Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Automotive Related Abstracts

12 Implementation of ISO 26262: Issues and Challenges

Authors: Won Jung, Azianti Ismail

Abstract:

Functional safety is about electrical, electronics, and programmable electronic safety-related system focuses on the potential risk of malfunction which may have a significant impact on the safety of humans and/or the environment based on IEC 61508. In November 2011, the automotive industry has been introduced to automotive functional safety ISO 26262 which addresses the complete safety installation from sensor to actuator with its technical as well as management issues. Nowadays, most of the modern automobiles are equipped with embedded electronic systems which include many Electronic Controller Units (ECUs), electronic sensors, signals, bus systems and coding. Due to upcoming more sophisticated systems installed in automobiles, the need to carry out detailed safety is very crucial. Assimilation of existing practices with this new standard is a major challenge for the automotive industry in reducing redundancy, time and resources. Therefore, this paper will analyze the research trends on pre and post introduction of ISO 26262 through publications as well as to take a glimpse in the activities for implementing this standard by the automotive manufacturers around the world. It is going to highlight issues and challenges which have been discussed among the experts in this field. Even though it will take some time for this standard to be fully implemented, the benefits from this implementation will raise the competitiveness in the global automotive market.

Keywords: Automotive, Challenges, Implementation, ISO 26262, functional safety, standard

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11 UML Model for Double-Loop Control Self-Adaptive Braking System

Authors: Jong Tae Kim, Heung Sun Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an activity diagram model for double-loop control self-adaptive braking system. Since activity diagram helps to improve visibility of self-adaption, we can easily find where improvement is needed on double-loop control. Double-loop control is adopted since the design conditions and actual conditions can be different. The system is reconfigured in runtime by using double-loop control. We simulated to verify and validate our model by using MATLAB. We compared single-loop control model with double-loop control model. Simulation results show that double-loop control provides more consistent brake power control than single-loop control.

Keywords: Automotive, Vehicle, UML, Braking System, activity diagram, double-loop, self-adaptive

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10 Assessing Supply Chain Performance through Data Mining Techniques: A Case of Automotive Industry

Authors: Burak Erkayman, Emin Gundogar, Nusret Sazak

Abstract:

Providing effective management performance through the whole supply chain is critical issue and hard to applicate. The proper evaluation of integrated data may conclude with accurate information. Analysing the supply chain data through OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) technologies may provide multi-angle view of the work and consolidation. In this study, association rules and classification techniques are applied to measure the supply chain performance metrics of an automotive manufacturer in Turkey. Main criteria and important rules are determined. The comparison of the results of the algorithms is presented.

Keywords: Automotive, Data Mining, Performance Measurement, Supply Chain Performance

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9 Design of Composite Joints from Carbon Fibre for Automotive Parts

Authors: G. Hemath Kumar, H. Mohit, K. Karthick

Abstract:

One of the most important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of parts of aircraft structures which is manufactured from composite materials. In such applications and also for joining various composite parts together, they are fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. The tensile strength of these joints was carried out using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). A parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent thickness, adhesive thickness and overlap length. The composition of the material is combination of epoxy resin and carbon fibre under the method of reinforcement. To utilize the full potential of composite materials as structural elements, the strength and stress distribution of these joints must be understood. The study of tensile strength in the members involved under various design conditions and various joints were took place.

Keywords: Automotive, Carbon Fiber, FRP composite, MMC

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8 Optimization of Switched Reluctance Motor for Drive System in Automotive Applications

Authors: A. Peniak, J. Makarovič, P. Rafajdus, P. Dúbravka

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to optimize a Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) for an automotive application, specifically for a fully electric car. A new optimization approach is proposed. This unique approach transforms automotive customer requirements into an optimization problem, based on sound knowledge of a SRM theory. The approach combines an analytical and a finite element analysis of the motor to quantify static nonlinear and dynamic performance parameters, as phase currents and motor torque maps, an output power and power losses in order to find the optimal motor as close to the reality as possible, within reasonable time. The new approach yields the optimal motor which is competitive with other types of already proposed motors for automotive applications. This distinctive approach can also be used to optimize other types of electrical motors, when parts specifically related to the SRM are adjusted accordingly.

Keywords: Automotive, Optimization, Finite Element Method, switched reluctance motor, drive system, electric car, hybrid car

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7 A Comparative Soft Computing Approach to Supplier Performance Prediction Using GEP and ANN Models: An Automotive Case Study

Authors: Seyed Esmail Seyedi Bariran, Khairul Salleh Mohamed Sahari

Abstract:

In multi-echelon supply chain networks, optimal supplier selection significantly depends on the accuracy of suppliers’ performance prediction. Different methods of multi criteria decision making such as ANN, GA, Fuzzy, AHP, etc have been previously used to predict the supplier performance but the “black-box” characteristic of these methods is yet a major concern to be resolved. Therefore, the primary objective in this paper is to implement an artificial intelligence-based gene expression programming (GEP) model to compare the prediction accuracy with that of ANN. A full factorial design with %95 confidence interval is initially applied to determine the appropriate set of criteria for supplier performance evaluation. A test-train approach is then utilized for the ANN and GEP exclusively. The training results are used to find the optimal network architecture and the testing data will determine the prediction accuracy of each method based on measures of root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R2). The results of a case study conducted in Supplying Automotive Parts Co. (SAPCO) with more than 100 local and foreign supply chain members revealed that, in comparison with ANN, gene expression programming has a significant preference in predicting supplier performance by referring to the respective RMSE and R-squared values. Moreover, using GEP, a mathematical function was also derived to solve the issue of ANN black-box structure in modeling the performance prediction.

Keywords: Automotive, ANN, Supplier Performance Prediction, GEP, SAPCO

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6 Productivity Improvement in the Propeller Shaft Manufacturing Process

Authors: Won Jung

Abstract:

In automotive, propeller shaft is the device for transferring power from engine to axle via transmission, and the slip yoke is one of the main parts in the component. Since the propeller shafts are subject to torsion and shear stress, they need to be strong enough to bear the stress. The purpose of this research is to improve the productivity of slip yoke for automotive propeller shaft. We present how to redesign the component that currently manufactured as a forged single body type. The research was focused on not only reducing processing time but insuring durability of the component simultaneously.

Keywords: Automotive, Durability, Productivity, propeller shaft, slip yoke

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5 Repair of Thermoplastic Composites for Structural Applications

Authors: Philippe Castaing, Thomas Jollivet

Abstract:

As a result of their advantages, i.e. recyclability, weld-ability, environmental compatibility, long (continuous) fiber thermoplastic composites (LFTPC) are increasingly used in many industrial sectors (mainly automotive and aeronautic) for structural applications. Indeed, in the next ten years, the environmental rules will put the pressure on the use of new structural materials like composites. In aerospace, more than 50% of the damage are due to stress impact and 85% of damage are repaired on the fuselage (fuselage skin panels and around doors). With the arrival of airplanes mainly of composite materials, replacement of sections or panels seems difficult economically speaking and repair becomes essential. The objective of the present study is to propose a solution of repair to prevent the replacement the damaged part in thermoplastic composites in order to recover the initial mechanical properties. The classification of impact damage is not so not easy : talking about low energy impact (less than 35 J) can be totally wrong when high speed or weak thicknesses as well as thermoplastic resins are considered. Crash and perforation with higher energy create important damages and the structures are replaced without repairing, so we just consider here damages due to impacts at low energy that are as follows for laminates : − Transverse cracking; − Delamination; − Fiber rupture. At low energy, the damages are barely visible but can nevertheless reduce significantly the mechanical strength of the part due to resin cracks while few fiber rupture is observed. The patch repair solution remains the standard one but may lead to the rupture of fibers and consequently creates more damages. That is the reason why we investigate the repair of thermoplastic composites impacted at low energy. Indeed, thermoplastic resins are interesting as they absorb impact energy through plastic strain. The methodology is as follows: - impact tests at low energy on thermoplastic composites; - identification of the damage by micrographic observations; - evaluation of the harmfulness of the damage; - repair by reconsolidation according to the extent of the damage ; -validation of the repair by mechanical characterization (compression). In this study, the impacts tests are performed at various levels of energy on thermoplastic composites (PA/C, PEEK/C and PPS/C woven 50/50 and unidirectional) to determine the level of impact energy creating damages in the resin without fiber rupture. We identify the extent of the damage by US inspection and micrographic observations in the plane part thickness. The samples were in addition characterized in compression to evaluate the loss of mechanical properties. Then the strategy of repair consists in reconsolidating the damaged parts by thermoforming, and after reconsolidation the laminates are characterized in compression for validation. To conclude, the study demonstrates the feasibility of the repair for low energy impact on thermoplastic composites as the samples recover their properties. At a first step of the study, the “repair” is made by reconsolidation on a thermoforming press but we could imagine a process in situ to reconsolidate the damaged parts.

Keywords: Aerospace, Automotive, Composites, Damages, Compression, repair, Structural Applications, thermoplastic

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4 Testing a Flexible Manufacturing System Facility Production Capacity through Discrete Event Simulation: Automotive Case Study

Authors: Justyna Rybicka, Ashutosh Tiwari, Shane Enticott

Abstract:

In the age of automation and computation aiding manufacturing, it is clear that manufacturing systems have become more complex than ever before. Although technological advances provide the capability to gain more value with fewer resources, sometimes utilisation of the manufacturing capabilities available to organisations is difficult to achieve. Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) provide a unique capability to manufacturing organisations where there is a need for product range diversification by providing line efficiency through production flexibility. This is very valuable in trend driven production set-ups or niche volume production requirements. Although FMS provides flexible and efficient facilities, its optimal set-up is key in achieving production performance. As many variables are interlinked due to the flexibility provided by the FMS, analytical calculations are not always sufficient to predict the FMS’ performance. Simulation modelling is capable of capturing the complexity and constraints associated with FMS. This paper demonstrates how discrete event simulation (DES) can address complexity in an FMS to optimise the production line performance. A case study of an automotive FMS is presented. The DES model demonstrates different configuration options depending on prioritising objectives: utilisation and throughput. Additionally, this paper provides insight into understanding the impact of system set-up constraints on the FMS performance and demonstrates the exploration into the optimal production set-up.

Keywords: Automotive, Discrete Event Simulation, flexible manufacturing system, capacity performance

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3 Industrial Relations as Communication: The Strange Case of the FCA-UAW Agreement

Authors: Francesco Nespoli

Abstract:

After having posed a theoretical framework combining framing theory and new rhetoric, the paper analyze the shift in communication both adopted by UAW and FCA during the negotiations in fall 2015. The paper argues that mistakes and adjustments played a determinant role respectively in the rejection of the first tentative agreement and in the ratification of the contract. The purpose of the paper is to set a new theoretical framework for the analysis of communication in industrial relations, by describing a narrative construction of reality from the perspective of the new rhetoric. The paper thus analyze all public text, speeches, tweets and Facebook posts by the union reading them as part of the narrative set by the organization condensed by the slogan 'it’s our time'. That narrative tried to gain consensus from the members matching the expectations due to the industry recovery after more than five years of workers' sacrifices. In doing so, the analysis points out a shift in the communication strategy of the union after the first rejection of a tentative agreement in 15 years. The findings suggest that, from the communication point of view, consultation in industrial relations can be conceived as a particular kind of political communication where identification with the audience through deliberate narrative may not be effective if it is not preceded by a listening campaign.

Keywords: Automotive, Communication, Consultation, FCA

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2 Evaluation of Reliability, Availability and Maintainability for Automotive Manufacturing Process

Authors: Hamzeh Soltanali, Adithya Thaduri, Abbas Rohani, A. H. S. Garmabaki, Mohammad Hossein Abbaspour-Fard

Abstract:

Toward continuous innovation and high complexity of technological systems, the automotive manufacturing industry is also under pressure to implement adequate management strategies regarding availability and productivity. In this context, evaluation of system’s performance by considering reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) methodologies can constitute for resilient operation, identifying the bottlenecks of manufacturing process and optimization of maintenance actions. In this paper, RAM parameters are evaluated for improving the operational performance of the fluid filling process. To evaluate the RAM factors through the behavior of states defined for such process, a systematic decision framework was developed. The results of RAM analysis revealed that that the improving reliability and maintainability of main bottlenecks for each filling workstation need to be considered as a priority. The results could be useful to improve operational performance and sustainability of production process.

Keywords: Automotive, Reliability, Performance, ram, fluid filling process

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1 Automated, Short Cycle Production of Polymer Composite Applications with Special Regards to the Complexity and Recyclability of Composite Elements

Authors: Peter Pomlenyi, Orsolya Semperger, Gergely Hegedus

Abstract:

The purpose of the project is to develop a complex composite component with visible class ‘A’ surface. It is going to integrate more functions, including continuous fiber reinforcement, foam core, injection molded ribs, and metal inserts. Therefore we are going to produce recyclable structural composite part from thermoplastic polymer in serial production with short cycle time for automotive applications. Our design of the process line is determined by the principles of Industry 4.0. Accordingly, our goal is to map in details the properties of the final product including the mechanical properties in order to replace metal elements used in automotive industry, with special regard to the effect of each manufacturing process step on the afore mentioned properties. Period of the project is 3 years, which lasts from the 1st of December 2016 to the 30th November 2019. There are four consortium members in the R&D project evopro systems engineering Ltd., Department of Polymer Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Research Centre for Natural Sciences of Hungarian Academy of Sciences and eCon Engineering Ltd. One of the most important result that we can obtain short cycle time (up to 2-3 min) with in-situ polymerization method, which is an innovation in the field of thermoplastic composite production. Because of the mentioned method, our fully automated production line is able to manufacture complex thermoplastic composite parts and satisfies the short cycle time required by the automotive industry. In addition to the innovative technology, we are able to design, analyze complex composite parts with finite element method, and validate our results. We are continuously collecting all the information, knowledge and experience to improve our technology and obtain even more accurate results with respect to the quality and complexity of the composite parts, the cycle time of the production, and the design and analyzing method of the composite parts.

Keywords: Automotive, Composite, T-RTM technology, class A surface

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