Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Authentication Related Abstracts

38 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: K. Saravanan, S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh

Abstract:

This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: Authentication, QR code, QR reader, registration, idenfication

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37 A New Protocol Ensuring Users' Privacy in Pervasive Environment

Authors: Mohammed Nadir Djedid, Abdallah Chouarfia

Abstract:

Transparency of the system and its integration into the natural environment of the user are some of the important features of pervasive computing. But these characteristics that are considered as the strongest points of pervasive systems are also their weak points in terms of the user’s privacy. The privacy in pervasive systems involves more than the confidentiality of communications and concealing the identity of virtual users. The physical presence and behavior of the user in the pervasive space cannot be completely hidden and can reveal the secret of his/her identity and affect his/her privacy. This paper shows that the application of major techniques for protecting the user’s privacy still insufficient. A new solution named Shadow Protocol is proposed, which allows the users to authenticate and interact with the surrounding devices within an ubiquitous computing environment while preserving their privacy.

Keywords: Privacy, Identification, Authentication, Pervasive Systems

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36 A Weighted Approach to Unconstrained Iris Recognition

Authors: Yao-Hong Tsai

Abstract:

This paper presents a weighted approach to unconstrained iris recognition. Nowadays, commercial systems are usually characterized by strong acquisition constraints based on the subject’s cooperation. However, it is not always achievable for real scenarios in our daily life. Researchers have been focused on reducing these constraints and maintaining the performance of the system by new techniques at the same time. With large variation in the environment, there are two main improvements to develop the proposed iris recognition system. For solving extremely uneven lighting condition, statistic based illumination normalization is first used on eye region to increase the accuracy of iris feature. The detection of the iris image is based on Adaboost algorithm. Secondly, the weighted approach is designed by Gaussian functions according to the distance to the center of the iris. Furthermore, local binary pattern (LBP) histogram is then applied to texture classification with the weight. Experiment showed that the proposed system provided users a more flexible and feasible way to interact with the verification system through iris recognition.

Keywords: Authentication, iris recognition, adaboost, local binary pattern

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35 Challenge Response-Based Authentication for a Mobile Voting System

Authors: Tohari Ahmad, Hudan Studiawan, Iwang Aryadinata, Royyana M. Ijtihadie, Waskitho Wibisono

Abstract:

A manual voting system has been implemented worldwide. It has some weaknesses which may decrease the legitimacy of the voting result. An electronic voting system is introduced to minimize this weakness. It has been able to provide a better result, in terms of the total time taken in the voting process and accuracy. Nevertheless, people may be reluctant to go to the polling location because of some reasons, such as distance and time. In order to solve this problem, mobile voting is implemented by utilizing mobile devices. There are many mobile voting architectures available. Overall, authenticity of the users is the common problem of all voting systems. There must be a mechanism which can verify the users’ authenticity such that only verified users can give their vote once; others cannot vote. In this paper, a challenge response-based authentication is proposed by utilizing properties of the users, for example, something they have and know. In terms of speed, the proposed system provides good result, in addition to other capabilities offered by the system.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, Data protection, mobile voting

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34 Cryptography Based Authentication Methods

Authors: Mohammad A. Alia, Abdelfatah Aref Tamimi, Omaima N. A. Al-Allaf

Abstract:

This paper reviews a comparison study on the most common used authentication methods. Some of these methods are actually based on cryptography. In this study, we show the main cryptographic services. Also, this study presents a specific discussion about authentication service, since the authentication service is classified into several categorizes according to their methods. However, this study gives more about the real life example for each of the authentication methods. It talks about the simplest authentication methods as well about the available biometric authentication methods such as voice, iris, fingerprint, and face authentication.

Keywords: Cryptography, information security, Network Security, Authentication, system access control

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33 Efficient Position Based Operation Code Authentication

Authors: Hashim Ali, Sheheryar Khan

Abstract:

Security for applications is always been a keen issue of concern. In general, security is to allow access of grant to legal user or to deny non-authorized access to the system. Shoulder surfing is an observation technique to hack an account or to enter into a system. When a malicious observer is capturing or recording the fingers of a user while he is entering sensitive inputs (PIN, Passwords etc.) and may be able to observe user’s password credential. It is very rigorous for a novice user to prevent himself from shoulder surfing or unaided observer in a public place while accessing his account. In order to secure the user account, there are five factors of authentication; they are: “(i) something you have, (ii) something you are, (iii) something you know, (iv) somebody you know, (v) something you process”. A technique has been developed of fifth-factor authentication “something you process” to provide novel approach to the user. In this paper, we have applied position based operational code authentication in such a way to more easy and user friendly to the user.

Keywords: Authentication, shoulder surfing, malicious observer, sensitive inputs

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
32 Multi Criteria Authentication Method in Cognitive Radio Networks

Authors: Shokoufeh Monjezi Kouchak

Abstract:

Cognitive radio network (CRN) is future network .Without this network wireless devices can’t work appropriately in the next decades. Today, wireless devices use static spectrum access methods and these methods don’t use spectrums optimum so we need use dynamic spectrum access methods to solve shortage spectrum challenge and CR is a great device for DSA but first of all its challenges should be solved .security is one of these challenges .In this paper we provided a survey about CR security. You can see this survey in tables 1 to 7 .After that we proposed a multi criteria authentication method in CRN. Our criteria in this method are: sensing results, following sending data rules, position of secondary users and no talk zone. Finally we compared our method with other authentication methods.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, cognitive radio, radio networks

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31 MSG Image Encryption Based on AES and RSA Algorithms "MSG Image Security"

Authors: Lahdir Mourad, Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues meteorological images from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), which generates 12 images every 15 minutes. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every 15 minutes that will be used to encrypt each frame of the MSG meteorological basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: Authentication, Encryption, correlation, Integrity, Confidentiality, RSA, AES, satellite MSG, decryption, key

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30 Study on the OTP Authentication Method and Security for User Mobility in the Cloud

Authors: Jong-won Lee

Abstract:

Since Cloud environment has appeared as the most powerful keyword in the computing industry, the growth in VDI (Virtual Desktop Infrastructure) became remarkable in domestic market. In recent years, with the trend that mobile devices such as smartphones and pads spread so rapidly, the strengths of VDI that allows people to access and perform business on the move along with companies' office needs expedite more rapid spread of VDI. However, although this enhanced accessibility and mobility can bring the enhanced productivity, it sometimes conflicts with the security, so there should be more detailed security solution, which is user authentication. In this paper, mobile OTP (One-Time Password) authentication method is proposed to secure mobile device portability through rapid and secure authentication using mobile devices such as mobile phones or pads, which does not require additional purchase or possession of OTP tokens of users. However, in order to use the service continuously and reliably in the cloud environment, both service provider and user have to prepare for security awareness and security threats, and continuously study the conflicting aspect between the improving user convenience and the security and supplement so that cloud service can provide opportunities to develop as a new growth industry in the future and create a new market in IT industry.

Keywords: Mobility, Security, Cloud, Authentication, OTP

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
29 Secure Transfer of Medical Images Using Hybrid Encryption

Authors: Boukhatem Mohamed Belkaid, Lahdi Mourad

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues medical images. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every new session of encryption, that will be used to encrypt each frame of the medical image basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: Authentication, Encryption, correlation, Integrity, Confidentiality, Medical Images, RSA, AES, decryption, key

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
28 Secure Transfer of Medical Images Using Hybrid Encryption Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity

Authors: Lahdir Mourad, Boukhatem Mohammed Belkaid

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a new encryption system for security issues medical images. The hybrid encryption scheme is based on AES and RSA algorithms to validate the three security services are authentication, integrity, and confidentiality. Privacy is ensured by AES, authenticity is ensured by the RSA algorithm. Integrity is assured by the basic function of the correlation between adjacent pixels. Our system generates a unique password every new session of encryption, that will be used to encrypt each frame of the medical image basis to strengthen and ensure his safety. Several metrics have been used for various tests of our analysis. For the integrity test, we noticed the efficiencies of our system and how the imprint cryptographic changes at reception if a change affects the image in the transmission channel.

Keywords: Authentication, Encryption, correlation, Integrity, Confidentiality, Medical Images, RSA, AES, decryption, key

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
27 Frequency of Occurrence Hybrid Watermarking Scheme

Authors: Hamza A. Ali, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali

Abstract:

Generally, a watermark is information that identifies the ownership of multimedia (text, image, audio or video files). It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications are done according to a secret key in a descriptive model that would be either in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, Information Hiding, Steganography, ownership, copyright protection

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26 Modeling Binomial Dependent Distribution of the Values: Synthesis Tables of Probabilities of Errors of the First and Second Kind of Biometrics-Neural Network Authentication System

Authors: S. T. Akhmetova, B. S.Akhmetov, D. N. Nadeyev, V. Yu. Yegorov, V. V. Smogoonov

Abstract:

Estimated probabilities of errors of the first and second kind for nonideal biometrics-neural transducers 256 outputs, the construction of nomograms based error probability of 'own' and 'alien' from the mathematical expectation and standard deviation of the normalized measures Hamming.

Keywords: Modeling, Probability, Biometrics, Neural Network, Authentication, Errors

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25 A Hybrid Watermarking Model Based on Frequency of Occurrence

Authors: Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Hamza A. A. Al-Sewadi, Samaa A. K. Khamis

Abstract:

Ownership proofs of multimedia such as text, image, audio or video files can be achieved by the burial of watermark is them. It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications would be in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: Authentication, Watermarking, Information Hiding, ownership, copyright protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
24 Uniqueness of Fingerprint Biometrics to Human Dynasty: A Review

Authors: Siddharatha Sharma

Abstract:

With the advent of technology and machines, the role of biometrics in society is taking an important place for secured living. Security issues are the major concern in today’s world and continue to grow in intensity and complexity. Biometrics based recognition, which involves precise measurement of the characteristics of living beings, is not a new method. Fingerprints are being used for several years by law enforcement and forensic agencies to identify the culprits and apprehend them. Biometrics is based on four basic principles i.e. (i) uniqueness, (ii) accuracy, (iii) permanency and (iv) peculiarity. In today’s world fingerprints are the most popular and unique biometrics method claiming a social benefit in the government sponsored programs. A remarkable example of the same is UIDAI (Unique Identification Authority of India) in India. In case of fingerprint biometrics the matching accuracy is very high. It has been observed empirically that even the identical twins also do not have similar prints. With the passage of time there has been an immense progress in the techniques of sensing computational speed, operating environment and the storage capabilities and it has become more user convenient. Only a small fraction of the population may be unsuitable for automatic identification because of genetic factors, aging, environmental or occupational reasons for example workers who have cuts and bruises on their hands which keep fingerprints changing. Fingerprints are limited to human beings only because of the presence of volar skin with corrugated ridges which are unique to this species. Fingerprint biometrics has proved to be a high level authentication system for identification of the human beings. Though it has limitations, for example it may be inefficient and ineffective if ridges of finger(s) or palm are moist authentication becomes difficult. This paper would focus on uniqueness of fingerprints to the human beings in comparison to other living beings and review the advancement in emerging technologies and their limitations.

Keywords: Biometrics, Authentication, Fingerprinting, human beings

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23 A Method of Detecting the Difference in Two States of Brain Using Statistical Analysis of EEG Raw Data

Authors: Digvijaysingh S. Bana, Kiran R. Trivedi

Abstract:

This paper introduces various methods for the alpha wave to detect the difference between two states of brain. One healthy subject participated in the experiment. EEG was measured on the forehead above the eye (FP1 Position) with reference and ground electrode are on the ear clip. The data samples are obtained in the form of EEG raw data. The time duration of reading is of one minute. Various test are being performed on the alpha band EEG raw data.The readings are performed in different time duration of the entire day. The statistical analysis is being carried out on the EEG sample data in the form of various tests.

Keywords: Biometrics, Authentication, electroencephalogram(EEG), EEG raw data

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22 Authentication and Traceability of Meat Products from South Indian Market by Species-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction

Authors: J. U. Santhosh Kumar, V. Krishna, Sebin Sebastian, G. S. Seethapathy, G. Ravikanth, R. Uma Shaanker

Abstract:

Food is one of the basic needs of human beings. It requires the normal function of the body part and a healthy growth. Recently, food adulteration increases day by day to increase the quantity and make more benefit. Animal source foods can provide a variety of micronutrients that are difficult to obtain in adequate quantities from plant source foods alone. Particularly in the meat industry, products from animals are susceptible targets for fraudulent labeling due to the economic profit that results from selling cheaper meat as meat from more profitable and desirable species. This work presents an overview of the main PCR-based techniques applied to date to verify the authenticity of beef meat and meat products from beef species. We were analyzed 25 market beef samples in South India. We examined PCR methods based on the sequence of the cytochrome b gene for source species identification. We found all sample were sold as beef meat as Bos Taurus. However, interestingly Male meats are more valuable high price compare to female meat, due to this reason most of the markets samples are susceptible. We were used sex determination gene of cattle like TSPY(Y-encoded, testis-specific protein TSPY is a Y-specific gene). TSPY homologs exist in several mammalian species, including humans, horses, and cattle. This gene is Y coded testis protein genes, which only amplify the male. We used multiple PCR products form species-specific “fingerprints” on gel electrophoresis, which may be useful for meat authentication. Amplicons were obtained only by the Cattle -specific PCR. We found 13 market meat samples sold as female beef samples. These results suggest that the species-specific PCR methods established in this study would be useful for simple and easy detection of adulteration of meat products.

Keywords: Authentication, Meat Products, species-specific, TSPY

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21 Automatic Checkpoint System Using Face and Card Information

Authors: Kriddikorn Kaewwongsri, Nikom Suvonvorn

Abstract:

In the deep south of Thailand, checkpoints for people verification are necessary for the security management of risk zones, such as official buildings in the conflict area. In this paper, we propose an automatic checkpoint system that verifies persons using information from ID cards and facial features. The methods for a person’s information abstraction and verification are introduced based on useful information such as ID number and name, extracted from official cards, and facial images from videos. The proposed system shows promising results and has a real impact on the local society.

Keywords: Authentication, face comparison, card recognition, OCR, checkpoint system

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20 Authenticity of Lipid and Soluble Sugar Profiles of Various Oat Cultivars (Avena sativa)

Authors: Marijana M. Ačanski, Kristian A. Pastor, Djura N. Vujić

Abstract:

The identification of lipid and soluble sugar components in flour samples of different cultivars belonging to common oat species (Avena sativa L.) was performed: spring oat, winter oat and hulless oat. Fatty acids were extracted from flour samples with n-hexane, and derivatized into volatile methyl esters, using TMSH (trimethylsulfonium hydroxide in methanol). Soluble sugars were then extracted from defatted and dried samples of oat flour with 96% ethanol, and further derivatized into corresponding TMS-oximes, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride solution and BSTFA (N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoroacetamide). The hexane and ethanol extracts of each oat cultivar were analyzed using GC-MS system. Lipid and simple sugar compositions are very similar in all samples of investigated cultivars. Chemometric tool was applied to numeric values of automatically integrated surface areas of detected lipid and simple sugar components in their corresponding derivatized forms. Hierarchical cluster analysis shows a very high similarity between the investigated flour samples of oat cultivars, according to the fatty acid content (0.9955). Moderate similarity was observed according to the content of soluble sugars (0.50). These preliminary results support the idea of establishing methods for oat flour authentication, and provide the means for distinguishing oat flour samples, regardless of the variety, from flour samples made of other cereal species, just by lipid and simple sugar profile analysis.

Keywords: Authentication, Chemometrics, GC-MS, oat cultivars, lipid composition, soluble sugar composition

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19 A Survey on Smart Security Mechanism Using Graphical Passwords

Authors: Aboli Dhanavade, Shweta Bhimnath, Rutuja Jumale, Ajay Nadargi

Abstract:

Security to any of our personal thing is our most basic need. It is not possible to directly apply that standard Human-computer—interaction approaches. Important usability goal for authentication system is to support users in selecting best passwords. Users often select text-passwords that are easy to remember, but they are more open for attackers to guess. The human brain is good in remembering pictures rather than textual characters. So the best alternative is being designed that is Graphical passwords. However, Graphical passwords are still immature. Conventional password schemes are also vulnerable to Shoulder-surfing attacks, many shoulder-surfing resistant graphical passwords schemes have been proposed. Next, we have analyzed the security and usability of the proposed scheme, and show the resistance of the proposed scheme to shoulder-surfing and different accidental logins.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, shoulder-surfing, text-passwords

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18 Fast Authentication Using User Path Prediction in Wireless Broadband Networks

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy, Sathya Pavithra, Swaminathan Venkatraman

Abstract:

Wireless Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) utilizes the IEEE 802.1X mechanism for authentication. However, this mechanism incurs considerable delay during handoffs. This delay during handoffs results in service disruption which becomes a severe bottleneck. To overcome this delay, our article proposes a key caching mechanism based on user path prediction. If the user mobility follows that path, the user bypasses the normal IEEE 802.1X mechanism and establishes the necessary authentication keys directly. Through analytical and simulation modeling, we have proved that our mechanism effectively decreases the handoff delay thereby achieving fast authentication.

Keywords: Mobile, Authentication, Authorization, handoff, and accounting (AAA), user path prediction (UPP) and user pattern

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17 The Internet of Things: A Survey of Authentication Mechanisms, and Protocols, for the Shifting Paradigm of Communicating, Entities

Authors: Nazli Hardy

Abstract:

Multidisciplinary application of computer science, interactive database-driven web application, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a digital ecosystem that has pervasive technological, social, and economic, impact on the human population. It is a long-term technology, and its development is built around the connection of everyday objects, to the Internet. It is estimated that by 2020, with billions of people connected to the Internet, the number of connected devices will exceed 50 billion, and thus IoT represents a paradigm shift in in our current interconnected ecosystem, a communication shift that will unavoidably affect people, businesses, consumers, clients, employees. By nature, in order to provide a cohesive and integrated service, connected devices need to collect, aggregate, store, mine, process personal and personalized data on individuals and corporations in a variety of contexts and environments. A significant factor in this paradigm shift is the necessity for secure and appropriate transmission, processing and storage of the data. Thus, while benefits of the applications appear to be boundless, these same opportunities are bounded by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This poster and presentation look at a multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms that need to change from the login-password tuple to an Identity and Access Management (IAM) model, to the more cohesive to Identity Relationship Management (IRM) standard. It also compares and contrasts messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: Authentication, Protocols, Internet of Things (IoT), Survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
16 Use of Personal Rhythm to Authenticate Encrypted Messages

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

When communicating using private and secure keys, there is always the doubt as to the identity of the message creator. We introduce an algorithm that uses the personal typing rhythm (keystroke dynamics) of the message originator to increase the trust of the authenticity of the message originator by the message recipient. The methodology proposes the use of a Rhythm Certificate Authority (RCA) to validate rhythm information. An illustrative example of the communication between Bob and Alice and the RCA is included. An algorithm of how to communicate with the RCA is presented. This RCA can be an independent authority or an enhanced Certificate Authority like the one used in public key infrastructure (PKI).

Keywords: Authentication, Public-Key Encryption, Digital Signature, keystroke dynamics, personal rhythm

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15 Usability and Biometric Authentication of Electronic Voting System

Authors: Masood Ahmad, Nighat Ayub

Abstract:

In this paper, a new voting system is developed and its usability is evaluated. The main feature of this system is the biometric verification of the voter and then a few easy steps to cast a vote. As compared to existing systems available, e.g dual vote, the new system requires no training in advance. The security is achieved via multiple key concept (another part of this project). More than 100 student voters were participated in the election from University of Malakanad, Chakdara, PK. To achieve the reliability, the voters cast their votes in two ways, i.e. paper based and electronic based voting using our new system. The results of paper based and electronic voting system are compared and it is concluded that the voters cast their votes for the intended candidates on the electronic voting system. The voters were requested to fill a questionnaire and the results of the questionnaire are carefully analyzed. The results show that the new system proposed in this paper is more secure and usable than other systems.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, E-Voting, Usability

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
14 A Method and System for Secure Authentication Using One Time QR Code

Authors: Divyans Mahansaria

Abstract:

User authentication is an important security measure for protecting confidential data and systems. However, the vulnerability while authenticating into a system has significantly increased. Thus, necessary mechanisms must be deployed during the process of authenticating a user to safeguard him/her from the vulnerable attacks. The proposed solution implements a novel authentication mechanism to counter various forms of security breach attacks including phishing, Trojan horse, replay, key logging, Asterisk logging, shoulder surfing, brute force search and others. QR code (Quick Response Code) is a type of matrix barcode or two-dimensional barcode that can be used for storing URLs, text, images and other information. In the proposed solution, during each new authentication request, a QR code is dynamically generated and presented to the user. A piece of generic information is mapped to plurality of elements and stored within the QR code. The mapping of generic information with plurality of elements, randomizes in each new login, and thus the QR code generated for each new authentication request is for one-time use only. In order to authenticate into the system, the user needs to decode the QR code using any QR code decoding software. The QR code decoding software needs to be installed on handheld mobile devices such as smartphones, personal digital assistant (PDA), etc. On decoding the QR code, the user will be presented a mapping between the generic piece of information and plurality of elements using which the user needs to derive cipher secret information corresponding to his/her actual password. Now, in place of the actual password, the user will use this cipher secret information to authenticate into the system. The authentication terminal will receive the cipher secret information and use a validation engine that will decipher the cipher secret information. If the entered secret information is correct, the user will be provided access to the system. Usability study has been carried out on the proposed solution, and the new authentication mechanism was found to be easy to learn and adapt. Mathematical analysis of the time taken to carry out brute force attack on the proposed solution has been carried out. The result of mathematical analysis showed that the solution is almost completely resistant to brute force attack. Today’s standard methods for authentication are subject to a wide variety of software, hardware, and human attacks. The proposed scheme can be very useful in controlling the various types of authentication related attacks especially in a networked computer environment where the use of username and password for authentication is common.

Keywords: Authentication, QR code, cipher / decipher text, one time password, secret information

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13 Mutual Authentication for Sensor-to-Sensor Communications in IoT Infrastructure

Authors: Hossein Gharaee Garakani, Naser Mohammadzadeh, Shadi Janbabaei

Abstract:

Internet of things is a new concept that its emergence has caused ubiquity of sensors in human life, so that at any time, all data are collected, processed and transmitted by these sensors. In order to establish a secure connection, the first challenge is authentication between sensors. However, this challenge also requires some features so that the authentication is done properly. Anonymity, untraceability, and being lightweight are among the issues that need to be considered. In this paper, we have evaluated the authentication protocols and have analyzed the security vulnerabilities found in them. Then an improved light weight authentication protocol for sensor-to-sensor communications is presented which uses the hash function and logical operators. The analysis of protocol shows that security requirements have been met and the protocol is resistant against various attacks. In the end, by decreasing the number of computational cost functions, it is argued that the protocol is lighter than before.

Keywords: Internet of Things, Authentication, Anonymity, lightweight, un-traceability

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12 Lightweight and Seamless Distributed Scheme for the Smart Home

Authors: Muhammad Mehran Arshad Khan, Chengliang Wang, Zou Minhui, Danyal Badar Soomro

Abstract:

Security of the smart home in terms of behavior activity pattern recognition is a totally dissimilar and unique issue as compared to the security issues of other scenarios. Sensor devices (low capacity and high capacity) interact and negotiate each other by detecting the daily behavior activity of individuals to execute common tasks. Once a device (e.g., surveillance camera, smart phone and light detection sensor etc.) is compromised, an adversary can then get access to a specific device and can damage daily behavior activity by altering the data and commands. In this scenario, a group of common instruction processes may get involved to generate deadlock. Therefore, an effective suitable security solution is required for smart home architecture. This paper proposes seamless distributed Scheme which fortifies low computational wireless devices for secure communication. Proposed scheme is based on lightweight key-session process to upheld cryptic-link for trajectory by recognizing of individual’s behavior activities pattern. Every device and service provider unit (low capacity sensors (LCS) and high capacity sensors (HCS)) uses an authentication token and originates a secure trajectory connection in network. Analysis of experiments is revealed that proposed scheme strengthens the devices against device seizure attack by recognizing daily behavior activities, minimum utilization memory space of LCS and avoids network from deadlock. Additionally, the results of a comparison with other schemes indicate that scheme manages efficiency in term of computation and communication.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, Wireless Sensors, key-session

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11 The Application of Raman Spectroscopy in Olive Oil Analysis

Authors: Silvia Portarena, Chiara Anselmi, Chiara Baldacchini, Enrico Brugnoli

Abstract:

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is a complex matrix mainly composed by fatty acid and other minor compounds, among which carotenoids are well known for their antioxidative function that is a key mechanism of protection against cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and macular degeneration in humans. EVOO composition in terms of such constituents is generally the result of a complex combination of genetic, agronomical and environmental factors. To selectively improve the quality of EVOOs, the role of each factor on its biochemical composition need to be investigated. By selecting fruits from four different cultivars similarly grown and harvested, it was demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy, combined with chemometric analysis, is able to discriminate the different cultivars, also as a function of the harvest date, based on the relative content and composition of fatty acid and carotenoids. In particular, a correct classification up to 94.4% of samples, according to the cultivar and the maturation stage, was obtained. Moreover, by using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography as reference techniques, the Raman spectral features further allowed to build models, based on partial least squares regression, that were able to predict the relative amount of the main fatty acids and the main carotenoids in EVOO, with high coefficients of determination. Besides genetic factors, climatic parameters, such as light exposition, distance from the sea, temperature, and amount of precipitations could have a strong influence on EVOO composition of both major and minor compounds. This suggests that the Raman spectra could act as a specific fingerprint for the geographical discrimination and authentication of EVOO. To understand the influence of environment on EVOO Raman spectra, samples from seven regions along the Italian coasts were selected and analyzed. In particular, it was used a dual approach combining Raman spectroscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) with principal component and linear discriminant analysis. A correct classification of 82% EVOO based on their regional geographical origin was obtained. Raman spectra were obtained by Super Labram spectrometer equipped with an Argon laser (514.5 nm wavelenght). Analyses of stable isotope content ratio were performed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer connected to an elemental analyzer and to a pyrolysis system. These studies demonstrate that RR spectroscopy is a valuable and useful technique for the analysis of EVOO. In combination with statistical analysis, it makes possible the assessment of specific samples’ content and allows for classifying oils according to their geographical and varietal origin.

Keywords: Authentication, Chemometrics, Raman spectroscopy, olive oil

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10 Security Issues in Long Term Evolution-Based Vehicle-To-Everything Communication Networks

Authors: Mujahid Muhammad, Paul Kearney, Adel Aneiba

Abstract:

The ability for vehicles to communicate with other vehicles (V2V), the physical (V2I) and network (V2N) infrastructures, pedestrians (V2P), etc. – collectively known as V2X (Vehicle to Everything) – will enable a broad and growing set of applications and services within the intelligent transport domain for improving road safety, alleviate traffic congestion and support autonomous driving. The telecommunication research and industry communities and standardization bodies (notably 3GPP) has finally approved in Release 14, cellular communications connectivity to support V2X communication (known as LTE – V2X). LTE – V2X system will combine simultaneous connectivity across existing LTE network infrastructures via LTE-Uu interface and direct device-to-device (D2D) communications. In order for V2X services to function effectively, a robust security mechanism is needed to ensure legal and safe interaction among authenticated V2X entities in the LTE-based V2X architecture. The characteristics of vehicular networks, and the nature of most V2X applications, which involve human safety makes it significant to protect V2X messages from attacks that can result in catastrophically wrong decisions/actions include ones affecting road safety. Attack vectors include impersonation attacks, modification, masquerading, replay, MiM attacks, and Sybil attacks. In this paper, we focus our attention on LTE-based V2X security and access control mechanisms. The current LTE-A security framework provides its own access authentication scheme, the AKA protocol for mutual authentication and other essential cryptographic operations between UEs and the network. V2N systems can leverage this protocol to achieve mutual authentication between vehicles and the mobile core network. However, this protocol experiences technical challenges, such as high signaling overhead, lack of synchronization, handover delay and potential control plane signaling overloads, as well as privacy preservation issues, which cannot satisfy the adequate security requirements for majority of LTE-based V2X services. This paper examines these challenges and points to possible ways by which they can be addressed. One possible solution, is the implementation of the distributed peer-to-peer LTE security mechanism based on the Bitcoin/Namecoin framework, to allow for security operations with minimal overhead cost, which is desirable for V2X services. The proposed architecture can ensure fast, secure and robust V2X services under LTE network while meeting V2X security requirements.

Keywords: Security, Authentication, long term evolution, vehicle-to-everything

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9 Infrared Spectroscopy Fingerprinting of Herbal Products- Application of the Hypericum perforatum L. Supplements

Authors: Elena Iacob, Marie-Louise Ionescu, Elena Ionescu, Carmen Elena Tebrencu, Oana Teodora Ciuperca

Abstract:

Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an advanced technique frequently used to authenticate both raw materials and final products using their specific fingerprints and to determine plant extracts biomarkers based on their functional groups. In recent years the market for Hypericum has grown rapidly and also has grown the cases of adultery/replacement, especially for Hypericum perforatum L.specie. Presence/absence of same biomarkers provides preliminary identification of Hypericum species in safe use in the manufacture of food supplements. The main objective of the work was to characterize the main biomarkers of Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) and identify this species in herbal food supplements after specific FT-IR fingerprint. An experimental program has been designed in order to test: (1) raw material (St. John's wort); (2)intermediate raw materials (St. John's wort dry extract ); (3) the finished products: tablets based on powders, on extracts, on powder and extract, hydroalcoholic solution from herbal mixture based on St. John's wort. The analyze using FTIR infrared spectroscopy were obtained raw materials, intermediates and finished products spectra, respectively absorption bands corresponding and similar with aliphatic and aromatic structures; examination was done individually and through comparison between Hypericum perforatum L. plant species and finished product The tests were done in correlation with phytochemical markers for authenticating the specie Hypericum perforatum L.: hyperoside, rutin, quercetin, isoquercetin, luteolin, apigenin, hypericin, hyperforin, chlorogenic acid. Samples were analyzed using a Shimatzu FTIR spectrometer and the infrared spectrum of each sample was recorded in the MIR region, from 4000 to 1000 cm-1 and then the fingerprint region was selected for data analysis. The following functional groups were identified -stretching vibrations suggests existing groups in the compounds of interest (flavones–rutin, hyperoside, polyphenolcarboxilic acids - chlorogenic acid, naphtodianthrones- hypericin): oxidril groups (OH) free alcohol type: rutin, hyperoside, chlorogenic acid; C = O bond from structures with free carbonyl groups of aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic, ester: hypericin; C = O structure with the free carbonyl of the aldehyde groups, ketone, carboxylic acid, esteric/C = O free bonds present in chlorogenic acid; C = C bonds of the aromatic ring (condensed aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds) present in all compounds of interest; OH phenolic groups: present in all compounds of interest, C-O-C groups from glycoside structures: rutin, hyperoside, chlorogenic acid. The experimental results show that: (I)The six fingerprint region analysis indicated the presence of specific functional groups: (1) 1000 - 1130 cm-1 (C-O–C of glycoside structures); (2) 1200-1380 cm-1 (carbonyl C-O or O-H phenolic); (3) 1400-1450 cm-1 (C=C aromatic); (4) 1600- 1730 cm-1 (C=O carbonyl); (5) 2850 - 2930 cm-1 (–CH3, -CH2-, =CH-); (6) 338-3920 cm-1 (OH free alcohol type); (II)Comparative FT-IR spectral analysis indicate the authenticity of the finished products ( tablets) in terms of Hypericum perforatum L. content; (III)The infrared spectroscopy is an adequate technique for identification and authentication of the medicinal herbs , intermediate raw material and in the food supplements less in the form of solutions where the results are not conclusive.

Keywords: Authentication, Herbal Supplements, FT-IR fingerprint, Hypericum perforatum L

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