Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Autonomy Related Abstracts

31 Evaluating the Use of Manned and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Strategic Offensive Tasks

Authors: Yildiray Korkmaz, Mehmet Aksoy


In today's operations, countries want to reach their aims in the shortest way due to economical, political and humanitarian aspects. The most effective way of achieving this goal is to be able to penetrate strategic targets. Strategic targets are generally located deep inside of the countries and are defended by modern and efficient surface to air missiles (SAM) platforms which are operated as integrated with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems. On the other hand, these high valued targets are buried deep underground and hardened with strong materials against attacks. Therefore, to penetrate these targets requires very detailed intelligence. This intelligence process should include a wide range that is from weaponry to threat assessment. Accordingly, the framework of the attack package will be determined. This mission package has to execute missions in a high threat environment. The way to minimize the risk which depends on loss of life is to use packages which are formed by UAVs. However, some limitations arising from the characteristics of UAVs restricts the performance of the mission package consisted of UAVs. So, the mission package should be formed with UAVs under the leadership of a fifth generation manned aircraft. Thus, we can minimize the limitations, easily penetrate in the deep inside of the enemy territory with minimum risk, make a decision according to ever-changing conditions and finally destroy the strategic targets. In this article, the strengthens and weakness aspects of UAVs are examined by SWOT analysis. And also, it revealed features of a mission package and presented as an example what kind of a mission package we should form in order to get marginal benefit and penetrate into strategic targets with the development of autonomous mission execution capability in the near future.

Keywords: Autonomy, UAV, Mission Planning, mission package, strategic attack

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30 Fostering Multiculturalism on University Campuses: A Global Perspective

Authors: Ashok Chaskar


The present paper aims at fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses as each university campus now a day is crowded with variety of students representing different countries and cultures. The students of different countries and communities have to respect cultural diversity and promote the idea of inclusion. Multiculturalism has defining promotional values and functions, which establish cultural contacts, exchanges cultural ideologies and promotes the value of harmonious coexistence of many cultures. Living together on university campuses is a life-long experience to the students coming from various backgrounds, therefore multiculturalism can teach them the value of appreciation of interdependence, understanding cultural differences, spirit of respect, mutual understanding, peaceful coexistence, spirit of solidarity and help them in managing conflicts. By fostering multiculturalism on the university campuses, the students can learn new things; they can share their new experiences and contribute innovative ideas with each other. However, religious and ethnic diversity enrich the educational experiences of the students of various backgrounds.

Keywords: Culture, Tolerance, Cultural Pluralism, Cultural Diversity, Autonomy, ethnic diversity, ethnic groups, egalitarianism, socio-cultural harmony, harmonious coexistence

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29 Diversifying Income Streams in Portuguese Higher Education – a Multiple Case Study

Authors: Ana Nascimento


For several reasons and in different countries worldwide, there is an increasing difficulty of the States to finance higher education. However, most societies consider education as a public good, so it should be a State obligation to provide this service to citizens. In Portugal, over the last decades, state has diminished its contribution to public higher education and the public higher education institutions started to look for alternative incoming sources, namely charging student’s taxes and fees, provision of services to companies, production of applied research, search for sponsors, configuring new forms of fundraising. This financial policy can raise some concerns to the scientific and pedagogical autonomy of these institutions as well as concerns in access and equity in higher education. For these reasons and in the scope of a PhD research in the area of Economy of Education, a survey is taking place in all public higher education institutions in the Great Lisbon area that intends to analyze and discuss the policy measures in each institution in the search for external financing. The research aims to understand what these measures are and what implications they might have in the institution’s autonomy as well as in higher education access by students from less favored backgrounds. The research uses a qualitative approach, namely through semi-structured interviews to presidents, directors and rectors of each institution, totalizing 50 interviews. In this paper are discussed some of the results from the interviews made so far that present the subjects opinion about higher education finance, the right to education, the search for fundraising and the possible consequences to the institution’s autonomy as well as some literature on the state of the art.

Keywords: Higher Education, Finance, Autonomy, public goods

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28 The Use of Self-Determination Theory to Assess the Opportunities and Challenges for Blended E-Learning in Egypt: An Analysis of the Motivations of Logistics Lecturers

Authors: Aisha Tarek Noour, Nick Hubbard


Blended e-Learning (BL) is proving to be an effective pedagogical tool in many areas of business and management education, but there remains a number of barriers to overcome before its implementation. This paper seeks to analyse the views of lecturers towards BL according to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and identifies the opportunities and challenges for using BL in Logistics Education in an Egyptian higher education establishment. SDT is approached from a different perspective and the relationship between intrinsic motivation (IM), extrinsic motivation (EM), and amotivation (AM) is analysed and related to the opportunities and challenges of the BL method. The case study methodology comprises of a series of interviews with lecturers employed at three Colleges of International Transport and Logistics (CITLs) at the Arab Academy for Science, Technology, Maritime and Transport (AAST&MT) in Egypt. A structured face-to-face interview was undertaken with 61 interviewees across all faculty positions: Deans, Associate Professors, Assistant Professor, Department Heads, Part-time instructors, Teaching Assistants, and Graduate Teaching Assistants. The findings were based on "content analysis" of the interview transcripts and use of the NVivo10 software program. The research contributes to the application of SDT within the field of BL through an analysis of the views of lecturers towards the opportunities and challenges that BL offers to logistics educators in Egypt.

Keywords: Autonomy, Competence, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, amotivation, relatedness, self-determination theory and blended e-learning

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27 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li


This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: pedagogy, Knowledge, Autonomy, e-learning technologies, open

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26 Self in Networks: Public Sphere in the Era of Globalisation

Authors: Sanghamitra Sadhu


A paradigm shift from capitalism to information technology is discerned in the era globalisation. The idea of public sphere, which was theorized in terms of its decline in the wake of the rise of commercial mass media has now emerged as a transnational or global sphere with the discourse being dominated by the ‘network society’. In other words, the dynamic of globalisation has brought about ‘a spatial turn’ in the social and political sciences which is also manifested in the public sphere, Especially the global public sphere. The paper revisits the Habermasian concept of the public sphere and focuses on the various social networking sites with their plausibility to create a virtual global public sphere. Situating Habermas’s notion of the bourgeois public sphere in the present context of global public sphere, it considers the changing dimensions of the public sphere across time and examines the concept of the ‘public’ with its shifting transformation from the concrete collective to the fluid ‘imagined’ category. The paper addresses the problematic of multimodal self-portraiture in the social networking sites as well as various online diaries/journals with an attempt to explore the nuances of the networked self.

Keywords: Identity, Globalisation, Public Sphere, Autonomy, network society, self-fashioning

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25 Contested Space for Regulation in Higher Education

Authors: Sulila Anar


Institutions of any kind are regulated by laws which could be formal or informal, visible or invisible that influences the very structure of the institutions itself. Here in this paper the attempt will be to see how institutions of higher education are regulated by the regulatory institutions by taking the case of India, the third largest education system in the world. The attempt is to try to see how regulation of higher education creates a space for contestation among regulatory institutions based on secondary resources and how this affects the governance of university to achieve the goals and visions.

Keywords: Higher Education, Space, Regulation, Autonomy

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24 Ex (War) Machina: Arab Spring

Authors: Deniz Alca


This research aims to study the themes of autonomy, democracy and the legitimacy of power under the headline of Arab Spring. After the first wave of Arab Spring, among the frequently mentioned ideals of self-recognition, awakening, democracy, autonomy, freedom etc. main concern of the border neighbors and the western governments was to see a “legitimate power.” Although the metaphor of spring was still pointing at emancipation, the principal focus was mostly not on the people but on the governments. So the question of what makes a government legitimate has come to the forefront. However, democracy and freedom, seems to be the main subject matters of the discussions, this rush about establishment of “legitimate governments” lead other countries, to indulge or worse endorse armed oppositionists. So essence of “power” changed from legitimate to rulership. It seems that the civil initiative or autonomy and clearly democracy are still far away from us. The need to a savior is overpowering. This cultural and traditional and almost hereditary miss orientation of the people, both the ones who are playing the role of god and the ones who believed the inevitable need to be freed by someone else, seems to be leading the Arabs to a new autocracy or worse. Middle East is waiting for the ex machina to operate. But what it gets is a spreading warfare. This darkness falling down on Middle East under the concept of spring may be explained by the confrontation of the concepts of emancipation and liberation. So the question is, if the era of emancipation really over or is there still a chance for autonomy and grassroots democracy operating as constituent power?

Keywords: Democracy, legitimacy, Autonomy, Emancipation, Liberation, awakening, civil initiative

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23 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti


This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: Women, marriage, Autonomy, Maternity

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22 Prediction on the Pursuance of Separation of Catalonia from Spain

Authors: Francis Mark A. Fernandez, Chelca Ubay, Armithan Suguitan


Regions or provinces in a definite state certainly contribute to the economy of their mainland. These regions or provinces are the ones supplying the mainland with different resources and assets. Thus, with a certain region separating from the mainland would indeed impinge the heart of an entire state to develop and expand. With these, the researchers decided to study on the effects of the separation of one’s region to its mainland and the consequences that will take place if the mainland would rule out the region to separate from them. The researchers wrote this paper to present the causes of the separation of Catalonia from Spain and the prediction regarding the pursuance of this region to revolt from its mainland, Spain. In conducting this research, the researchers utilized two analyses, namely: qualitative and quantitative. In qualitative, numerous of information regarding the existing experiences of the citizens of Catalonia were gathered by the authors to give certainty to the prediction of the researchers. Besides this undertaking, the researchers will also gather needed information and figures through books, journals and the published news and reports. In addition, to further support this prediction under qualitative analysis, the researchers intended to operate the Phenomenological research in which the examiners will exemplify the lived experiences of each citizen in Catalonia. Moreover, the researchers will utilize one of the types of Phenomenological research which is hermeneutical phenomenology by Van Manen. In quantitative analysis, the researchers utilized the regression analysis in which it will ascertain the causality in an underlying theory in understanding the relationship of the variables. The researchers assigned and identified different variables, wherein the dependent variable or the y which represents the prediction of the researchers, the independent variable however or the x represents the arising problems that grounds the partition of the region, the summation of the independent variable or the ∑x represents the sum of the problem and finally the summation of the dependent variable or the ∑y is the result of the prediction. With these variables, using the regression analysis, the researchers will be able to show the connections and how a single variable could affect the other variables. From these approaches, the prediction of the researchers will be specified. This research could help different states dealing with this kind of problem. It will further help certain states undergoing this problem by analyzing the causes of these insurgencies and the effects on it if it will obstruct its region to consign their full-pledge autonomy.

Keywords: separation, Autonomy, liberty, prediction

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21 Looking at Women’s Status in India through Different Lenses: Evidence from Second Wave of IHDS Data

Authors: Vidya Yadav


In every society, males and females are expected to behave in certain ways, and in every culture, those expectation, values and norms are different and vary accordingly. Many of the inequalities between men and women are rooted in institutional structure such as in educational field, labour market, wages, decision-making power, access to services as well as in accessing the health and well-being care also. The marriage and kinship pattern shape both men’s and women’s lives. Earlier many studies have highlighted the gender disparities which vary tremendously between regions, social classes, and communities. This study will try to explore the prominent indicators to show the status of women and well-being condition in Indian society. Primarily this paper concern with firstly identification of indicators related to gender in each area like education, work status, mobility, women participation in public and private decision making, autonomy and domestic violence etc. And once the indicators are identified next task is to define them. The indicators which are selected here are for a comparison of women’s status across Indian states. Recent Indian Human Development Survey, 2011-12 has been procured to show the current situation of women. Result shows that in spite of rising levels of education and images of growing westernization in India, love marriages remain in rarity even among urban elite. In India marriage is universal, and most of the men and women marry at relatively young age. Even though the legal age of marriage is 18, but more than 60 percent are married before the legal age. Not surprisingly, but Bihar and Rajasthan are the states with earliest age at marriage. Most of them reported that they have very limited contact with their husband before marriages. Around 69 percent of women met their husbands on the day of the wedding or shortly before. In spite of decline in fertility, still childbearing remains essential to women’s lives. Mostly women aged 25 and older had at least one child. Women’s control over household resources, physical space and mobility is also limited. Indian women’s, mostly rely on men to purchase day to day necessities, as well as medicines, as well as other necessary items. This ultimately reduces the likelihood that women have cash in hand for such purchases. The story is quite different when it comes to have control over decision over purchasing household assets such as TVs or refrigerator, names on the bank account, and home ownership papers. However, the likelihood of ownership rises among urbanite educated women’s. Women’s still have to the cultural norms and the practice of purdah or ghunghat, familial control over women’s physical movement. Wife beating and domestic violence still remain pervasive, and beaten for minor transgression like going out without permission. Development of India cannot be realized without the very significant component of gender. Therefore detailed examinations of different indicators are required to understand, strategize, plan and formulate programmes.

Keywords: Gender, Violence, Autonomy, Empowerment

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20 Autonomy not Automation: Using Metacognitive Skills in ESL/EFL Classes

Authors: Marina Paula Carreira Rolim


In order to have ELLs take responsibility for their own learning, it is important that they develop skills to work their studies strategically. The less they rely on the instructor as the content provider, the more they become active learners and have a higher sense of self-regulation and confidence in the learning process. This e-poster proposes a new teacher-student relationship that encourages learners to reflect, think critically, and act upon their realities. It also suggests the implementation of different autonomy-supportive teaching tools, such as portfolios, written journals, problem-solving activities, and strategy-based discussions in class. These teaching tools enable ELLs to develop awareness of learning strategies, learning styles, study plans, and available learning resources as means to foster their creative power of learning outside of classroom. In the role of a learning advisor, the teacher is no longer the content provider but a facilitator that introduces skills such as ‘elaborating’, ‘planning’, ‘monitoring’, and ‘evaluating’. The teacher acts as an educator and promotes the use of lifelong metacognitive skills to develop learner autonomy in the ESL/EFL context.

Keywords: learning strategies, Autonomy, Self-regulation, reflection, metacognitive skills

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19 An Inclusion Project for Deaf Children into a Northern Italy Contest

Authors: G. Tamanza, A. Bossoni


84 deaf students (from primary school to college) and their families participated in this inclusion project in cooperation with numerous institutions in northern Italy (Brescia-Lombardy). Participants were either congenitally deaf or their deafness was related to other pathologies. This research promoted the integration of deaf students as they pass from primary school to high school to college. Learning methods and processes were studied that focused on encour­aging individual autonomy and socialization. The research team and its collaborators included school teachers, speech ther­apists, psychologists and home tutors, as well as teaching assistants, child neuropsychiatrists and other external authorities involved with deaf persons social inclusion programs. Deaf children and their families were supported, in terms of inclusion, and were made aware of the research team that focused on the Bisogni Educativi Speciali (BES or Special Educational Needs) (L.170/2010 - DM 5669/2011). This project included a diagnostic and evaluative phase as well as an operational one. Results demonstrated that deaf children were highly satisfied and confident; academic performance improved and collaboration in school increased. Deaf children felt that they had access to high school and college. Empowerment for the families of deaf children in terms of networking among local services that deal with the deaf also improved while family satisfaction also improved. We found that teachers and those who gave support to deaf children increased their professional skills. Achieving autonomy, instrumental, communicative and relational abilities were also found to be crucial. Project success was determined by temporal continuity, clear theoretical methodology, strong alliance for the project direction and a resilient team response.

Keywords: Inclusion, Well-being, Skills, Autonomy

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18 The Causes of Governance Inefficiency in the Financial Institutions: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Theory of Corporate Governance

Authors: Emilia Klepczarek


The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision and the OECD found problems with the mechanisms of corporate governance as one of the major causes of destabilization of the financial system and the subprime crisis in the years 2007-2010. In response to these allegations, there were formulated a number of recommendations aimed at improving the quality of supervisory standards in financial institutions. They relate mainly to risk management, remuneration policy, the competence of managers and board members and transparency issues. Nevertheless, a review of the empirical research conducted by the author does not allow for an unambiguous confirmation of the positive impact of the postulated standards on the stability of banking entities. There is, therefore, a presumption of the existence of hidden variables determining the effectiveness of the governance mechanisms. According to the author, this involves concepts arising from behavioral economics and economic anthropology, which allow for an explanation of the effectiveness of corporate governance institutions on the basis of the socio-cultural profile of its members. The proposed corporate governance culture theory indicates that the attributes of the members of the organization and organizational culture can determine the different effectiveness level of the governance processes in similar formal corporate governance structures. The aim of the presentation is, firstly, to draw attention to the vast discrepancies existing within the results of research on the effectiveness of the standards of corporate governance in the banking sector. Secondly, the author proposes an explanation of these differences on the basis of governance theory breaking with common paradigms. The corporate governance culture theory is focused on the identity of the individual and the scope of autonomy offered within his or her institution. The coexistence of these two conditions - the adequate behavioral profile and enough freedom to decide - is a prerequisite for the efficient functioning of the institutions of corporate governance, which can contribute to rehabilitating and strengthening the stability of the financial sector.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Efficiency, Autonomy, governance culture

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17 Autonomy in Healthcare Organisations: A Comparative Case Study of Middle Managers in England and Iran

Authors: Maryam Zahmatkesh


Middle managers form a significant occupational category in organisations. They undertake a vital role, as they sit between the operational and strategic roles. Traditionally they were acting as diplomat administrators, and were only in power to meet the demands of professionals. Following the introduction of internal market, in line with the principles of New Public Management, middle managers have been considered as change agents. More recently, in the debates of middle managers, there is emphasis on entrepreneurialism and enacting strategic role. It was assumed that granting autonomy to the local organisations and the inception of semi-autonomous hospitals (Foundation Trusts in England and Board of Trustees in Iran) would give managers more autonomy to act proactively and innovatively. This thesis explores the hospital middle managers’ perception of and responses to public management reforms (in particular, hospital autonomy) in England and Iran. In order to meet the aims of the thesis, research was undertaken within the interpretative paradigm, in line with social constructivism. Data were collected from interviews with forty-five middle managers, observational fieldwork and documentary analysis across four teaching university hospitals in England and Iran. The findings show the different ways middle managers’ autonomy is constrained in the two countries. In England, middle managers have financial and human recourses, but their autonomy is constrained by government policy and targets. In Iran, middle managers are less constrained by government policy and targets, but they do not have financial and human resources to exercise autonomy. Unbalanced autonomy causes tension and frustration for middle managers. According to neo-institutional theory, organisations are deeply embedded within social, political, economic and normative settings that exert isomorphic and internal population-level pressures to conform to existing and established modes of operation. Health systems which are seeking to devolve autonomy to middle managers must appreciate the multidimensional nature of the autonomy, as well as the wider environment that organisations are embedded, if they are about to improve the performance of managers and their organisations.

Keywords: Autonomy, new public management, middle managers, healthcare organisations

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16 The Relationship between the Competence Perception of Student and Graduate Nurses and Their Autonomy and Critical Thinking Disposition

Authors: Zülfiye Bıkmaz, Aytolan Yıldırım


This study was planned as a descriptive regressive study in order to determine the relationship between the competency levels of working nurses, the levels of competency expected by nursing students, the critical thinking disposition of nurses, their perceived autonomy levels, and certain socio demographic characteristics. It is also a methodological study with regard to the intercultural adaptation of the Nursing Competence Scale (NCS) in both working and student samples. The sample of the study group of nurses at a university hospital for at least 6 months working properly and consists of 443 people filled out questionnaires. The student group, consisting of 543 individuals from the 4 public university nursing 3rd and 4th grade students. Data collection tools consisted of a questionnaire prepared in order to define the socio demographic, economic, and personal characteristics of the participants, the ‘Nursing Competency Scale’, the ‘Autonomy Subscale of the Sociotropy – Autonomy Scale’, and the ‘California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory’. In data evaluation, descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests, Rasch analysis and correlation and regression tests were used. The language validity of the ‘NCS’ was performed by translation and back translation, and the context validity of the scale was performed with expert views. The scale, which was formed into its final structure, was applied in a pilot application from a group consisting of graduate and student nurses. The time constancy of the test was obtained by analysis testing retesting method. In order to reduce the time problems with the two half reliability method was used. The Cronbach Alfa coefficient of the scale was found to be 0.980 for the nurse group and 0.986 for the student group. Statistically meaningful relationships between competence and critical thinking and variables such as age, gender, marital status, family structure, having had critical thinking training, education level, class of the students, service worked in, employment style and position, and employment duration were found. Statistically meaningful relationships between autonomy and certain variables of the student group such as year, employment status, decision making style regarding self, total duration of employment, employment style, and education status were found. As a result, it was determined that the NCS which was adapted interculturally was a valid and reliable measurement tool and was found to be associated with autonomy and critical thinking.

Keywords: Critical thinking, Autonomy, Competence, nurse, rasch analysis, nursing student

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15 Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples

Authors: Reshaa Alruwaili


The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.

Keywords: Autonomy, dyadic adjustment, expression of love, determination theory

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14 An Inquiry about Perception of Autonomous Academe and Accountable Leadership on University Governance: A Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Monjur E-Khoda Tarafdar


Institutional autonomy and academic freedom corresponding to accountability are seen as a core concept of university governance. Universities are crucial factors in search of truth for knowledge production and dissemination. Academic leaders are the pivots to progressively influence the university governance. Therefore, in a continuum of debate about autonomy and accountability in the aspect of perception, academic leadership has been studied. Having longstanding acquaintance in the field the researcher has been instrumental to gain lived experiences of the informants in this qualitative study. Case studies are useful to gain an understanding of the complexities of a particular site to preserve a sense of wholeness of the site being investigated. Thus, multiple case study approach has been employed with a sample size of seventy-one. Such large size of informants was interviewed in order to capture a wider range of views that exist in Bangladesh. This qualitative multiple case study has engaged in-depth interviewing method of academic leaders and policy makers of three case universities. Open-ended semi-structured questionnaires are used to have a comprehensive understanding of how the perception of autonomy and accountability of academic leaders has impacted university governance in the context of Bangladesh. The paper has interpreted the voices of the informants and distinguished both the transformational and transactional style of academic leaderships in local university settings against the globally changed higher education demography. The study finds contextual dissimilarity in the perspectives of autonomy and accountability of academic leadership towards university governance. Unaccountability results in losing autonomous power and collapsing academic excellence. Since accountability grows competitiveness and competence, the paper also focuses on how academic leaders abuse the premise of academic loyalty to universities.

Keywords: Leadership, Perception, Accountability, Autonomy, academic loyalty, university governance

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13 Autonomy in Teaching and Learning Subject-Specific Academic Literacy

Authors: Maureen Lilian Klos


In this paper, the notion of autonomy in language teaching and learning is explored with a view to designing particular subject-specific academic literacy at higher education level, for mostly English second or third language learners at the Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. These courses that are contextualized in subject-specific fields studied by students in Arts, Education and Social Science Faculties aim to facilitate learners in the manipulation of cognitively demanding academic texts. However, classroom contact time for these courses is limited to one ninety sessions per week. Thus, learners need to be autonomously responsible for developing their own skills when manipulating and negotiating appropriate academic textual conventions. Thus, a model was designed to allow for gradual learner independence in language learning skills. Learners experience of the model was investigated using the Phenomenological Research Approach. Data in the form of individual written reflections and transcripts of unstructured group interviews were analyzed for themes and sub-themes. These findings are discussed in the article with a view to addressing the practical concerns of the learners in this case study.

Keywords: Language Learning and Teaching, Autonomy, academic literacies, subject-specific language

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12 The Relationships between Autonomy-Based Insula Activity and Learning: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

Authors: Woogul Lee, Johnmarshall Reeve


Learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learners’ interest, engagement, and learning. To understand these processes, we conducted an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, participants saw the national flag and were asked to rate how much they freely wanted to learn about that particular national flag. The participants then learned the characteristics of the national flag. Results showed that (1) the degree of participants’ perceived autonomy was positively correlated with the degree of insula activity, (2) participants’ early-trial insula activity predicted corresponding late-trial dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity, and (3) the degree of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity was positively correlated with the degree of participants’ learning about the characteristics of the national flag. Results suggest that learners’ perceived autonomy predicts learning through the mediation of insula activity associated with intrinsic satisfaction and 'pure self' processes.

Keywords: Autonomy, Self-Determination, insular cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

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11 Human Dignity as a Source and Limitation of Personal Autonomy

Authors: Jan Podkowik


The article discusses issues of mutual relationships of human dignity and personal autonomy. According to constitutions of many countries and international human rights law, human dignity is a fundamental and inviolable value. It is the source of all freedoms and rights, including personal autonomy. Human dignity, as an inherent, inalienable and non-gradable value comprising an attribute of all people, justifies freedom of action according to one's will and following one's vision of good life. On the other hand, human dignity imposes immanent restrictions to personal autonomy regarding decisions on commercialization of the one’s body, etc. It points to the paradox of dignity – the source of freedom and conditions (basic) of its limitations. The paper shows the theoretical concept of human dignity as an objective value among legal systems, determining the boundaries of legal protection of personal autonomy. It is not, therefore, the relevant perception of human dignity and freedom as opposite values. Reference point has been made the normative provisions of the Polish Constitution and the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms as well as judgments of constitutional courts.

Keywords: Human Rights, Constitution, Autonomy, Human Dignity

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10 Motivating Factors of Mobile Device Applications toward Learning

Authors: Yen-Mei Lee


Mobile learning (m-learning) has been applied in the education field not only because it is an alternative to web-based learning but also it possesses the ‘anytime, anywhere’ learning features. However, most studies focus on the technology-related issue, such as usability and functionality instead of addressing m-learning from the motivational perspective. Accordingly, the main purpose of the current paper is to integrate critical factors from different motivational theories and related findings to have a better understand the catalysts of an individual’s learning motivation toward m-learning. The main research question for this study is stated as follows: based on different motivational perspectives, what factors of applying mobile devices as medium can facilitate people’s learning motivations? Self-Determination Theory (SDT), Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT), Malone and Lepper’s taxonomy of intrinsic motivation theory, and different types of motivation concepts were discussed in the current paper. In line with the review of relevant studies, three motivating factors with five essential elements are proposed. The first key factor is autonomy. Learning on one’s own path and applying personalized format are two critical elements involved in the factor of autonomy. The second key factor is to apply a build-in instant feedback system during m-learning. The third factor is creating an interaction system, including communication and collaboration spaces. These three factors can enhance people’s learning motivations when applying mobile devices as medium toward learning. To sum up, in the currently proposed paper, with different motivational perspectives to discuss the m-learning is different from previous studies which are simply focused on the technical or functional design. Supported by different motivation theories, researchers can clearly understand how the mobile devices influence people’s leaning motivation. Moreover, instructional designers and educators can base on the proposed factors to build up their unique and efficient m-learning environments.

Keywords: Autonomy, mobile learning (m-learning), learning motivation, motivational perspective

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9 Second-Order Complex Systems: Case Studies of Autonomy and Free Will

Authors: Eric Sanchis


Although there does not exist a definitive consensus on a precise definition of a complex system, it is generally considered that a system is complex by nature. The presented work illustrates a different point of view: a system becomes complex only with regard to the question posed to it, i.e., with regard to the problem which has to be solved. A complex system is a couple (question, object). Because the number of questions posed to a given object can be potentially substantial, complexity does not present a uniform face. Two types of complex systems are clearly identified: first-order complex systems and second-order complex systems. First-order complex systems physically exist. They are well-known because they have been studied by the scientific community for a long time. In second-order complex systems, complexity results from the system composition and its articulation that are partially unknown. For some of these systems, there is no evidence of their existence. Vagueness is the keyword characterizing this kind of systems. Autonomy and free will, two mental productions of the human cognitive system, can be identified as second-order complex systems. A classification based on the properties structure makes it possible to discriminate complex properties from the others and to model this kind of second order complex systems. The final outcome is an implementable synthetic property that distinguishes the solid aspects of the actual property from those that are uncertain.

Keywords: Autonomy, free will, synthetic property, vaporous complex systems

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8 Accuracy of Autonomy Navigation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems through Imagery

Authors: Sidney A. Lima, Hermann J. H. Kux, Elcio H. Shiguemori


The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) usually navigate through the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) associated with an Inertial Navigation System (INS). However, GNSS can have its accuracy degraded at any time or even turn off the signal of GNSS. In addition, there is the possibility of malicious interferences, known as jamming. Therefore, the image navigation system can solve the autonomy problem, because if the GNSS is disabled or degraded, the image navigation system would continue to provide coordinate information for the INS, allowing the autonomy of the system. This work aims to evaluate the accuracy of the positioning though photogrammetry concepts. The methodology uses orthophotos and Digital Surface Models (DSM) as a reference to represent the object space and photograph obtained during the flight to represent the image space. For the calculation of the coordinates of the perspective center and camera attitudes, it is necessary to know the coordinates of homologous points in the object space (orthophoto coordinates and DSM altitude) and image space (column and line of the photograph). So if it is possible to automatically identify in real time the homologous points the coordinates and attitudes can be calculated whit their respective accuracies. With the methodology applied in this work, it is possible to verify maximum errors in the order of 0.5 m in the positioning and 0.6º in the attitude of the camera, so the navigation through the image can reach values equal to or higher than the GNSS receivers without differential correction. Therefore, navigating through the image is a good alternative to enable autonomous navigation.

Keywords: Security, Remote Sensing, Photogrammetry, Navigation, Autonomy, UAS, spatial resection

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7 The Interrelationship between Formal and Informal Institutions and Its Impacts on the Autonomy of Public Service Delivery Units: The Case of Vietnam

Authors: Minh Thi Hai Vo


This article draws on in-depth interviews with state employees at public hospitals and universities in its institutional analysis of the autonomy practices of public service delivery units in Vietnam. Unlike many empirical and theoretical studies that view formal and informal institutions as complements or substitutes, this article finds no evidence of complementary or substitutive relationships. Instead, the article finds that formal institutions accommodate informal ones and that informal institutions tend to compete and interfere, with the existing and ineffective formal institutions. The result of such conflicting relationship is that the actual autonomy of public service delivery units is, in most cases, perceived to be greater than the formal autonomy they are given. In the condition of poor regulation, the informal autonomy may result in unethical practices including rent-seeking and corruption. The implication of the study finding is policy-makers need to redesign and reorganize the autonomisation of public service delivery units to make informal institutions support and reinforce formal ones in a complementary manner.

Keywords: Autonomy, Vietnam, formal institutions, informal institutions, public service delivery units

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6 A Theoretical Framework of Patient Autonomy in a High-Tech Care Context

Authors: Catharina Lindberg, Cecilia Fagerstrom, Ania Willman


Patients in high-tech care environments are usually dependent on both formal/informal caregivers and technology, highlighting their vulnerability and challenging their autonomy. Autonomy presumes that a person has education, experience, self-discipline and decision-making capacity. Reference to autonomy in relation to patients in high-tech care environments could, therefore, be considered paradoxical, as in most cases these persons have impaired physical and/or metacognitive capacity. Therefore, to understand the prerequisites for patients to experience autonomy in high-tech care environments and to support them, there is a need to enhance knowledge and understanding of the concept of patient autonomy in this care context. The development of concepts and theories in a practice discipline such as nursing helps to improve both nursing care and nursing education. Theoretical development is important when clarifying a discipline, hence, a theoretical framework could be of use to nurses in high-tech care environments to support and defend the patient’s autonomy. A meta-synthesis was performed with the intention to be interpretative and not aggregative in nature. An amalgamation was made of the results from three previous studies, carried out by members of the same research group, focusing on the phenomenon of patient autonomy from a patient perspective within a caring context. Three basic approaches to theory development: derivation, synthesis, and analysis provided an operational structure that permitted the researchers to move back and forth between these approaches during their work in developing a theoretical framework. The results from the synthesis delineated that patient autonomy in a high-tech care context is: To be in control though trust, co-determination, and transition in everyday life. The theoretical framework contains several components creating the prerequisites for patient autonomy. Assumptions and propositional statements that guide theory development was also outlined, as were guiding principles for use in day-to-day nursing care. Four strategies used by patients to remain or obtain patient autonomy in high-tech care environments were revealed: the strategy of control, the strategy of partnership, the strategy of trust, and the strategy of transition. This study suggests an extended knowledge base founded on theoretical reasoning about patient autonomy, providing an understanding of the strategies used by patients to achieve autonomy in the role of patient, in high-tech care environments. When possessing knowledge about the patient perspective of autonomy, the nurse/carer can avoid adopting a paternalistic or maternalistic approach. Instead, the patient can be considered to be a partner in care, allowing care to be provided that supports him/her in remaining/becoming an autonomous person in the role of patient.

Keywords: Autonomy, Caring, concept development, high-tech care, theory development

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5 Decision Making Regarding Spouse Selection and Women's Autonomy in India: Exploring the Linkage

Authors: Nivedita Paul


The changing character of marriage be it arranged marriage, love marriage, polygamy, informal unions, all signify different gender relations in everyday lives. Marriages in India are part and parcel of the kinship and cultural practices. Arranged marriage is still the dominant form of marriage where spouse selection is the initiative and decision of the parents; but its form is changing, as women are now actively participating in spouse selection but with parental consent. Spouse selection related decision making is important because marriage as an institution brings social change and gender inequality; especially in a women’s life as marriages in India are mostly patrilocal. Moreover, the amount of say in spouse selection can affect a woman’s reproductive rights, domestic violence issues, household resource allocation, communication possibilities with the spouse/husband, marital life, etc. The present study uses data from Indian Human Development Survey II (2011-12) which is a nationally representative multitopic survey that covers 41,554 households. Currently, married women of age group 15-49 in their first marriage; whose year of marriage is from 1970s to 2000s have been taken for the study. Based on spouse selection experiences, the sample of women has been divided into three marriage categories-self, semi and family arranged. Women in self arranged or love marriage is the sole decision maker in choosing the partner, in semi arranged marriage or arranged marriage with consent both parents and women together take the decision, whereas in family arranged or arranged marriage without consent only parents take the decision. The main aim of the study is to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and women’s autonomy in India. Decision making in economic matters, child and health related decision making, mobility and access to resources are taken to be proxies of autonomy. Method of ordinal regression has been used to find the relationship between spouse selection experiences and autonomy after marriage keeping other independent variables as control factors. Results show that women in semi arranged marriage have more decision making power regarding financial matters of the household, health related matters, mobility and accessibility to resources, when compared to women in family, arranged marriages. For freedom of movement and access to resources women in self arranged marriage have the highest say or exercise greatest power. Therefore, greater participation of women (even though not absolute control) in spouse selection may lead to greater autonomy after marriage.

Keywords: Autonomy, Consent, arranged marriage, spouse selection

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4 Negotiating Autonomy in Women’s Political Participation: The Case of Elected Women’s Representatives from Jharkhand

Authors: Rajeshwari Balasubramanian, Margit Van Wessel, Nandini Deo


The participation of women in local bodies witnessed a rise after the implementation of 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Indian Constitution which created quotas for women representatives. However, even when participation increased, it did not translate into meaningful contributions by women in local bodies. This led some civil society organisations (CSOs) to begin working with women panchayat representatives in various states to build their capacity for political participation. The focus of this paper is to study capacity building training by CSOs in Jharkhand. The paper maps how the training helps women elected representatives to negotiate their autonomy at multiple levels. The paper describes the capacity building program conducted by an international feminist organisation along with its seven local partners in Jharkhand. The central question that the study asks is: How does capacity building training by CSOs in Jharkhand impact the autonomy of elected women representatives? It uses a qualitative research methodology based on empirical data gathered through field visits in four districts of Jharkhand (Chatra, Hazaribagh, East Singhbum and Ranchi) where the program was implemented for three years. The study found that women elected representatives had to develop strategies to negotiate their choice to move out of their homes and attend the training conducted by CSOs. The ability to participate in the training programs itself was a significant achievement of personal autonomy for many women. The training provided them a platform to voice their opinion and appreciate their own value as panchayat leaders. This realization allowed them to negotiate their presence and a space for themselves in Gram panchayats. A Foucauldian approach to analyze capacity building workshops might lead us to see them as systems in which CSOs impose a form of governmentality on rural elected representatives. Instead, what we see here is a much more complex negotiation of agency in which the CSO creates spaces and practices that allow women to achieve their own forms of autonomy. The study concludes that the impact of the training on the autonomy of these women is based on their everyday negotiations of time, space and mobility. Autonomy for these elected women representatives is also contextual and relative, as they seem to realize it during the training process. The training allows the women to not only negotiate their participation in panchayats but also challenge everyday practices that are rooted in patriarchy.

Keywords: Political participation, Autonomy, feminist organization, local bodies

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3 Language Anxiety and Motivation as Predictors of English as a Foreign Language Achievement

Authors: Fakieh Alrabai


The present study examines the predictive power of foreign language anxiety and motivation, as two significant affective variables, in English as a foreign language (EFL) achievement. It also explores the causal relationship between these two factors (i.e. which variable causes the other); and which one of them best predicts other affective factors including learner attitude, self-esteem, and autonomy. The study utilized experimental treatments among 210 Saudi EFL learners divided into four groups. Group 1 was exposed to anxiety-controlling moments, group 2 was exposed to motivational moments, group 3 was exposed to anxiety-controlling and motivational moments together, and group 4 was exposed to no specific anxiety or motivation strategies. The influence of the treatment on the study variables was evaluated using a triangulation of measurements including questionnaires, classroom observations, and achievement tests. Descriptive analysis, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and regression analyses have been deployed to figure out the study findings. While both motivation and anxiety significantly predicted learners EFL achievement, motivation has been found to be the best predictor of learners’ achievement; and therefore, operates as the mediator of EFL achievement.

Keywords: Anxiety, Motivation, Autonomy, achievement

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2 Investigating the Correlation between Job Satisfaction, Autonomy, and Self-Efficacy among School Nurses in Bahrain: A Mixed Methods Study

Authors: Faten Hasani


Background: Hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, and health centres are the traditional places where nurses work, but nurses have recently started working in new areas such as government and private schools, and they play a critical role in better health outcomes in the education setting. In order to better understand these roles, this study aimed to investigate the factors affecting job satisfaction and the relationship between job satisfaction, autonomy, and self-efficacy amongst school nurses in Bahrain. Materials and Methods: This study used a mixed-method approach involving an exploratory sequential design with a survey and subsequent one-on-one interviews. A total of 142 school nurses in Bahrain were surveyed and data were collected using structured psychometric tools to measure job satisfaction, self-efficacy, and autonomy. Demographic characteristics of participants (gender, age, nursing specialty, professional development, appointing authority, and workload/population served) were also collected to allow for further analysis. The data were analysed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Twenty-seven school nurses were subsequently recruited for interviews using a purposeful sampling procedure. The data were subjected to thematic analysis using Burnard’s (1991) framework. Results: Results from the surveys were indicative of a general high level of job satisfaction among school nurses in Bahrain. The areas which contributed most strongly to this satisfaction, by way of statistical significance, were perceptions of the standard of care provided, professional support nurses received, the manageability of assigned workloads and personal satisfaction. The data further illustrate that job autonomy has an independent and positive relationship with job satisfaction, suggesting that job autonomy causes a subsequent increase in job satisfaction. Self-efficacy, on the other hand, correlates with job satisfaction but was statistically significant. The qualitative results found a unanimous consensus amongst school nurses that they face challenges in executing their roles. Herzberg’s two-factor theory was used to demonstrate the hygiene and motivation factors related to Bahraini school nurses’ job satisfaction. In this regard, significant issues emerged in relation to training, standardisation of role descriptions and regulation, and the need to promote health work environments. Conclusion and Recommendations: While the findings indicate that school nurses in Bahrain are satisfied with their jobs there are a number of areas which need to be addressed to ensure that the role continues to realise its potential presently and into the future. The findings suggest that training and education needs, regulatory professional bodies, and healthy and productive work environments are three important factors that affect the job satisfaction of school nurses in Bahrain. The study recommends a clear definition of school nurses’ roles to ensure a productive and healthy working environment and also shows a need to implement appraisal modalities that will enable career growth, including remuneration and reward, thus facilitating job satisfaction and ensuring positive outcomes.

Keywords: Autonomy, Self-efficacy, Job Satisfaction, school nurses

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