tragacanth

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1 The Effects of Food Matrix and Different Excipient Foods on β-Carotene Bioaccessibility in Carrots

Authors: Birgul Hizlar, Sibel Karakaya


Nowadays, consumers are more and more aware of the benefits beyond basic nutrition provided by food and food compounds. Between these, carotenoids have been demonstrated to exhibit multiple health benefits (for example, some types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, among others). However, carotenoid bioaccessibility and bioavailability is generally rather low due to their specific localization in plant tissue and lipophilic nature. This situation is worldwide issue, since both developed and developing countries have their interest and benefits in increasing the uptake of carotenoids from the human diet. Recently, a new class of foods designed to improve the bioaccessibility/bioavailability of orally administered bioactive compounds is introduced: excipient foods. Excipient foods are specially designed foods which are prepared depending on the physicochemical properties of target bioactive compounds and increasing the bioavailability or bioaccessibility of bioactive compound. In this study, effects of food matrix (greating, boiling and mashing) and different excipient foods (olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd and dried artichoke leaf powder) on bioaccessibility of β-carotene in carrot were investigated by means of simulating in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) digestion. β-carotene contents of grated, boiled and mashed (after boiling process) carrots were 79.28, 147.63 and 151.19 μg/g respectively. No significant differences among boiled and mashed samples indicated that mashing process had no effect on the release of β-carotene from the food matrix (p > 0.05). On the contrary, mashing causes significant increase in the β-carotene bioaccessibility (p < 0.05). The highest β-carotene content was found in the mashed carrots incorporated with olive oil and lemon juice (C2). However, no significant differences between that sample and C1 (mashed carrot with lemon juice, olive oil, dried artichoke leaf powder), C3 (mashed carrot with addition of olive oil, lemon juice, whey curd) and). Similarly, the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility (50.26%) was found mashed C3 sample (p < 0.05). The increase in the bioaccessibility was approximately 5 fold and 50 fold when compared to grated and mashed samples containing olive oil, lemon juice and whey curd. The results demonstrate that both, food matrix and excipient foods, are able to increase the bioaccessibility of β-carotene.

Keywords: Carotenoids, carrot, bioaccessibility, β-carotene

Procedia PDF Downloads 235