Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Autism spectrum disorder Related Abstracts

36 The Role of MAOA Gene in the Etiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Males

Authors: Dana Gabrikova, Jana Kisková

Abstract:

Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) is suggested to be a candidate gene implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-analytic review evaluates the relationship between ASD and MAOA markers such as 30 bp variable number tandem repeats in the promoter region (uVNTR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by using findings from recently published studies. It seems that in Caucasian males, the risk of developing ASD increase with the presence of 4-repeat allele in the promoter region of MAOA gene whereas no differences were found between autistic patients and controls in Egyptian, West Bengal and Korean population. Some studies point to the importance specific haplotype groups of SNPs and interaction of MAOA with others genes (e.g. FOXP2 or SRY). The results of existing studies are insufficient and further research is needed.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, MAOA, uVNTR, single nucleotide polymorphism

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35 The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale: A Tool for Planning Interventions for Children on the Autism Spectrum

Authors: Sonia Mastrangelo

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The Miller Umwelt Assessment Scale is a useful tool for obtaining information about the developmental capacities of children on the autism spectrum. The assessment, made up of 19 tasks in the areas of: body organization, contact with surroundings, expressive and receptive communication, representation, and social-emotional development, has been used with much success over the past 40 years. While many assessments are difficult to administer to children on the autism spectrum, the simplicity of the MUAS reveals key strengths and challenges for both low and high functioning children on the spectrum. The results guide parents and clinicians in providing a curriculum and/or home program that moves children up the developmental ladder.

Keywords: Assessment, Autism spectrum disorder, reading intervention, Miller method

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34 Effect of Relaxation Techniques in Reducing Stress Level among Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: R. N. Jay A. Ablog, M. N. Dyanne R. Del Carmen, Roma Rose A. Dela Cruz, Joselle Dara M. Estrada, Luke Clifferson M. Gagarin, Florence T. Lang-ay, Ma. Dayanara O. Mariñas, Maria Christina S. Nepa, Jahraine Chyle B. Ocampo, Mark Reynie Renz V. Silva, Jenny Lyn L. Soriano, Loreal Cloe M. Suva, Jackelyn R. Torres

Abstract:

Background: To date, there is dearth of literature as to the effect of relaxation techniques in lowering the stress level of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Aim: To investigate the effectiveness of 4-week relaxation techniques in stress level reduction of mothers of children with ASD. Methods: Quasi experimental design. It included 25 mothers (10-experimental, 15-control) who were chosen via purposive sampling. The mothers were recruited in the different SPED centers in Baguio City and La Trinidad and in the community. Statistics used were T-test and Related T-Test. Results: The overall weighted mean score after 4-week training is 2.3, indicating that the relaxation techniques introduced were moderately effective in lowering stress level. Statistical analysis (T-test; CV=4.51>TV=2.26) shown a significant difference in the stress level reduction of mothers in the experimental group pre and post interventions. There is also a significant difference in the stress level reduction in the control and the experimental group (Related T-test; CV=2.08 >TV=2.07). The relaxation techniques introduced were favorable, cost-effective, and easy to perform interventions to decrease stress level.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, relaxation techniques, mindful eating, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercise

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33 Robot-Assisted Learning for Communication-Care in Autism Intervention

Authors: Fazah Akhtar Hanapiah, Syamimi Shamsuddin, Hanafiah Yussof, Salina Mohamed, Nur Farah Farhan Jamil, Farhana Wan Yunus

Abstract:

Robot-based intervention for children with autism is an evolving research niche in human-robot interaction (HRI). Recent studies in this area mostly covered the role of robots in the clinical and experimental setting. Our previous work had shown that interaction with a robot pose no adverse effects on the children. Also, the presence of the robot, together with specific modules of interaction was associated with less autistic behavior. Extending this impact on school-going children, interactions that are in-tune with special education lessons are needed. This methodological paper focuses on how a robot can be incorporated in a current learning environment for autistic children. Six interaction scenarios had been designed based on the existing syllabus to teach communication skills, using the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) technique as the framework. Development of the robotic experience in class also covers the required set-up involving participation from teachers. The actual research conduct involving autistic children, teachers and robot shall take place in the next phase.

Keywords: ASD, Autism spectrum disorder, Humanoid Robot, Communication Skills, robot-assisted learning

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32 Quality of Life for Families with Children/Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: José Nogueira

Abstract:

This research aims to analyze the impact of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in families with children and youth (0-25 years) with ASD in Portugal. The impact will be evaluated on a multidimensional perspective, following the work on the concept of quality life from WHOQOL Group (UN). The study includes quantitative and qualitative methodology. It correlates statistical sources and other information with the data obtained through a survey of a sample of about 100 families with children/youth with ASD (October and November 2013). The results indicate a strong impact of autism on the quality of life for families in all study dimensions. The research shows a negative impact on quality of life for families in material and financial conditions, physical and emotional well-being, career progression, feelings of injustice, social participation and self-perception of happiness. The quality of life remained in the relationship with the family and the spouse, interpersonal relationships and beliefs about himself. The ASD improved the quality of life aspects such as interest, knowledge and exercise of rights on disability, autonomy to make decisions and be able to deal with stress. Other dimensions are contemplated: a detailed characterization of the child/young with ASD and all family members (household composition, relationship status, academic qualifications, occupation, income, and leisure) the impact of diagnosis in the family wellbeing, medical and therapeutic processes, school inclusion, public support, social participation, and the adequacy and implementation of legislation. The study evaluates also the strengths and weaknesses of the Portuguese public rehabilitation system and demonstrates how a good law-in-theory may not solve the problems of families in practice due to the allocation of insufficient public resources, both financial and human resources.

Keywords: autism, Quality of Life, Families, Autism spectrum disorder

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31 Safety of Implementation the Gluten - Free Diet in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: J. Jessa

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Background: Autism is a pervasive developmental disorder, the incidence of which has significantly increased in recent years. Children with autism have impairments in social skills, communication, and imagination. Children with autism has more common than healthy children feeding problems: food selectivity, problems with gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea, constipations, abdominal pain, reflux and others. Many parents of autistic children report that after implementation of gluten-, casein- and sugar free diet those symptoms disappear and even cognitive functions become better. Some children begin to understand speech and to communicate with parents, regain eye contact, become more calm, sleep better and has better concentration. Probably at the root of this phenomenon lies elimination from the diet peptides construction of which is similar to opiates. Enhanced permeability of gut causes absorption of not fully digested opioid-like peptides from food, like gluten and casein and probably others (proteins from soy and corn) which impact on brain of autistic children. Aim of the study: The aim of the study is to assess the safety of gluten-free diet in children with autism, aged 2,5-7. Methods: Participants of the study (n=70) – children aged 2,5-7 with autism are divided into 3 groups. The first group (research group) are patients whose parents want to implement a gluten-free diet. The second group are patients who have been recommended to eliminate from the diet artificial substances, such as preservatives, artificial colors and flavors, and others (control group 1). The third group (control group 2) are children whose parents did not agree for implementation of the diet. Caregivers of children on the diet are educated about the specifics of the diet and how to avoid malnutrition. At the start of the study we exclude celiac disease. Before the implementation of the diet we performe a blood test for patients (morphology, ferritin, total cholesterol, dry peripheral blood drops to detect some genetic metabolic diseases), plasma aminogram) and urine tests (excretion of ions: Mg, Na, Ca, the profile of organic acids in urine), which assess nutritional status as well as the psychological test assessing the degree of the child's psychological functioning (PEP-R). All of these tests will be repeated after one year from the implementation of the diet. Results: To the present moment we examined 42 children with autism. 12 of children are on gluten- free diet. Our preliminary results are promising. Parents of 9 of them report that, there is a big improvement in child behavior, concentration, less aggression incidents, better eye contact and better verbal skills. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that dietary intervention may positively affect developmental outcome for some children diagnosed with ASD.

Keywords: autism, Autism spectrum disorder, gluten free diet, blood test

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30 Role of Environmental Risk Factors in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Laila Al-Ayadhi, Dost Muhammad Halepoto

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Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism can cause lifelong disability. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to contribute to the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but relatively few studies have considered potential environmental risks. Several industrial chemicals and other environmental exposures are recognized causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known. This review highlights the role of environmental risk factors including drugs, toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pesticides, vaccines, and other suspected neurotoxicants including persistent organic pollutants for ASD. It also provides information about the environmental toxins to yield new insights into factors that affect autism risk as well as an opportunity to investigate the relation between autism and environmental exposure.

Keywords: ASD, Environmental Factors, Autism spectrum disorder, neurodevelopmental disorder

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29 Autistic Traits and Multisensory Integration–Using a Size-Weight Illusion Paradigm

Authors: Man Wai Lei, Charles Mark Zaroff

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Objective: A majority of studies suggest that people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have multisensory integration deficits. However, normal and even supranormal multisensory integration abilities have also been reported. Additionally, little of this work has been undertaken utilizing a dimensional conceptualization of ASD; i.e., a broader autism phenotype. Utilizing methodology that controls for common potential confounds, the current study aimed to examine if deficits in multisensory integration are associated with ASD traits in a non-clinical population. The contribution of affective versus non-affective components of sensory hypersensitivity to multisensory integration was also examined. Methods: Participants were 147 undergraduate university students in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China, of Chinese ethnicity, aged 16 to 21 (Mean age = 19.13; SD = 1.07). Participants completed the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, the Sensory Perception Quotient, and the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, in order to measure ASD traits, non-affective, and affective aspects of sensory/perceptual hypersensitivity, respectively. In order to explore multisensory integration across visual and haptic domains, participants were asked to judge which one of two equally weighted, but different sized cylinders was heavier, as a means of detecting the presence of the size-weight illusion (SWI). Results: ASD trait level was significantly and negatively correlated with susceptibility to the SWI (p < 0.05); this correlation was not associated with either accuracy in weight discrimination or gender. Examining the top decile of the non-normally distributed SWI scores revealed a significant negative association with sensation avoiding, but not other aspects of effective or non-effective sensory hypersensitivity. Conclusion and Implications: Within the normal population, a greater degree of ASD traits is associated with a lower likelihood of multisensory integration; echoing was often found in individuals with a clinical diagnosis of ASD, and providing further evidence for the dimensional nature of this disorder. This tendency appears to be associated with dysphoric emotional reactions to sensory input.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Multisensory Integration, dimensional, size-weight illusion

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28 Schema Therapy as Treatment for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Personality Disorder: A Multiple Baseline Case Series Study Testing Cognitive-Behavioral and Experiential Interventions

Authors: Richard Vuijk, Arnoud Arntz

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Rationale: To our knowledge treatment of personality disorder comorbidity in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is understudied and is still in its infancy: We do not know if treatment of personality disorders may be applicable to adults with ASD. In particular, it is unknown whether patients with ASD benefit from experiential techniques that are part of schema therapy developed for the treatment of personality disorders. Objective: The aim of the study is to investigate the efficacy of a schema mode focused treatment with adult clients with ASD and comorbid personality pathology (i.e. at least one personality disorder). Specifically, we investigate if they can benefit from both cognitive-behavioral, and experiential interventions. Study design: A multiple baseline case series study. Study population: Adult individuals (age > 21 years) with ASD and at least one personality disorder. Participants will be recruited from Sarr expertise center for autism in Rotterdam. The study requires 12 participants. Intervention: The treatment protocol consists of 35 weekly offered sessions, followed by 10 monthly booster sessions. A multiple baseline design will be used with baseline varying from 5 to 10 weeks, with weekly supportive sessions. After baseline, a 5-week exploration phase follows with weekly sessions during which current and past functioning, psychological symptoms, schema modes are explored, and information about the treatment will be given. Then 15 weekly sessions with cognitive-behavioral interventions and 15 weekly sessions with experiential interventions will be given. Finally, there will be a 10-month follow-up phase with monthly booster sessions. Participants are randomly assigned to baseline length, and respond weekly during treatment and monthly at follow-up on Belief Strength of negative core beliefs (by VAS), and fill out SMI, SCL-90 and SRS-A 7 times during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), after baseline, after exploration, after cognitive and behavioral interventions, after experiential interventions, and after 5- and 10- month follow-up. The SCID-II will be administered during screening procedure (i.e. before baseline), at 5- and at 10-month follow-up. Main study parameters: The primary study parameter is negative core beliefs. Secondary study parameters include schema modes, personality disorder manifestations, psychological symptoms, and social interaction and communication. Discussion: To the best of author’s knowledge so far no study has been published on the application of schema mode focused interventions in adult patients with ASD and comorbid PD(s). This study offers the first systematic test of application of schema therapy for adults with ASD. The results of this study will provide initial evidence for the effectiveness of schema therapy in treating adults with both ASD and PD(s). The study intends to provide valuable information for future development and implementation of therapeutic interventions for adults with both ASD and PD(s).

Keywords: Personality Disorder, Autism spectrum disorder, adults, schema therapy

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27 Nine Foundational Interventions for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Authors: Jennie Long, Marjorie Bock

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Although the professional literature related to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has focused on successful interventions and strategies, there is a lack of documentation regarding which of these methods and supports are most foundational and essential for classroom use. Specifically, literature does not define the core foundational interventions and strategies that would be elemental for educators to use with students with an ASD diagnosis. From the increase in prevalence of autism spectrum disorders, to the challenge students with ASD pose in classrooms, to the requirement to implement evidence-based practice, rises an enormous challenge in the field of education. Foundational interventions should be in place the first day the student enters the classroom. The nine interventions are foundational in nature and because of the dramatic increase in prevalence there is currently a need for classroom programs to provide the foundation of basic educational skills as well as the specialty skills specific to the area of ASD utilizing the most current research. This article presents nine evidence-based intervention categories for implementation with students on the spectrum.

Keywords: classroom, Autism spectrum disorder, evidence-based, foundational

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26 A Multiple Perspectives Approach on the Well-Being of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Joanne Danker, Iva Strnadová, Therese Cumming

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As a consequence of the increased evidence of the bi-directional relationship between student well-being and positive educational outcomes, there has been a surge in the number of research studies dedicated to understanding the notion of student well-being and the ways to enhance it. In spite of these efforts, the concept of student well-being remains elusive. Additionally, studies on student well-being mainly consulted adults' perspectives and failed to take into account students' views, which if considered, could contribute to a clearer understanding of the complex concept of student well-being. Furthermore, there is a lack of studies focusing on the well-being of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and these students continue to fare worse in post-school outcomes as compared to students without disabilities, indicating a significant gap in the current research literature. Findings from research conducted on students without disabilities may not be applicable to students with ASD as their educational experiences may differ due to the characteristics associated with ASD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore how students with ASD, their parents, and teachers conceptualise student well-being. It also aims to identify the barriers and assets of the well-being of these students. To collect data, 19 teachers and 11 parents participated in interviews while 16 high school students with ASD were involved in a photovoice project regarding their well-being in school. Grounded theory approaches such as open and axial coding, memo-writing, diagramming, and making constant comparisons were adopted to analyse the data. All three groups of participants conceptualised student well-being as a multidimensional construct consisting of several domains. These domains were relationships, engagement, positive/negative emotions, and accomplishment. Three categories of barriers were identified. These were environmental, attitudes and behaviours of others, and impact of characteristics associated with ASD. The identified internal assets that could contribute to student well-being were acceptance, resilience, self-regulation, and ability to work with others. External assets were knowledgeable and inclusive school community, and having access to various school programs and resources. It is crucial that schools and policymakers provide ample resources and programs to adequately support the development of each identified domain of student well-being. This could in turn enhance student well-being and lead to more successful educational outcomes for students with ASD.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, grounded theory approach, school experiences, student well-being

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25 Challenging the Theory of Mind: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Social Construction, and Biochemical Explanation

Authors: Caroline Kim

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The designation autism spectrum disorder (ASD) groups complex disorders in the development of the brain. Autism is defined essentially as a condition in which an individual lacks a theory of mind. The theory of mind, in this sense, explains the ability of an individual to attribute feelings, emotions, or thoughts to another person. An autistic patient is characteristically unable to determine what an interlocutor is feeling, or to understand the beliefs of others. However, it is possible that autism cannot plausibly characterized as the lack of theory of mind in an individual. Genes, the bran, and its interplay with environmental factors may also cause autism. A mutation in a gene may be hereditary, or instigated by diseases such as mumps. Though an autistic patient may experience abnormalities in the cerebellum and the cortical regions, these are in fact only possible theories as to a biochemical explanation behind the disability. The prevailing theory identifying autism with lacking the theory of mind is supported by behavioral observation, but this form of observation is itself determined by socially constructed standards, limiting the possibility for empirical verification. The theory of mind infers that the beliefs and emotions of people are causally based on their behavior. This paper demonstrates the fallacy of this inference, critiquing its basis in socially constructed values, and arguing instead for a biochemical approach free from the conceptual apparatus of language and social expectation.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Social Construction, sociology of psychology, the theory of mind

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24 Assessing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Challenges in Young Children in Dubai: A Qualitative Study, 2016

Authors: Kadhim Alabady

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Background: Autism poses a particularly large public health challenge and an inspiring lifelong challenge for many families; it is a lifelong challenge of a different kind. Purpose: Therefore, it is important to understand what the key challenges are and how to improve the lives of children who are affected with autism in Dubai. Method: In order to carry out this research we have used a qualitative methodology. We performed structured in–depth interviews and focus groups with mental health professionals working at: Al Jalila hospital (AJH), Dubai Autism Centre (DAC), Dubai Rehabilitation Centre for Disabilities, Latifa hospital, Private Sector Healthcare (PSH). In addition to that, we conducted quantitative approach to estimate ASD prevalence or incidence data due to lack of registry. ASD estimates are based on research from national and international documents. This approach was applied to increase the validity of the findings by using a variety of data collection techniques in order to explore issues that might not be highlighted through one method alone. Key findings: Autism is the most common of the Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Dubai Autism Center estimates it affects 1 in 146 births (0.68%). If we apply these estimates to the total number of births in Dubai for 2014, it is predicted there would be approximately 199 children (of which 58 were Nationals and 141 were Non–Nationals) suffering from autism at some stage. 16.4% of children (through their families) seek help for ASD assessment between the age group 6–18+. It is critical to understand and address factors for seeking late–stage diagnosis, as ASD can be diagnosed much earlier and how many of these later presenters are actually diagnosed with ASD. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a public health concern in Dubai. Families do not consult GPs for early diagnosis for a variety of reasons including cultural reasons. Recommendations: Effective school health strategies is needed and implemented by nurses who are qualified and experienced in identifying children with ASD. There is a need for the DAC to identify and develop a closer link with neurologists specializing in Autism, to work alongside and for referrals. Autism can be attributed to many factors, some of those are neurological. Currently, when families need their child to see a neurologist they have to go independently and search through the many that are available in Dubai and who are not necessarily specialists in Autism. Training of GP’s to aid early diagnosis of Autism and increase awareness. Since not all GP’s are trained to make such assessments increasing awareness about where to send families for a complete assessment and the necessary support. There is an urgent need for an adult autism center for when the children leave the safe environment of the school at 18 years. These individuals require a day center or suitable job training/placements where appropriate. There is a need for further studies to cover the needs of people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).

Keywords: autism, Pervasive developmental disorders, Autism spectrum disorder, incidence

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23 A Qualitative Study of the Effect of Sibling and Parental Relationships on Coping Mechanisms in Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Smriti Gour, Neelam Pandey

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The objective of this study was to describe and analyse the mutual relationship between the coping mechanisms used by the families of a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and family dynamics and the effect sibling interactions have on the dynamics and coping mechanisms in an urban setup. In-depth interviews were conducted for 25 families, with 4 members each in the Delhi NCR area in India. The families who were interviewed had a younger child who had received a diagnosis of ASD between the ages of 5-12. The in-depth questionnaires contained open-ended questions and the interviews were conducted separately for the mother, father and the typically developing sibling. The key findings of the study suggested that lack of communication was a common factor in most families (n=19) leading to other difficulties like stress and relationship dysfunction. It also fostered a fallacious perception of the relationship dynamics in the family in most of the interviewed families and changed depending on the family member being interviewed. In families where the typically developing elder sibling had a good relationship with the autistic child, the family dynamics were found to be more stable, and the overall family well-being was better maintained. The coping mechanisms employed by the families were also more positive and tended to work better if the typically developing sibling maintained a positive and interactive relationship with the parents and the autistic child. The type of coping mechanisms had a major impact on the relationship between the parents and in dictating the dynamics of the family of the child with ASD. Spirituality, professional help, family support and household help emerged to be the most effective coping mechanisms for the families, with spirituality emerging to be the most positive and effective coping mechanism in the families interviewed.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, Family Dynamics, Siblings, coping mechanism, parental relationships

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22 An Evaluation of Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland: The Role of the Special Needs Assistant

Authors: Claire P. Griffin

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The education provision for students with special educational needs, including students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), has undergone significant national and international changes in recent years. In particular, an increase in resource-based provision has occurred across educational settings in an effort to support inclusive practices. This paper seeks to explore the role of the Special Needs Assistant (SNA) in supporting children with ASD in Irish schools. This research stems from the second national evaluation of ‘Education Provision for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Ireland’ (NCSE, 2016). This research was commissioned by the National Council for Special Education (NCSE) in Ireland and conducted by a team of researchers from Mary Immaculate College, Limerick from February to July 2014. This study involved a multiple case study research strategy across 24 educational sites, as selected through a stratified sampling process. Research strategies included semi-structured interviews, classroom observations, documentary review and child conversations. Data analysis was conducted electronically using Nvivo software, with use of an additional quantitative recording mechanism based on scaled weighting criteria for collected data. Based on such information, key findings from the NCSE national evaluation will be presented and critically reviewed, with particular reference to the role of the SNA in supporting pupils with ASD. Examples of positive practice inherent within the SNA role will be outlined and contrasted with discrete areas for development. Based on such findings, recommendations for the evolving role of the SNA will be presented, with the aim of informing both policy and best practice within the field.

Keywords: Inclusive Education, Autism spectrum disorder, paraprofessional, special needs assistant

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21 Effects of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Education of Autistic Students

Authors: Joanna Estkowska

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Sensory integration methods are very useful and improve daily functioning autistic and mentally disabled children. Autism is a neurobiological disorder that impairs one's ability to communicate with and relate to others as well as their sensory system. Children with autism, even highly functioning kids, can find it difficult to process language with surrounding noise or smells. They are hypersensitive to things we can ignore such as sight, sounds and touch. Adolescents with highly functioning autism or Asperger Syndrome can study Science and Math but the social aspect is difficult for them. Nature science is an area of study that attracts many of these kids. It is a systematic field in which the children can focus on a small aspect. If you follow these rules you can come up with an expected result. Sensory integration program and systematic classroom observation are quantitative methods of measuring classroom functioning and behaviors from direct observations. These methods specify both the events and behaviors that are to be observed and how they are to be recorded. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in the classroom of nature science in the school and in the laboratory of University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz. The aim of this study is investigation the effects of sensory integration methods in teaching to students with autism. They were observed during experimental lessons in the classroom and in the laboratory. Their physical characteristics, sensory dysfunction, and behavior in class were taken into consideration by comparing their similarities and differences. In the chemistry classroom, every autistic student is paired with a mentor from their school. In the laboratory, the children are expected to wear goggles, gloves and a lab coat. The chemistry classes in the laboratory were held for four hours with a lunch break, and according to the assistants, the children were engaged the whole time. In classroom of nature science, the students are encouraged to use the interactive exhibition of chemical, physical and mathematical models constructed by the author of this paper. Our students with and without autism attended the lessons in those laboratories. The teacher's goals are: to assist the child in inhibiting and modulating sensory information and support the child in processing a response to sensory stimulation.

Keywords: Science Education, Autism spectrum disorder, sensory integration techniques, student with special educational needs

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20 Neuro-Connectivity Analysis Using Abide Data in Autism Study

Authors: Dulal Bhaumik, Fei Jie, Runa Bhaumik, Bikas Sinha

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Human brain is an amazingly complex network. Aberrant activities in this network can lead to various neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and autism. fMRI has emerged as an important tool to delineate the neural networks affected by such diseases, particularly autism. In this paper, we propose mixed-effects models together with an appropriate procedure for controlling false discoveries to detect disrupted connectivities in whole brain studies. Results are illustrated with a large data set known as Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange or ABIDE which includes 361 subjects from 8 medical centers. We believe that our findings have addressed adequately the small sample inference problem, and thus are more reliable for therapeutic target for intervention. In addition, our result can be used for early detection of subjects who are at high risk of developing neurological disorders.

Keywords: fmri, Autism spectrum disorder, ABIDE, mixed-effects model

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19 A Robotic “Puppet Master” Application to ASD Therapeutic Support

Authors: Sophie Sakka, Rénald Gaboriau

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This paper describes a preliminary work aimed at setting a therapeutic support for autistic teenagers using three humanoid robots NAO shared by ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) subjects. The studied population had attended successfully a first year program, and were observed with a second year program using the robots. This paper focuses on the content and the effects of the second year program. The approach is based on a master puppet concept: the subjects program the robots, and use them as an extension for communication. Twenty sessions were organized, alternating ten preparatory sessions and ten robotics programming sessions. During the preparatory sessions, the subjects write a story to be played by the robots. During the robot programming sessions, the subjects program the motions to be realized to make the robot tell the story. The program was concluded by a public performance. The experiment involves five ASD teenagers aged 12-15, who had all attended the first year robotics training. As a result, a progress in voluntary and organized communication skills of the five subjects was observed, leading to improvements in social organization, focus, voluntary communication, programming, reading and writing abilities. The changes observed in the subjects general behavior took place in a short time, and could be observed from one robotics session to the next one. The approach allowed the subjects to draw the limits of their body with respect to the environment, and therefore helped them confronting the world with less anxiety.

Keywords: Robot, Autism spectrum disorder, therapeutic support, rob'autism

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18 A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Eileen K. Africa, Karel J. van Deventer

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Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.

Keywords: Children, Autism spectrum disorder, gross motor skills, group intervention programme

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17 An Affordability Evaluation of Computer-Based Social-Emotional Skills Interventions for School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Ezra N. S. Lockhart

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The number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased approximately 173% during the last decade making ASD the fastest growing developmental disability in the United States. This rise in prevalence rates indeed has an effect on schools. ASD is overwhelmingly the most reported primary special education eligibility category for students accessing special education, at a national average of 61.3%. ASD is regarded as an urgent public health concern at an estimated annual per capita cost of $3.2 million. Furthermore, considering that ASD is a lifelong disorder estimated lifetime per capita cost reach $35 billion. The resources available to special education programs are insufficient to meet the educational needs of the 6.4 million students receiving special educational services. This is especially true given that there has been and continues to be a chronic shortage of fully certified special education teachers for decades. Reports indicate that 81.1% of students with special needs spend 40% or more in general education classrooms. Regardless of whether support is implemented in the special education or general education classroom the resource demand is obvious. Schools are actively seeking to implement low-cost alternatives and budget saving measures in response to this demand. In public school settings, programs such as Applied Behavior Analysis are challenging to implement and fund at $40,000 per student per year. As an alternative, computer-based interventions are inexpensive, less time-consuming to implement, and require minimal teacher or paraprofessional training to administer. Affordability, pricing schemes, availability, and compatibility of computer-based interventions that support social and emotional skill development in individuals with ASD are discussed.

Keywords: Social Skills, Autism spectrum disorder, affordability, computer-based intervention, emotional skills

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16 Financial Burden of Family for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. R. Bhuiyan, S. M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Islam

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing serious developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communicative difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. ASD is an emerging public health issue globally which is associated with huge financial burden to the family, community and the nation. The aim of this study was to assess the financial burden of family for the children with Autism spectrum Disorder. This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2015 to June 2016 among 154 children with ASD to assess the financial burden of family. Data were collected by face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire following systematic random sampling technique. Majority (73.4%) children were male and mean (±SD) age was 6.66 ± 2.97 years. Most (88.8%) of the children were from urban areas with average monthly family income Tk. 41785.71±23936.45. Average monthly direct cost of the children was Tk.17656.49 ± 9984.35, while indirect cost was Tk. 13462.90 ± 9713.54 and total treatment cost was Tk. 23076.62 ± 15341.09. Special education cost (Tk. 4871.00), cost of therapy (Tk. 4124.07) and travel cost (Tk. 3988.31) were the major types of direct cost, while loss of income (Tk.14570.18) was the chief indirect cost incurred by the families. The study found that majority (59.8%) of the children attended special schools were incurred Tk.20001-78700 as total treatment cost, which were statistically significant (p<0.001). Again, families with higher monthly family income incurred higher treatment cost (r=0.526, p<0.05). Difference between mean direct and indirect cost was found significant (t=4.190, df=61, p<0.001). According to the analysis of variance, mean difference of father’s educational status among direct cost (F=10.337, p<0.001) and total treatment cost (F=7.841, p<0.001), which were statistically significant. The study revealed that maximum children with ASD were under five years, three-fourth were male. According to monthly family income, maximum family were in middle class. The study recommends cost effective interventions and financial safety-net measures to reduce the financial burden of families for the children with ASD.

Keywords: Special Education, Autism spectrum disorder, direct cost, indirect cost, financial burden

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15 Cognitive Deficits and Association with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

Authors: Sinead Morrison, Ann Swillen, Therese Van Amelsvoort, Samuel Chawner, Elfi Vergaelen, Michael Owen, Marianne Van Den Bree

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22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS) is caused by the deletion of approximately 60 genes on chromosome 22 and is associated with high rates of neurodevelopmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The presentation of these disorders in 22q11.2DS is reported to be comparable to idiopathic forms and therefore presents a valuable model for understanding mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders. Cognitive deficits are thought to be a core feature of neurodevelopmental disorders, and possibly manifest in behavioural and emotional problems. There have been mixed findings in 22q11.2DS on whether the presence of ADHD or ASD is associated with greater cognitive deficits. Furthermore, the influence of developmental stage has never been taken into account. The aim was therefore to examine whether the presence of ADHD or ASD was associated with cognitive deficits in childhood and/or adolescence in 22q11.2DS. We conducted the largest study to date of this kind in 22q11.2DS. The same battery of tasks measuring processing speed, attention and spatial working memory were completed by 135 participants with 22q11.2DS. Wechsler IQ tests were completed, yielding Full Scale (FSIQ), Verbal (VIQ) and Performance IQ (PIQ). Age-standardised difference scores were produced for each participant. Developmental stages were defined as children (6-10 years) and adolescents (10-18 years). ADHD diagnosis was ascertained from a semi-structured interview with a parent. ASD status was ascertained from a questionnaire completed by a parent. Interaction and main effects of cognitive performance of those with or without a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD in childhood or adolescence were conducted with 2x2 ANOVA. Significant interactions were followed up with t-tests of simple effects. Adolescents with ASD displayed greater deficits in all measures (processing speed, p = 0.022; sustained attention, p = 0.016; working memory, p = 0.006) than adolescents without ASD; there was no difference between children with and without ASD. There were no significant differences on IQ measures. Both children and adolescents with ADHD displayed greater deficits on sustained attention (p = 0.002) than those without ADHD. There were no significant differences on any other measures for ADHD. Magnitude of cognitive deficit in individuals with 22q11.2DS varied by cognitive domain, developmental stage and presence of neurodevelopmental disorder. Adolescents with 22q11.2DS and ASD showed greater deficits on all measures, which suggests there may be a sensitive period in childhood to acquire these domains, or reflect increasing social and academic demands in adolescence. The finding of poorer sustained attention in children and adolescents with ADHD supports previous research and suggests a specific deficit which can be separated from processing speed and working memory. This research provides unique insights into the association of ASD and ADHD with cognitive deficits in a group at high genomic risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Keywords: Cognitive development, Autism spectrum disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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14 Ecological Systems Theory, the SCERTS Model, and the Autism Spectrum, Node and Nexus

Authors: C. Surmei

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex developmental disorder that can affect an individual’s (but is not limited to) cognitive development, emotional development, language acquisition and the capability to relate to others. Ecological Systems Theory is a sociocultural theory that focuses on environmental systems with which an individual interacts. The SCERTS Model is an educational approach and multidisciplinary framework that addresses the challenges confronted by individuals on the autism spectrum and other developmental disabilities. To aid the understanding of ASD and educational philosophies for families, educators, and the global community alike, a Comparative Analysis was undertaken to examine key variables (the child, society, education, nurture/care, relationships, communication). The results indicated that the Ecological Systems Theory and the SCERTS Model were comparable in focus, motivation, and application, attaining to a viable and notable relationship between both theories. This paper unpacks two child development philosophies and their relationship to each other.

Keywords: Education, ecological systems theory, Autism spectrum disorder, SCERTS model

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13 The Application of Sensory Integration Techniques in Science Teaching Students with Autism

Authors: Joanna Estkowska

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The Sensory Integration Method is aimed primarily at children with learning disabilities. It can also be used as a complementary method in treatment of children with cerebral palsy, autistic, mentally handicapped, blind and deaf. Autism is holistic development disorder that manifests itself in the specific functioning of a child. The most characteristic are: disorders in communication, difficulties in social relations, rigid patterns of behavior and impairment in sensory processing. In addition to these disorders may occur abnormal intellectual development, attention deficit disorders, perceptual disorders and others. This study was focused on the application sensory integration techniques in science education of autistic students. The lack of proper sensory integration causes problems with complicated processes such as motor coordination, movement planning, visual or auditory perception, speech, writing, reading or counting. Good functioning and cooperation of proprioceptive, tactile and vestibular sense affect the child’s mastery of skills that require coordination of both sides of the body and synchronization of the cerebral hemispheres. These include, for example, all sports activities, precise manual skills such writing, as well as, reading and counting skills. All this takes place in stages. Achieving skills from the first stage determines the development of fitness from the next level. Any deficit in the scope of the first three stages can affect the development of new skills. This ultimately reflects on the achievements at school and in further professional and personal life. After careful analysis symptoms from the emotional and social spheres appear to be secondary to deficits of sensory integration. During our research, the students gained knowledge and skills in the classroom of experience by learning biology, chemistry and physics with application sensory integration techniques. Sensory integration therapy aims to teach the child an adequate response to stimuli coming to him from both the outside world and the body. Thanks to properly selected exercises, a child can improve perception and interpretation skills, motor skills, coordination of movements, attention and concentration or self-awareness, as well as social and emotional functioning.

Keywords: Science Education, Special Educational Needs, Sensory Integration, Autism spectrum disorder

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12 A Longitudinal Study of Social Engagement in Classroom in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Cecile Garry, Katia Rovira, Julie Brisson

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Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by a qualitative and quantitative impairment of social interaction. Indeed early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), aimed at encouraging the development of social skills. In classroom, the children need to be socially engaged to learn. Early intervention programs can thus be implemented in kindergarten schools. In these schools, ASD children have more opportunities to interact with their peers or adults than in elementary schools. However, the preschool children with ASD are less socially engaged than their typically developing peers in the classroom. They initiate, respond and maintain less the social interactions. In addition, they produce more responses than initiations. When they interact, the non verbal communication is more used than verbal or symbolic communication forms and they are more engaged with adults than with peers. Nevertheless, communicative patterns may vary according to the clinical profiles of ASD children. Indeed, the ASD children with better cognitive skills interact more with their peers and use more symbolic communication than the ASD children with a low cognitive level. ASD children with the less severe symptoms use more the verbal communication than ASD children with the more severe symptoms. Small groups and structured activities encourage coordinated joint engagement episodes in ASD children. Our goal is to evaluate ASD children’s social engagement development in class, with their peers or adults, during dyadic or group activities. Participants were 19 preschool children with ASD aged from 3 to 6 years old that benefited of an early intervention in special kindergarten schools. Severity of ASD symptoms was measured with the CARS at the beginning of the follow-up. Classroom situations of interaction were recorded during 10 minutes (5 minutes of dyadic interaction and 5 minutes of a group activity), every 2 months, during 10 months. Social engagement behaviors of children, including initiations, responses and imitation, directed to a peer or an adult, were then coded. The Observer software (Noldus) that allows to annotate behaviors was the coding system used. A double coding was conducted and revealed a good inter judges fidelity. Results show that ASD children were more often and longer socially engaged in dyadic than in groups situations. They were also more engaged with adults than with peers. Children with the less severe symptoms of ASD were more socially engaged in groups situations than children with the more severe symptoms of ASD. Then, ASD children with the less severe symptoms of ASD were more engaged with their peers than ASD children with the more severe symptoms of ASD. However, the engagement frequency increased during the 10 month of follow-up but only for ASD children with the more severe symptoms at the beginning. To conclude, these results highlighted the necessity of individualizing early intervention programs according to the clinical profile of the child.

Keywords: Developmental Psychology, Autism spectrum disorder, Social Interactions, preschool children, early interventions

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11 Development and Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Contextual Assessment of Social Skills: A Blinded Observational Outcome Measure of Social Skills for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Sakinah Idris, Femke Ten Hoeve, Kirstin Greaves-Lord

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Background: Social skills interventions are considered to be efficacious if social skills are improved as a result of an intervention. Nevertheless, the objective assessment of social skills is hindered by a lack of sensitive and validated measures. To measure the change in social skills after an intervention, questionnaires reported by parents, clinicians and/or teachers are commonly used. Observations are the most ecologically valid method of assessing improvements in social skills after an intervention. For this purpose, The Program for the Educational and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS) was developed for adolescents, in order to teach them the age-appropriate skills needed to participate in society. It is an evidence-based intervention for adolescents with ASD that taught ecologically valid social skills techniques. Objectives: The current study aims to describe the development and psychometric evaluation of the Dutch Contextual Assessment of Social Skills (CASS), an observational outcome measure of social skills for adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Methods: 64 adolescents (M = 14.68, SD = 1.41, 71% boys) with ASD performed the CASS before and after a social skills intervention (i.e. PEERS or the active control condition). Each adolescent completed a 3-minute conversation with a confederate. The conversation was prompt as a natural introduction between two-unfamiliar, similar ages, opposite-sex peers who meet for the first time. The adolescent and the confederate completed a brief questionnaire about the conversation (Conversation Rating Scale). Results: Results indicated sufficient psychometric properties. The Dutch CASS has a high level of internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficients = 0.84). Data supported the convergent validity (i.e., significant correlated with the Social Skills Improvement System (SSiS). The Dutch CASS did not significantly correlate with the autistic mannerism subscale from Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), thus proved the divergent validity. Based on scorings made by raters who were kept blind to the time points, reliable change index was computed to assess the change in social skills. With regard to the content validity, only the learning objectives of the first two meetings of PEERS about conversational skills relatively matched with rating domains of the CASS. Due to this underrepresentation, we found an existing observational measure (TOPICC) that covers some of the other learning objectives of PEERS. TOPICC covers 22% of the learning objectives of PEERS about conversational skills, meanwhile, CASS is 45%. Unfortunately, 33% of the learning objectives of PEERS was not covered by CASS or TOPICC. Conclusion: Recommendations are made to improve the psychometric properties and content validity of the Dutch CASS.

Keywords: Observational, Social Skills, Autism spectrum disorder, peers

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10 A Digital Environment for Developing Mathematical Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. Isabel Santos, Ana Breda, Ana Margarida Almeida

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Research on academic abilities of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) underlines the importance of mathematics interventions. Yet the proposal of digital applications for children and youth with ASD continues to attract little attention, namely, regarding the development of mathematical reasoning, being the use of the digital technologies an area of great interest for individuals with this disorder and its use is certainly a facilitative strategy in the development of their mathematical abilities. The use of digital technologies can be an effective way to create innovative learning opportunities to these students and to develop creative, personalized and constructive environments, where they can develop differentiated abilities. The children with ASD often respond well to learning activities involving information presented visually. In this context, we present the digital Learning Environment on Mathematics for Autistic children (LEMA) that was a research project conducive to a PhD in Multimedia in Education and was developed by the Thematic Line Geometrix, located in the Department of Mathematics, in a collaboration effort with DigiMedia Research Center, of the Department of Communication and Art (University of Aveiro, Portugal). LEMA is a digital mathematical learning environment which activities are dynamically adapted to the user’s profile, towards the development of mathematical abilities of children aged 6–12 years diagnosed with ASD. LEMA has already been evaluated with end-users (both students and teacher’s experts) and based on the analysis of the collected data readjustments were made, enabling the continuous improvement of the prototype, namely considering the integration of universal design for learning (UDL) approaches, which are of most importance in ASD, due to its heterogeneity. The learning strategies incorporated in LEMA are: (i) provide options to custom choice of math activities, according to user’s profile; (ii) integrates simple interfaces with few elements, presenting only the features and content needed for the ongoing task; (iii) uses a simple visual and textual language; (iv) uses of different types of feedbacks (auditory, visual, positive/negative reinforcement, hints with helpful instructions including math concept definitions, solved math activities using split and easier tasks and, finally, the use of videos/animations that show a solution to the proposed activity); (v) provides information in multiple representation, such as text, video, audio and image for better content and vocabulary understanding in order to stimulate, motivate and engage users to mathematical learning, also helping users to focus on content; (vi) avoids using elements that distract or interfere with focus and attention; (vii) provides clear instructions and orientation about tasks to ease the user understanding of the content and the content language, in order to stimulate, motivate and engage the user; and (viii) uses buttons, familiarly icons and contrast between font and background. Since these children may experience little sensory tolerance and may have an impaired motor skill, besides the user to have the possibility to interact with LEMA through the mouse (point and click with a single button), the user has the possibility to interact with LEMA through Kinect device (using simple gesture moves).

Keywords: Inclusion, Digital technologies, Autism spectrum disorder, mathematical abilities, mathematical learning activities

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9 Effectiveness of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention Program on Infants with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Dongjoo Chin

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of an Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention (EIBI) program on infants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore the factors predicting the effectiveness of the program, focusing on the infant's age, language ability, problem behaviors, and parental stress. 19 pairs of infants aged between 2 and 5 years who have had been diagnosed with ASD, and their parents participated in an EIBI program at a clinic providing evidence-based treatment based on applied behavior analysis. The measurement tools which were administered before and after the EIBI program and compared, included PEP-R, a curriculum evaluation, K-SIB-R, K-Vineland-II, K-CBCL, and PedsQL for the infants, and included PSI-SF and BDI-II for the parents. Statistical analysis was performed using a sample t-test and multiple regression analysis and the results were as follows. The EIBI program showed significant improvements in overall developmental age, curriculum assessment, and quality of life for infants. There was no difference in parenting stress or depression. Furthermore, measures for both children and parents at the start of the program predicted neither PEP-R nor the degree of improvement in curriculum evaluation measured six months later at the end of the program. Based on these results, the authors suggest future directions for developing an effective intensive early intervention (EIBI) program for infants with ASD in Korea, and discuss the implications and limitations of this study.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, parental stress, applied behavior analysis, early intensive behavioral intervention

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8 Android Based Game Intervention for Enhancing the Face Reputation Abilities in Youngsters with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Anurag Sharma, Mamta Khosla, Arun Khosla, Yogeswara Rao M.

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Multimedia devices have received repute in the special desires community. The wide display screen makes it appealing and easy to use, specifically for the ones who've susceptible pleasant motor skill. This paper highlights how an Android-based game named as 'KIDDY' can be used to enhance confront face perceiving capacities in adults with autism and aid the children to develop social interaction capabilities. This game improved concentration and imagination via repetitive movement and visual commentary. Four students with autism, diverse in the historic period, social behavior and communiqué ability had been enrolled in the program and provided an opportunity to recognize new faces thrilling way. This paper offers resultant role based on 'Social Skills Rating System' that shows how cellular generation used as an academician intervention to decorate studying and communiqué among children with autism and additionally proven the tremendous behavior toward cell primarily based game.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, screen-based technology, mobile phone-based intercession

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7 Challenges Faced by Teachers during Teaching with Developmental Disable Students at Primary Level in Lahore

Authors: Muhammad Waqas, Zikra Faiz, Nisar Abid

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This study aim to examine the challenges faced by teachers during teaching to those students who are intellectually disable, suffering from autism spectrum disorder, learning disability, and ADHD at the primary level. The descriptive research design of quantitative approach was adopted to conduct this study; a cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data. The sample was comprised of 258 (43 male and 215 female) teachers who teach at special education institutes of Lahore district selected through proportionate stratified random sampling technique. Self-developed questionnaire was used which was comprised of 22 closed-ended items. Collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistical techniques by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results show that teachers faced problems during group activities, to handle bad behavior and different disabilities of students. It is concluded that there was a significant difference between male and female teachers perceptions about challenges faced during teaching with developmental disable students. Furthermore, there was a significant difference exist in the perceptions of teachers regarding challenges faced during teaching to students with developmental disabilities in term of teachers’ age and area of specialization. It is recommended that developmentally disable student require extra attention so that, teacher should trained through pre-service and in-service training to teach developmentally disabled students.

Keywords: ADHD, Intellectual Disability, Autism spectrum disorder, Learning disability

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