Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Availability Related Abstracts

34 Performance Evaluation and Cost Analysis of Standby Systems

Authors: Mohammed A. Hajeeh

Abstract:

Pumping systems are an integral part of water desalination plants, their effective functioning is vital for the operation of a plant. In this research work, the reliability and availability of pressurized pumps in a reverse osmosis desalination plant are studied with the objective of finding configurations that provides optimal performance. Six configurations of a series system with different number of warm and cold standby components were examined. Closed form expressions for the mean time to failure (MTTF) and the long run availability are derived and compared under the assumption that the time between failures and repair times of the primary and standby components are exponentially distributed. Moreover, a cost/ benefit analysis is conducted in order to identify a configuration with the best performance and least cost. It is concluded that configurations with cold standby components are preferable especially when the pumps are of the size.

Keywords: Availability, Pumps, cost/benefit, mean time to failure

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33 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study

Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy

Abstract:

Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.

Keywords: biomass, Bioenergy, Accessibility, Availability, biomass potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
32 Expand Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis to Where It Is Needed the Most

Authors: Henry Wilde, Thiravat Hemachudha

Abstract:

Human rabies deaths are underreported worldwide at 55,000 annual cases; more than of dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Almost half are children. A recent study from the Philippines of nearly 2,000 rabies deaths revealed that none of had received incomplete or no post exposure prophylaxis. Coming from a canine rabies endemic country, this is not unique. There are two major barriers to reducing human rabies deaths: 1) the large number of unvaccinated dogs and 2) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) that is not available, incomplete, not affordable, or not within reach for bite victims travel means. Only the first barrier, inadequate vaccination of dogs, is now being seriously addressed. It is also often not done effectively or sustainably. Rabies PEP has evolved as a complex, prolonged process, usually delegated to centers in larger cities. It is virtually unavailable in villages or small communities where most dog bites occur, victims are poor and usually unable to travel a long distance multiple times to receive PEP. Reseacrh that led to better understanding of the pathophysiology of rabies and immune responses to potent vaccines and immunoglobulin have allowed shortening and making PEP more evidence based. This knowledge needs to be adopted and applied so that PEP can be rendered safely and affordably where needed the most: by village health care workers who have long performed more complex services after appropriate training. Recent research makes this an important and long neglected goal that is now within our means to implement.

Keywords: Availability, immunoglobulin, Rabies, post-exposure prophylaxis

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31 Global Healthcare Village Based on Mobile Cloud Computing

Authors: Laleh Boroumand, Muhammad Shiraz, Abdullah Gani, Rashid Hafeez Khokhar

Abstract:

Cloud computing being the use of hardware and software that are delivered as a service over a network has its application in the area of health care. Due to the emergency cases reported in most of the medical centers, prompt for an efficient scheme to make health data available with less response time. To this end, we propose a mobile global healthcare village (MGHV) model that combines the components of three deployment model which include country, continent and global health cloud to help in solving the problem mentioned above. In the creation of continent model, two (2) data centers are created of which one is local and the other is global. The local replay the request of residence within the continent, whereas the global replay the requirements of others. With the methods adopted, there is an assurance of the availability of relevant medical data to patients, specialists, and emergency staffs regardless of locations and time. From our intensive experiment using the simulation approach, it was observed that, broker policy scheme with respect to optimized response time, yields a very good performance in terms of reduction in response time. Though, our results are comparable to others when there is an increase in the number of virtual machines (80-640 virtual machines). The proportionality in increase of response time is within 9%. The results gotten from our simulation experiments shows that utilizing MGHV leads to the reduction of health care expenditures and helps in solving the problems of unqualified medical staffs faced by both developed and developing countries.

Keywords: Availability, Response Time, E-Healthcare, cloud computing (MCC), service broker policy

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30 Optimizing Availability of Marine Knowledge Repository with Cloud-Based Framework

Authors: Ahmad S. Mohd Noor, Emma A. Sirajudin, Nur F. Mat Zain

Abstract:

Reliability is an important property for knowledge repository system. National Marine Bioinformatics System or NABTICS is a marine knowledge repository portal aimed to provide a baseline for marine biodiversity and a tool for researchers and developers. It is intended to be a large and growing online database and also a metadata system for inputs of research analysis. The trends of present large distributed systems such as Cloud computing are the delivery of computing as a service rather than a product. The goal of this research is to make NABTICS a system of greater availability by integrating it with Cloud based Neighbor Replication and Failure Recovery (NRFR). This can be achieved by implementation of NABTICS into distributed environment. As a result, the user can experience minimum downtime while using the system should the server is having a failure. Consequently the online database application is said to be highly available.

Keywords: Cloud, Availability, Distributed System, marine repository, database replication

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29 Availability Analysis of a Power Plant by Computer Simulation

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

Reliability and availability of power stations are extremely important in order to achieve a required level of power generation. In particular, in the hot desert climate of Kuwait, reliable power generation is extremely important because of cooling requirements at temperatures exceeding 50-centigrade degrees. In this paper, a particular power plant, named Sabiya Power Plant, which has 8 steam turbines and 13 gas turbine stations, has been studied in detail; extensive data are collected; and availability of station units are determined. Furthermore, a simulation model is developed and used to analyze the effects of different maintenance policies on availability of these stations. The results show that significant improvements can be achieved in power plant availabilities if appropriate maintenance policies are implemented.

Keywords: Simulation, Maintenance, Power Plants, Availability, Gas Turbines, Steam turbines

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28 Stochastic Modeling and Productivity Analysis of a Flexible Manufacturing System

Authors: Mehmet Savsar, Majid Aldaihani

Abstract:

Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) are used to produce a variety of parts on the same equipment. Therefore, their utilization is higher than traditional machining systems. Higher utilization, on the other hand, results in more frequent equipment failures and additional need for maintenance. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully analyze operational characteristics and productivity of FMS or Flexible Manufacturing Cells (FMC), which are smaller configuration of FMS, before installation or during their operation. Appropriate models should be developed to determine production rates based on operational conditions, including equipment reliability, availability, and repair capacity. In this paper, a stochastic model is developed for an automated FMC system, which consists of two machines served by two robots and a single repairman. The model is used to determine system productivity and equipment utilization under different operational conditions, including random machine failures, random repairs, and limited repair capacity. The results are compared to previous study results for FMC system with sufficient repair capacity assigned to each machine. The results show that the model will be useful for design engineers and operational managers to analyze performance of manufacturing systems at the design or operational stages.

Keywords: Reliability, Availability, Flexible manufacturing, Stochastic Modeling, FMS, FMC, production rate

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27 Increasing the System Availability of Data Centers by Using Virtualization Technologies

Authors: Naoum Jamous, Chris Ewe, Holger Schrödl

Abstract:

Like most entrepreneurs, data center operators pursue goals such as profit-maximization, improvement of the company’s reputation or basically to exist on the market. Part of those aims is to guarantee a given quality of service. Quality characteristics are specified in a contract called the service level agreement. Central part of this agreement is non-functional properties of an IT service. The system availability is one of the most important properties as it will be shown in this paper. To comply with availability requirements, data center operators can use virtualization technologies. A clear model to assess the effect of virtualization functions on the parts of a data center in relation to the system availability is still missing. This paper aims to introduce a basic model that shows these connections, and consider if the identified effects are positive or negative. Thus, this work also points out possible disadvantages of the technology. In consequence, the paper shows opportunities as well as risks of data center virtualization in relation to system availability.

Keywords: Availability, Virtualization, quality of service, service level agreement, cloud computing IT service

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26 Distribution and Comparative Diversity of Nematocera within Four Livestock Types in the Plain of Mitidja Algeria

Authors: Nebri Rachid, Berrouane Fatima, Doumandji Salah Eddine

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During six months, from November 2013 to May 2014, census of Nematocera insects was conducted on four livestock: cattle, sheep, equine and cameline. The census, that took place in a station located in Mitidja plain, Algeria, revealed thirteen Nematocera species that had been observed and identified: Scatopse notata, Chironomus Sp., Sciara bicolor, Psychoda phalaenoïdes, Culex pipiens, Orthocladius Sp., Psycoda alternata, Trichocera regelationis, Culicoïdes Sp., Contarinia Sp., Ectaetia Sp., Tipula Sp., and Culicoïdes coprosus. A factorial correspondence analysis has been performed to study the distribution of the different species captured in colored traps that were placed in the four farms. The results showed the presence of three collections of Nematocera relating to the breeding type where the highest availability is in favor of the equine and the cattle. The analysis of the comparative diversity of Nematocera specimens revealed an indifferent taxonomic structure compared with the hosts. However, in terms of individuals, the supremacy is to the equine’s advantage. On the ecological arrival scale, Psycoda alternata, is undeniably the most predominant on the equines as well as on the cattle.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Livestock, Availability, Nematocera, Census, Algeria

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25 The Integrated Methodological Development of Reliability, Risk and Condition-Based Maintenance in the Improvement of the Thermal Power Plant Availability

Authors: Isti Surjandari, Iwa Garniwa, Henry Pariaman, Bambang Sugiarto

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Availability of a complex system of thermal power plant is strongly influenced by the reliability of spare parts and maintenance management policies. A reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) technique is an established method of analysis and is the main reference for maintenance planning. This method considers the consequences of failure in its implementation, but does not deal with further risk of down time that associated with failures, loss of production or high maintenance costs. Risk-based maintenance (RBM) technique provides support strategies to minimize the risks posed by the failure to obtain maintenance task considering cost effectiveness. Meanwhile, condition-based maintenance (CBM) focuses on monitoring the application of the conditions that allow the planning and scheduling of maintenance or other action should be taken to avoid the risk of failure prior to the time-based maintenance. Implementation of RCM, RBM, CBM alone or combined RCM and RBM or RCM and CBM is a maintenance technique used in thermal power plants. Implementation of these three techniques in an integrated maintenance will increase the availability of thermal power plants compared to the use of maintenance techniques individually or in combination of two techniques. This study uses the reliability, risks and conditions-based maintenance in an integrated manner to increase the availability of thermal power plants. The method generates MPI (Priority Maintenance Index) is RPN (Risk Priority Number) are multiplied by RI (Risk Index) and FDT (Failure Defense Task) which can generate the task of monitoring and assessment of conditions other than maintenance tasks. Both MPI and FDT obtained from development of functional tree, failure mode effects analysis, fault-tree analysis, and risk analysis (risk assessment and risk evaluation) were then used to develop and implement a plan and schedule maintenance, monitoring and assessment of the condition and ultimately perform availability analysis. The results of this study indicate that the reliability, risks and conditions-based maintenance methods, in an integrated manner can increase the availability of thermal power plants.

Keywords: Availability, MPI, integrated maintenance techniques, thermal power plant, FDT

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24 Improving Operational Excellence Adopting TPM Practices in an Indian Automobile Industry: A Case Study

Authors: Pardeep Gupta

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The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on TPM implementation methodology and to highlight the benefits achieved after TPM in an engineering industry XYZ Ltd. (name changed) situated in Mohali, Punjab. The improvements in key performance indicators (PQCDSM) after implementing the TPM proved that its implementation helped the company significantly to achieve higher productivity, customer satisfaction, morale, and profits. The manufacturing cost reduced by 30%, overall equipment efficiency increased from 63% in 2010 to 84% after three years and productivity improved by 67%. The Company has won the TPM Excellence Award, Category-A in 2013 and after that continued implementing second phase of TPM. The findings of the study govern that the strategic TPM implementation can significantly contribute for the realization of operational excellence in almost all types of industry.

Keywords: Productivity, Availability, overall equipment efficiency, continuous improvement, total productive maintenance, manufacturing excellence, TPM initiatives

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23 Availability and Utilization of Health Care Facilities in Jalpaiguri Town

Authors: Sharmistha Mukherjee

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Health care is the basic requirement for all. The prime question is who gets what, where and how? The unequal distribution of basic facilities do have a adverse effect on the users. The paper tries to examine health care in terms of available facilities, the health care need and how people perceive to it in a small town of Jalpaiguri in the midst of tea gardens in North Bengal. The morbidity pattern is also minutely observed with a section describing the organizational structure of health care keeping in mind the utilization.

Keywords: Health Care, Distribution, Availability, Utilization

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22 Food Security in Nigeria: An Examination of Food Availability and Accessibility in Nigeria

Authors: Okolo Chimaobi Valentine, Obidigbo Chizoba

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As a basic physiology need, the threat to sufficient food production is the threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revealed that population growth rate was higher than the growth rate of food availability in Nigeria for the earlier period of the study. Commercial bank credit to the agricultural sector, foreign exchange utilization for food and the Agricultural Credit Guarantee Scheme Fund (ACGSF) contributed significantly to food availability in Nigeria. Food prices grew at a faster rate than the average income level, making it difficult to access sufficient food. It implies that prior to the year 2012; there was insufficient food to feed the Nigerian populace. However, continued credit to the food and agricultural sector will ensure sustained and sufficient production of food in Nigeria. Microfinance banks should make sufficient credit available to the smallholder farmer. The government should further control and subsidize the rising price of food to make it more accessible by the people.

Keywords: Food, Security, Accessibility, Availability

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21 Water Sources in 3 Local Municipalities of O. R. Tambo District Municipality, South Africa: A Comparative Study

Authors: Betek Cecilia Kunseh, Musampa Christopher

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Despite significant investment and important progress, access to safe potable water continues to be one of the most pressing challenges for rural communities in O R Tambo District Municipality. This is coupled with the low income of most residents and government's policy which obliges municipalities to supply basic water usually set at 6 kilolitres per month to each household free of charge. During the research, data was collected from three local municipalities of O. R. Tambo, i.e. King Sabata Dalindyebo, Mhlontlo and Ingquza Hill local municipalities. According to the result, significant differences exist between the sources of water in the different local municipalities from which data was collected. The chi square was use to calculated the differences between the sources of water and the calculated critical value of the District Municipality was 18.77 which is more than the stipulated critical value of 3.84. More people in Mhlontlo Local Municipality got water from the taps while a greater percentage of households in King Sataba Dalindyebo and Ingquza hill local municipalities got their water from the natural sources. 77% of the sample population complained that there have been no improvements in water provision because they still get water from natural sources and even the remaining 33% that were getting water from the taps still have to depend on natural sources because the taps are most of the time broken and it takes a long time to fix them.

Keywords: Water, Availability, Sources, Supply

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20 Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism

Authors: Pongsiri Kingkan

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This research aims to study the Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism. This research was conduct by using mix methodology; both quantitative and qualitative data were used. 420 questionnaires were used as tools to collected data from the samples, the restaurant employees. The results were divided into two parts, the demographic data and the Readiness of Thai Restaurant in Bangkok in Applying for Certification of Halal Food Services Standard for Tourism. The majority of samples are single female age between 18–30 years old, who earn about 282.40 US dollars a month. The result of Thai restaurant readiness study demonstrated that readiness in foods and restaurant operating processes were scored at the lowest level. Readiness in social responsibility, food contact persons and food materials were rated at the low level. The readiness of utensils and kitchen tools, waste management, environmental management, and the availability of space to implement the establishment of halal food were scored at the average level. Location readiness, foods service safety and the relationship with the local community were rated at high level. But interestingly there is none of them rated at the highest level.

Keywords: Availability, Bangkok, readiness, halal, Thai restaurant

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19 Towards Reliable Mobile Cloud Computing

Authors: Khaled Darwish, Islam El Madahh, Hoda Mohamed, Hadia El Hennawy

Abstract:

Cloud computing has been one of the fastest growing parts in IT industry mainly in the context of the future of the web where computing, communication, and storage services are main services provided for Internet users. Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) is gaining stream which can be used to extend cloud computing functions, services and results to the world of future mobile applications and enables delivery of a large variety of cloud application to billions of smartphones and wearable devices. This paper describes reliability for MCC by determining the ability of a system or component to function correctly under stated conditions for a specified period of time to be able to deal with the estimation and management of high levels of lifetime engineering uncertainty and risks of failure. The assessment procedures consists of determine Mean Time between Failures (MTBF), Mean Time to Failure (MTTF), and availability percentages for main components in both cloud computing and MCC structures applied on single node OpenStack installation to analyze its performance with different settings governing the behavior of participants. Additionally, we presented several factors have a significant impact on rates of change overall cloud system reliability should be taken into account in order to deliver highly available cloud computing services for mobile consumers.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Reliability, Availability, Mobile Cloud Computing, OpenStack

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18 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu

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The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: Metals, Availability, maize, EDTA, crude oil contamination

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17 Performance and Availability Analysis of 2N Redundancy Models

Authors: Yutae Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the performance and availability of a redundancy model. The redundancy model is a form of resilience that ensures service availability in the event of component failure. This paper considers a 2N redundancy model. In the model there are at most one active service unit and at most one standby service unit. The active one is providing the service while the standby is prepared to take over the active role when the active fails. We design our analysis model using Stochastic Reward Nets, and then evaluate the performance and availability of 2N redundancy model using Stochastic Petri Net Package (SPNP).

Keywords: Availability, Performance, stochastic reward net

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16 Neighbor Caring Environment System (NCE) Using Parallel Replication Mechanism

Authors: Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Emma Ahmad Sirajudin, Rabiei Mamat

Abstract:

Pertaining to a particular Marine interest, the process of data sampling could take years before a study can be concluded. Therefore, the need for a robust backup system for the data is invariably implicit. In recent advancement of Marine applications, more functionalities and tools are integrated to assist the work of the researchers. It is anticipated that this modality will continue as research scope widens and intensifies and at the same to follow suit with current technologies and lifestyles. The convenience to collect and share information these days also applies to the work in Marine research. Therefore, Marine system designers should be aware that high availability is a necessary attribute in Marine repository applications as well as a robust backup system for the data. In this paper, the approach to high availability is related both to hardware and software but the focus is more on software. We consider a NABTIC repository system that is primitively built on a single server and does not have replicated components. First, the system is decomposed into separate modules. The modules are placed on multiple servers to create a distributed system. Redundancy is added by placing the copies of the modules on different servers using Neighbor Caring Environment System(NCES) technique. NCER is utilizing parallel replication components mechanism. A background monitoring is established to check servers’ heartbeats to confirm their aliveness. At the same time, a critical adaptive threshold is maintained to make sure a failure is timely detected using Adaptive Fault Detection (AFD). A confirmed failure will set the recovery mode where a selection process will be done before a fail-over server is instructed. In effect, the Marine repository service is continued as the fail-over masks a recent failure. The performance of the new prototype is tested and is confirmed to be more highly available. Furthermore, the downtime is not noticeable as service is immediately restored automatically. The Marine repository system is said to have achieved fault tolerance.

Keywords: Availability, Fault tolerance, Replication, Fault Detection, marine application

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15 Performance Assessment of Three Unit Redundant System with Environmental and Human Failure Using Copula Approach

Authors: V. V. Singh

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We have studied the reliability measures of a system, which consists of two subsystems i.e. subsystem-1 and subsystem-2 in series configuration under different types of failure. The subsystem-1 has three identical units in parallel configuration and operating under 2-out-of-3: G policy and connected to subsystem-2 in series configuration. Each subsystem has different types of failure and repair rates. An important cause for failure of system is unsuitability of the environmental conditions, like overheating, weather conditions, heavy rainfall, storm etc. The environmental failure is taken into account in the proposed repairable system. Supplementary variable technique is used to study of system and some traditional measures such as; availability, reliability, MTTF and profit function are obtained for different values of parameters. In the proposed model, some particular cases of failure rates are explicitly studied.

Keywords: Reliability, Availability, MTTF, Gumbel-Hougaard family copula, environmental failure, human failure, profit analysis

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14 Reliability, Availability and Capacity Analysis of Power Plants in Kuwait

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

One of the most important factors affecting power plant performance is the reliability of the turbine units operated under different conditions. Reliability directly affects plant availability and performance. Therefore, it is very important to be able to analyze turbine units, as well as power plant system reliability and availability under various operational conditions. In this paper, data related to power station failures are collected and analyzed in detail for all power stations in the state of Kuwait. Failures are characterized and categorized. Reliabilities of various power plants are analyzed and availabilities are quantified. Based on calculated availabilities of all installed power plants, actual power output is estimated. Furthermore, based on the past 15 years of data, power consumption trend is determined and the demand for power in the future is forecasted. Estimated power output is compared to the forecasted demand in order to determine the need for future capacity expansion.

Keywords: Forecasting, Reliability, Power Plants, Availability, Capacity, Preventive Maintenance

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13 Evaluating of Chemical Extractants for Assessment of Bioavailable Heavy Metals in Polluted Soils

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Violina Angelova, Stefan Krustev

Abstract:

Availability of a metal is characterised by its quantity transgressing from soil into different extractants or by its content in plants. In literature, the terms 'available forms of compounds' and 'mobile' are often considered as equivalents of the term 'accessible' to plants. Rapid and a sufficiently reliable method for defining the accessible for plants forms turns out to be their extraction through different extractants, imitating the functioning of the root system. As a criterion for the pertinence of the extractant to this purpose usually serves the significant statistic correlation between the extracted quantities of the element from soil and its content in plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of various extractions (DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, Mehlich 3, 0.01 M CaCl₂, 1M NH₄NO₃) for the determination of bioavailability of heavy metals in industrially polluted soils from the metallurgical activity near Plovdiv and Kardjali, Bulgaria. Quantity measurements for contents of heavy metals were performed with ICP-OES. The results showed that extraction capacity was as follows: Mehlich 3>ABDTPA>DTPA-TEA>CaCl₂>NaNO₃. The content of the mobile form of heavy metals depends on the nature of metal ion, the nature of extractant and pH. The obtained results show that CaCl₂ extracts a greater quantity of mobile forms of heavy metals than NH₄NO₃. DTPA-TEA and AB-DTPA are capable of extracting from the soil not only the heavy metals participating in the exchange processes but also the heavy metals bound in carbonates and organic complexes, as well as bound and occluded in oxide and secondary clay minerals. AB-DTPA extracts a bit more heavy metals than DTPA-TEA. The darker color of the solutions obtained with AB-DTPA indicates that considerable quantities organic matter are being destructed. A comparison of the mobile forms of heavy metals extracted from clean and highly polluted soils has revealed that in the polluted soils the greater portion of heavy metals exists in a mobile form. High correlation coefficients are obtained between the metals extracted with different extractants and their total content in soil (r=0.9). A positive correlation between the pH, soil organic matter and the extracted quantities of heavy metals has been found. The results of correlation analysis revealed that the heavy metals extracted by DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, Mehlich 3, CaCl₂ and NaNO₃ correlated significantly with plant uptake. Significant correlation was found between DTPA-TEA, AB-DTPA, and CaCl₂ with heavy metals concentration in plants. Application of extracting methods contains chelating agents would be recommended in the future research onthe availabilityof heavy metals in polluted soils.

Keywords: Availability, Heavy Metals, chemical extractants, mobile forms

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12 Availability, Accessibility and Utilization of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-Eastern, Nigeria

Authors: Bello Ali

Abstract:

The use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in tertiary institutions by lecturers and students has become a necessity for the enhancement of quality teaching and learning. This study examined availability, accessibility and utilization of ICT in Teaching-Learning Islamic Studies in Colleges of Education, North-East, Nigeria. The study adopted multi-stage sampling technique, in which, five out of the eleven Colleges of Education (both Federal and State owned) were purposively selected for the study. Primary data was drawn from the respondents by the use of questionnaire, interviews and observations. The results of the study, generally, indicate that the availability and accessibility to ICT facilities in Colleges of Education in North-East, Nigeria, especially in teaching/learning delivery of Islamic studies were relatively inadequate and rare to lecturers and students. The study further reveals that the respondents’ level of utilization of ICT is low and only few computer packages and internet services were involved in the ICT utilization, which is yet to reach the real expected situation of the globalization and advancement in the application of ICT if compared to other parts of the world, as far as the teaching and learning of Islamic studies is concerned. Observations and conclusion were drawn from the findings and finally, recommendations on how to improve on ICT availability, accessibility and utilization in teaching/ learning were suggested.

Keywords: Learning, Teaching, Islamic Studies, Accessibility, Availability, Utilization, ICT, North-East, college of education

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11 Financial Planning Framework: A Perspective of Wealth Accumulation and Retirement Planning

Authors: Mahadevan Supramaniam, Stanley Yap, Chong Wei Ying, Fatemeh Kimiyaghalam

Abstract:

Purpose: The paper shows the framework of financial planning in a different paradigm. It highlights the results from a focus group on retirement planning in the aspect of financial literacy and wealth accumulation in Malaysia. Design/methodology/approach: A focus group consisted of thirty individuals and divided into six different clusters amongst 25 to 55 years old. The selection of focus group members is pertaining to retirement planning behavior and saving profile from the different level of educations. Findings: Our results show, firstly, the focus group reflects individual capacity on saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness towards financial products. Secondly, availability, accessibility and affordability which are the significant factors that influence saving attitude, financial literacy and awareness on personal retirement planning behavior. Practical implications: The participants express the concerns of retirement planning during their golden years and the current financial products in the Malaysian financial market. Originality/value: This study is a different approach that recognizes the needs of the consumers in the context of retirement planning and wealth accumulation. Therefore, customers should obtain financial services and products from financial providers to achieve financial independence.

Keywords: Accessibility, Availability, Financial Literacy, Retirement Planning, focus group, affordability, wealth accumulation, saving attitude

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10 Improvement of Overall Equipment Effectiveness of Load Haul Dump Machines in Underground Coal Mines

Authors: J. BalaRaju, M. Govinda Raj, C. S. N. Murthy

Abstract:

Every organization in the competitive world tends to improve its economy by increasing their production and productivity rates. Unequivocally, the production in Indian underground mines over the years is not satisfactory, due to a variety of reasons. There are manifold of avenues for the betterment of production, and one such approach is through enhanced utilization of mechanized equipment such as Load Haul Dumper (LHD). This is used as loading and hauling purpose in underground mines. In view of the aforementioned facts, this paper delves into identification of the key influencing factors such as LHDs maintenance effectiveness, vehicle condition, operator skill and utilization of the machines on performance of LHDs. An attempt has been made for improvement of performance of the equipment through evaluation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE). Two different approaches for evaluation of OEE have been adopted and compared under various operating conditions. The use of OEE calculation in terms of percentage availability, performance and quality and the hitherto existing situation of the underground mine production is evaluated. Necessary recommendations are suggested to mining industry on the basis of OEE.

Keywords: Maintenance, Availability, Utilization, performance and quality

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9 Stochastic Repair and Replacement with a Single Repair Channel

Authors: Mohammed A. Hajeeh

Abstract:

This paper examines the behavior of a system, which upon failure is either replaced with certain probability p or imperfectly repaired with probability q. The system is analyzed using Kolmogorov's forward equations method; the analytical expression for the steady state availability is derived as an indicator of the system’s performance. It is found that the analysis becomes more complex as the number of imperfect repairs increases. It is also observed that the availability increases as the number of states and replacement probability increases. Using such an approach in more complex configurations and in dynamic systems is cumbersome; therefore, it is advisable to resort to simulation or heuristics. In this paper, an example is provided for demonstration.

Keywords: Availability, exponential distribution, repairable models, imperfect

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8 Reliability Analysis of a Life Support System in a Public Aquarium

Authors: Mehmet Savsar

Abstract:

Complex Life Support Systems (LSS) are used in all large commercial and public aquariums in order to keep the fish alive. Reliabilities of individual equipment, as well as the complete system, are extremely important and critical since the life and safety of important fish depend on these life support systems. Failure of some critical device or equipment, which do not have redundancy, results in negative consequences and affects life support as a whole. In this paper, we have considered a life support system in a large public aquarium in Kuwait Scientific Center and presented a procedure and analysis to show how the reliability of such systems can be estimated by using appropriate tools and collected data. We have also proposed possible improvements for systems reliability. In particular, addition of parallel components and spare parts are considered and the numbers of spare parts needed for each component to achieve a required reliability during specified lead time are calculated. The results show that significant improvements in system reliability can be achieved by operating some LSS components in parallel and having certain numbers of spares available in the spare parts inventories. The procedures and the results presented in this paper are expected to be useful for aquarium engineers and maintenance managers dealing with LSS.

Keywords: Reliability, Availability, Spare Parts, failures, life support systems, aquariums

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7 Availability Strategy of Medical Information for Telemedicine Services

Authors: Rozo D. Juan Felipe, Ramírez L. Leonardo Juan, Puerta A. Gabriel Alberto

Abstract:

The telemedicine services require correct computing resource management to guarantee productivity and efficiency for medical and non-medical staff. The aim of this study was to examine web management strategies to ensure the availability of resources and services in telemedicine so as to provide medical information management with an accessible strategy. In addition, to evaluate the quality-of-service parameters, the followings were measured: delays, throughput, jitter, latency, available bandwidth, percent of access and denial of services based of web management performance map with profiles permissions and database management. Through 24 different test scenarios, the results show 100% in availability of medical information, in relation to access of medical staff to web services, and quality of service (QoS) of 99% because of network delay and performance of computer network. The findings of this study suggest that the proposed strategy of web management is an ideal solution to guarantee the availability, reliability, and accessibility of medical information. Finally, this strategy offers seven user profile used at telemedicine center of Bogota-Colombia keeping QoS parameters suitable to telemedicine services.

Keywords: Telemedicine, Strategy, Availability, Medical Information, QoS

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6 Simultaneous Optimization of Design and Maintenance through a Hybrid Process Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: O. Adjoul, A. Feugier, K. Benfriha, A. Aoussat

Abstract:

In general, issues related to design and maintenance are considered in an independent manner. However, the decisions made in these two sets influence each other. The design for maintenance is considered an opportunity to optimize the life cycle cost of a product, particularly in the nuclear or aeronautical field, where maintenance expenses represent more than 60% of life cycle costs. The design of large-scale systems starts with product architecture, a choice of components in terms of cost, reliability, weight and other attributes, corresponding to the specifications. On the other hand, the design must take into account maintenance by improving, in particular, real-time monitoring of equipment through the integration of new technologies such as connected sensors and intelligent actuators. We noticed that different approaches used in the Design For Maintenance (DFM) methods are limited to the simultaneous characterization of the reliability and maintainability of a multi-component system. This article proposes a method of DFM that assists designers to propose dynamic maintenance for multi-component industrial systems. The term "dynamic" refers to the ability to integrate available monitoring data to adapt the maintenance decision in real time. The goal is to maximize the availability of the system at a given life cycle cost. This paper presents an approach for simultaneous optimization of the design and maintenance of multi-component systems. Here the design is characterized by four decision variables for each component (reliability level, maintainability level, redundancy level, and level of monitoring data). The maintenance is characterized by two decision variables (the dates of the maintenance stops and the maintenance operations to be performed on the system during these stops). The DFM model helps the designers choose technical solutions for the large-scale industrial products. Large-scale refers to the complex multi-component industrial systems and long life-cycle, such as trains, aircraft, etc. The method is based on a two-level hybrid algorithm for simultaneous optimization of design and maintenance, using genetic algorithms. The first level is to select a design solution for a given system that considers the life cycle cost and the reliability. The second level consists of determining a dynamic and optimal maintenance plan to be deployed for a design solution. This level is based on the Maintenance Free Operating Period (MFOP) concept, which takes into account the decision criteria such as, total reliability, maintenance cost and maintenance time. Depending on the life cycle duration, the desired availability, and the desired business model (sales or rental), this tool provides visibility of overall costs and optimal product architecture.

Keywords: Availability, design for maintenance (DFM), dynamic maintenance, life cycle cost (LCC), maintenance free operating period (MFOP), simultaneous optimization

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5 An Automated Approach to Consolidate Galileo System Availability

Authors: Marie Bieber, Fabrice Cosson, Olivier Schmitt

Abstract:

Europe's Global Navigation Satellite System, Galileo, provides worldwide positioning and navigation services. The satellites in space are only one part of the Galileo system. An extensive ground infrastructure is essential to oversee the satellites and ensure accurate navigation signals. High reliability and availability of the entire Galileo system are crucial to continuously provide positioning information of high quality to users. Outages are tracked, and operational availability is regularly assessed. A highly flexible and adaptive tool has been developed to automate the Galileo system availability analysis. Not only does it enable a quick availability consolidation, but it also provides first steps towards improving the data quality of maintenance tickets used for the analysis. This includes data import and data preparation, with a focus on processing strings used for classification and identifying faulty data. Furthermore, the tool allows to handle a low amount of data, which is a major constraint when the aim is to provide accurate statistics.

Keywords: Aerospace, Availability, Data Quality, system performance, Galileo

Procedia PDF Downloads 10