Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Australia Related Abstracts

29 Working Capital Management Practices in Small Businesses in Victoria

Authors: Ranjith Ihalanayake, Lalith Seelanatha, John Breen

Abstract:

In this study, we explored the current working capital management practices as applied in small businesses in Victoria, filling an existing theoretical and empirical gap in literature in general and in Australia in particular. Amidst the current global competitive and dynamic environment, the short term insolvency of small businesses is very critical for the long run survival. A firm’s short-term insolvency is dependent on the availability of sufficient working capital for feeding day to day operational activities. Therefore, given the reliance for short-term funding by small businesses, it has been recognized that the efficient management of working capital is crucial in respect of the prosperity and survival of such firms. Against this background, this research was an attempt to understand the current working capital management strategies and practices used by the small scale businesses. To this end, we conducted an internet survey among 220 small businesses operating in Victoria, Australia. The survey results suggest that the majority of respondents are owner-manager (73%) and male (68%). Respondents participated in this survey mostly have a degree (46%). About a half of respondents are more than 50 years old. Most of respondents (64%) have business management experience more than ten years. Similarly, majority of them (63%) had experience in the area of their current business. Types of business of the respondents are: Private limited company (41%), sole proprietorship (37%), and partnership (15%). In addition, majority of the firms are service companies (63%), followed by retailed companies (25%), and manufacturing (17%). Size of companies of this survey varies, 32% of them have annual sales $100,000 or under, while 22% of them have revenue more than $1,000,000 every year. In regards to the total assets, majority of respondents (43%) have total assets $100,000 or less while 20% of respondents have total assets more than $1,000,000. In regards to WCMPs, results indicate that almost 70% of respondents mentioned that they are responsible for managing their business working capital. The survey shows that majority of respondents (65.5%) use their business experience to identify the level of investment in working capital, compared to 22% of respondents who seek advice from professionals. The other 10% of respondents, however, follow industry practice to identify the level of working capital. The survey also shows that more than a half of respondents maintain good liquidity financial position for their business by having accounts payable less than accounts receivable. This study finds that majority of small business companies in western area of Victoria have a WCM policy but only about 8 % of them have a formal policy. Majority of the businesses (52.7%) have an informal policy while 39.5% have no policy. Of those who have a policy, 44% described their working capital management policies as a compromise policy while 35% described their policy as a conservative policy. Only 6% of respondents apply aggressive policy. Overall the results indicate that the small businesses pay less attention into the management of working capital of their business despite its significance in the successful operation of the business. This approach may be adopted during favourable economic times. However, during relatively turbulent economic conditions, such an approach could lead to greater financial difficulties i.e. short-term financial insolvency.

Keywords: Small Business, Australia, Working Capital Management, sufficient, financial insolvency

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28 On the Differentiation of Strategic Spatial Planning Mechanisms in New Era: Between Melbourne and Tianjin

Authors: Zhao Liu, Kang Cao

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Strategic spatial planning, which is taken as an effective and competitive way for the governors of the city to improve the development and management level of a city, has been blooming in recent years all over the world. In the context of globalization and informatization, strategic spatial planning must transfer its focus on three different levels: global, regional and urban. Internal and external changes in environmental conditions lead to new advances in strategic planning both theoretically and practically. However, such advances or changes respond differently to cities on account of different dynamic mechanisms. This article aims at two cities of Tianjin in China and Melbourne in Australia, through a comparative study on strategic planning, to explore the differentiation of mechanisms in urban planning. By comparison and exploration, the purpose of this article is to exhibit two different planning worlds, western and Chinese, in a new way. The article can be divided into four parts. The first part outlines strategic planning transformations in the new era on three levels, generally analysing the internal and external environmental factors of today. The second part indicates the concepts of strategic planning theoretically, demonstrating briefly its development background and process in western and China, respectively. The third part takes Tianjin and Melbourne urban strategic spatial planning as examples to mainly carry on the contrast research from the aspects of strategic planning mode, competitive mechanism, contents, strategy implementation and management. It is expected to summarize the differences and similarities of the two plans, meanwhile, to explore the inherent factors or mechanisms probably spatial, material, political and etc., which affect cities in the course of urban planning. The final part is a summary of general mechanisms of planning from the perspective of strategic spatial planning.

Keywords: Strategic Planning, Australia, China, Differentiation, Melbourne, Tianjin

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27 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

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We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Australia, Financial Performance, board of directors, credit unions, asset quality

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26 A Qualitative Examination of Childfreedom and Childlessness: The Life Experiences of Non-Parents in Australia

Authors: B. Harman, E. Gringart, C. Harms

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There is evidence that increasing numbers of adults of child-bearing age in Australia do not have children. While there has been research into the life experiences of non-parents, one of the issues is that the differences between people who choose not to have children – the childfree – and people who cannot have children – the childless – are not clearly defined. The qualitative research reported here adopted an interpretative phenomenological approach to examine the life experiences of non-parents. Potential participants from Australia were invited to complete an online survey describing their experiences of life without children. An examination of the data from 229 participants (188 female, 41 male) revealed that they defined their non-parent status as either childfree or childless. There are, however, five sub-categories of child freedom identified by the participants, whereas previous research has not recognized such distinctions. The variance in the definition of child freedom is important because it may be related to the life journey as a non-parent. The current paper will firstly discuss the different groups of childfree and childless people. Secondly, it will examine the life experiences and journeys of non-parents in light of how the participants defined themselves. From a social psychological perspective, the current research is important as it highlights the socially held stereotypes and the stigma experienced by non-parents in Australia.

Keywords: Social Psychology, Qualitative, Australia, childfree, childless, non-parents

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25 Culture and Health Equity: Unpacking the Sociocultural Determinants of Eye Health for Indigenous Australian Diabetics

Authors: Aryati Yashadhana, Ted Fields Jnr., Wendy Fernando, Kelvin Brown, Godfrey Blitner, Francis Hayes, Ruby Stanley, Brian Donnelly, Bridgette Jerrard, Anthea Burnett, Anthony B. Zwi

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Indigenous Australians experience some of the worst health outcomes globally, with life expectancy being significantly poorer than those of non-Indigenous Australians. This is largely attributed to preventable diseases such as diabetes (prevalence 39% in Indigenous Australian adults > 55 years), which is attributed to a raised risk of diabetic visual impairment and cataract among Indigenous adults. Our study aims to explore the interface between structural and sociocultural determinants and human agency, in order to understand how they impact (1) accessibility of eye health and chronic disease services and (2) the potential for Indigenous patients to achieve positive clinical eye health outcomes. We used Participatory Action Research methods, and aimed to privilege the voices of Indigenous people through community collaboration. Semi-structured interviews (n=82) and patient focus groups (n=8) were conducted by Indigenous Community-Based Researchers (CBRs) with diabetic Indigenous adults (> 40 years) in four remote communities in Australia. Interviews (n=25) and focus groups (n=4) with primary health care clinicians in each community were also conducted. Data were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed thematically using grounded theory, comparative analysis and Nvivo 10. Preliminary analysis occurred in tandem with data collection to determine theoretical saturation. The principal investigator (AY) led analysis sessions with CBRs, fostering cultural and contextual appropriateness to interpreting responses, knowledge exchange and capacity building. Identified themes were conceptualised into three spheres of influence: structural (health services, government), sociocultural (Indigenous cultural values, distrust of the health system, ongoing effects of colonialism and dispossession) and individual (health beliefs/perceptions, patient phenomenology). Permeating these spheres of influence were three core determinants: economic disadvantage, health literacy/education, and cultural marginalisation. These core determinants affected accessibility of services, and the potential for patients to achieve positive clinical outcomes at every level of care (primary, secondary, tertiary). Our findings highlight the clinical realities of institutionalised and structural inequities, illustrated through the lived experiences of Indigenous patients and primary care clinicians in the four sampled communities. The complex determinants surrounding inequity in health for Indigenous Australians, are entrenched through a longstanding experience of cultural discrimination and ostracism. Secure and long term funding of Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services will be valuable, but are insufficient to address issues of inequity. Rather, working collaboratively with communities to build trust, and identify needs and solutions at the grassroots level, while leveraging community voices to drive change at the systemic/policy level are recommended.

Keywords: Sociology, Anthropology, Diabetes, Culture, Public Health, Primary Care, Indigenous, Health Equity, Australia, Social determinants of health, eye health, aboriginal and Torres strait islander

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24 Working Together: The Nature of Collaborative Legal and Social Services and Their Influence on Practice

Authors: Jennifer Donovan

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Practice collaborations between legal assistance and social support services have emerged as a growing framework worldwide for delivering services to clients with high degrees of disadvantage, vulnerability and complexity. In Australia, the past five years has seen a significant growth in these socio-legal collaborations, with programs being delivered through legal, social service and health organizations and addressing a range of issues including mental health, immigration, parental child abduction and domestic violence. This presentation is based on research currently mapping the nature of these collaborations in Australia and exploring the influence that collaborating professions are having on each other’s practice. In a similar way to problem-solving courts being seen as a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in the court setting, socio-legal collaborations have the potential to be a systematic take up of therapeutic jurisprudence in an advice setting. This presentation will explore the varied ways in which socio-legal collaboration is being implemented in these programs. It will also explore the development of interdisciplinary therapeutic jurisprudence within them, with preliminary findings suggesting that both legal and social service practice is being influenced by the collaborative setting, with legal practice showing a more therapeutic orientation and social service professions, such as social work, moving toward a legal and rights orientation.

Keywords: Collaboration, Australia, therapeutic jurisprudence, socio-legal

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23 Chinese on the Move: Residential Mobility and Evolution of People's Republic of China-Born Migrants in Australia

Authors: Siqin Wang, Jonathan Corcoran, Yan Liu, Thomas Sigler

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Australia is a quintessentially immigrant nation with 28 percent of its residents being foreign-born. By 2011, People’s Republic of China (PRC) overtook the United Kingdom to become the largest source country in Australia. Significantly, the profile of PRC-born migrants has changed to mirror broader global shifts towards high-skilled labour, education-related, and investment-focussed migration, all of which reflect an increasing trend in the mobility of wealthy and/or educated cohorts. Together, these coalesce to form a more complex pattern of migrant settlement –both spatially and socio-economically. This paper focuses on the PRC-born migration, redresses these lacunae, with regard to the settlement outcomes of PRC migrants to Australia, with a particular focus on spatial evolution and residential mobility at both the metropolitan and national scales. By drawing on Census Data and migration Micro Datasets, the aim of this paper is to examine the shifting dynamics of PRC-born migrants in Australian capital cities to unveil their socioeconomic characteristics, residential patterns and change of spatial concentrations during their transition into the new host society. This paper finds out three general patterns in the residential evolution of PRC-born migrants depending on the size of capital cities where they settle down, as well as the association of socio-economic characters with the formation of enclaves. It also examines the residential mobility across states and cities from 2001 to 2011 indicating the rising status of median-size Australian capital cities for receiving PRC-born migrants. The paper concludes with a discussion of evidences for policy formation, facilitates the effective transition of PRC-born populations into the mainstream of host society and enhances social harmony to help Australia become a more successful multicultural nation.

Keywords: Australia, Chinese migrants, residential mobility, spatial evolution

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22 The Role of Interest Groups in Foreign Policy: Assessing the Influence of the 'Pro-Jakarta Lobby' in Australia and Indonesia's Bilateral Relations

Authors: Bec Strating

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This paper examines the ways that domestic politics and pressure–generated through lobbying, public diplomacy campaigns and other tools of soft power-contributes to the formation of short-term and long-term national interests, priorities and strategies of states in their international relations. It primarily addresses the conceptual problems regarding the kinds of influence that lobby groups wield in foreign policy and how this influence might be assessed. Scholarly attention has been paid to influential foreign policy lobbies and interest groups, particularly in the areas of US foreign policy. Less attention has been paid to how lobby groups might influence the foreign policy of a middle power such as Australia. This paper examines some of the methodological complexities in developing and conducting a research project that can measure the nature and influence of lobbies on foreign affairs priorities and activities. This paper will use Australian foreign policy in the context of its historical bilateral relationship with Indonesia as a case study for considering the broader issues of domestic influences on foreign policy. Specifically, this paper will use the so-called ‘pro-Jakarta lobby’ as an example of an interest group. The term ‘pro-Jakarta lobby’ is used in media commentary and scholarship to describe an amorphous collection of individuals who have sought to influence Australian foreign policy in favour of Indonesia. The term was originally applied to a group of Indonesian experts at the Australian National University in the 1980s but expanded to include journalists, think tanks and key diplomats. The concept of the ‘pro-Jakarta lobby’ was developed largely through criticisms of Australia’s support for Indonesia’s sovereignty of East Timor and West Papua. Pro-Independence supporters were integral for creating the ‘lobby’ in their rhetoric and criticisms about the influence on Australian foreign policy. In these critical narratives, the ‘pro-Jakarta lobby’ supported a realist approach to relations with Indonesia during the years of President Suharto’s regime, which saw appeasement of Indonesia as paramount to values of democracy and human rights. The lobby was viewed as integral in embedding a form of ‘foreign policy exceptionalism’ towards Indonesia in Australian policy-making circles. However, little critical and scholarly attention has been paid to nature, aims, strategies and activities of the ‘pro-Jakarta lobby.' This paper engages with methodological issues of foreign policy analysis: what was the ‘pro-Jakarta lobby’? Why was it considered more successful than other activist groups in shaping policy? And how can its influence on Australia’s approach to Indonesia be tested in relation to other contingent factors shaping policy? In addressing these questions, this case study will assist in addressing a broader scholarly concern about the capacities of collectives or individuals in shaping and directing the foreign policies of states.

Keywords: Australia, Foreign Policy, Indonesia, interests groups

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21 Social Imagination and History Teaching: Critical Thinking's Possibilities in the Australian Curriculum

Authors: Howard Prosser

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This paper examines how critical thinking is framed, especially for primary-school students, in the recently established Australian Curriculum: History. Critical thinking is one of the curriculum’s 'general capabilities.' History provides numerous opportunities for critical thinking’s application in everyday life. The so-called 'history wars' that took place just prior to the curriculum’s introduction in 2014 sought to bring to light the limits of a singular historical narrative and reveal that which had been repressed. Consequently, the Australian history curriculum reflects this shifting mindset. Teachers are presented with opportunities to treat history in the classroom as a repository of social possibility, especially related to democratic potential, beyond hackneyed and jingoistic tales of Australian nationhood. Yet such opportunities are not explicit within the document and are up against pre-existing pedagogic practices. Drawing on political thinker Cornelius Castoriadis’s rendering of the 'social-historical' and 'paidea,' as well as his mobilisation of psychoanalysis, the study outlines how the curriculum’s critical-thinking component opens up possibilities for students and teachers to revise assumptions about how history is understood. This ontological shift is ultimately creative: the teachers’ imaginations connect the students’ imaginations, and vice versa, to the analysis that is at the heart of historical thinking. The implications of this social imagination add to the current discussions about historical consciousness among scholars like Peter Seixas. But, importantly, it has practical application in the primary-school classroom where history becomes creative acts, like play, that is indeterminate and social rather than fixed and individual.

Keywords: History, Critical thinking, Australia, Imagination, Castoriadis

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20 Thanking as a Compliment Response at Higher Education Institution: A Comparative Study of Omani and Australian Speakers

Authors: Arfat Bait Jamil

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This study investigates how the compliment response of thanking is performed by Omani and Australian, lecturers and students, in higher educational settings. Semi-structured interviews and observation records were used to collect data. Thanking responses were aggregated from interviews with Omani lecturers and students in Oman, and from Australian lecturers and students in Australia, wherein they were asked to imagine themselves being complimented on five different compliment topics. After the interviews, they used observation record to note down real-life examples of compliment exchanges, along with their opinions. The findings show that thanking is not a simple compliment response. Depending on the context in which the compliment is delivered, thanking does not always suggest positive thoughts or feelings and compliment approval.

Keywords: Australia, oman, compliment responses, thanking

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19 Exposure Assessment to Airborne Particulate Matter in Agriculture

Authors: K. Rumchev, S. Gilbey

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Airborne particulate matter is a known hazard to human health, with a considerable body of evidence linking agricultural dust exposures to adverse human health effects in exposed populations. It is also known that agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of soil dust and other types of airborne particulate matter within the farming environment. The aim of this study was to examine exposure to agricultural dust among farm workers during the seeding season. Twenty-one wheat-belt farms consented to participate in the study with 30 workers being monitored for dust exposure whilst seeding or undertaking seeding associated tasks. Each farm was visited once and farmers’ were asked to wear a personal air sampler for a 4-hour sampling period. Simultaneous, real-time, tractor cabin air quality monitoring was also undertaken. Data for this study was collected using real-time aerosol dust monitors to determine in-tractor cabin PM exposure to five size fractions (total, PM10, respirable, PM2.5 and PM1), and personal sampling was undertaken to establish individual exposure to inhalable and respirable dust concentrations. The study established a significant difference between personal exposures and simultaneous real-time in-cabin exposures for both inhalable and respirable fractions. No significant difference was shown between in-cabin and personal inhalable dust concentrations during seeding and spraying tasks, although both in-cabin and personal concentrations were two times greater for seeding than spraying. Future research should focus on educating and providing farm owners and workers with more information on adopting safe work practices to minimise harmful exposures to agricultural dust.

Keywords: Air quality, Agriculture, Particulate Matter, Australia

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18 The Context of Teaching and Learning Primary Science to Gifted Students: An Analysis of Australian Curriculum and New South Wales Science Syllabus

Authors: Rashedul Islam

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A firmly-validated aim of teaching science is to support student enthusiasm for science learning with an outspread interest in scientific issues in future life. This is in keeping with the recent development in Gifted and Talented Education statement which instructs that gifted students have a renewed interest and natural aptitude in science. Yet, the practice of science teaching leaves many students with the feeling that science is difficult and compared to other school subjects, students interest in science is declining at the final years of the primary school. As a curriculum guides the teaching-learning activities in school, where significant consequences may result from the context of the curricula and syllabi, are a major feature of certain educational jurisdictions in NSW, Australia. The purpose of this study was an exploration of the curriculum sets the context to identify how science education is practiced through primary schools in Sydney, Australia. This phenomenon was explored through document review from two publicly available documents namely: the NSW Science Syllabus K-6, and Australian Curriculum: Foundation - 10 Science. To analyse the data, this qualitative study applied themed content analysis at three different levels, i.e., first cycle coding, second cycle coding- pattern codes, and thematic analysis. Preliminary analysis revealed the phenomenon of teaching-learning practices drawn from eight themes under three phenomena aligned with teachers’ practices and gifted student’s learning characteristics based on Gagné’s Differentiated Model of Gifted and Talent (DMGT). From the results, it appears that, overall, the two documents are relatively well-placed in terms of identifying the context of teaching and learning primary science to gifted students. However, educators need to make themselves aware of the ways in which the curriculum needs to be adapted to meet gifted students learning needs in science. It explores the important phenomena of teaching-learning context to provide gifted students with optimal educational practices including inquiry-based learning, problem-solving, open-ended tasks, creativity in science, higher order thinking, integration, and challenges. The significance of such a study lies in its potential to schools and further research in the field of gifted education.

Keywords: Australia, teaching primary science, gifted student learning, curriculum context, science syllabi

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17 Towards Better Integration: Qualitative Study on Perceptions of Russian-Speaking Immigrants in Australia

Authors: Oleg Shovkovyy

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This research conducted in response to one of the most pressing questions on the agenda of many public administration offices around the world: “What could be done for better integration and assimilation of immigrants into hosting communities?” In author’s view, the answer could be suggested by immigrants themselves. They, often ‘bogged down in the past,’ snared by own idols and demons, perceive things differently, which, in turn, may result in their inability to integrate smoothly into hosting communities. Brief literature review suggests that perceptions of immigrants are completely neglected or something unsought in the current research on migrants, which, often, based on opinion polls by members of hosting communities themselves or superficial research data by various research organizations. Even those specimens that include voices of immigrants, unlikely to shed any additional light onto the problem simply because certain things are not made to speak out loud, especially to those in whose hands immigrants’ fate is (authorities). In this regard, this qualitative study, conducted by an insider to a few Russian-speaking communities, represents a unique opportunity for all stakeholders to look at the question of integration through the eyes of immigrants, from a different perspective and thus, makes research findings especially valuable for better understanding of the problem. Case study research employed ethnographic methods of gathering data where, approximately 200 Russian-speaking immigrants of first and second generations were closely observed by the Russian-speaking researcher in their usual setting, for eight months, and at different venues. The number of informal interviews with 27 key informants, with whom the researcher managed to establish a good rapport and who were keen enough to share their experiences voluntarily, were conducted. The field notes were taken at 14 locations (study sites) within the Brisbane region of Queensland, Australia. Moreover, all this time, researcher lived in dwelling of one of the immigrants and was an active participant in the social life (worship, picnics, dinners, weekend schools, concerts, cultural events, social gathering, etc.) of observed communities, whose members, to a large extent, belong to various religious lines of the Russian and Protestant Church. It was found that the majority of immigrants had experienced some discrimination in matters of hiring, employment, recognition of educational qualifications from home countries, and simply felt a sort of dislike from society in various everyday situations. Many noted complete absences or very limited state assistance in terms of employment, training, education, and housing. For instance, the Australian Government Department of Human Services not only does not stimulate job search but, on the contrary, encourages to refuse short-term works and employment. On the other hand, offered free courses on adaptation, and the English language proved to be ineffective and unpopular amongst immigrants. Many interviewees have reported overstated requirements for English proficiency and local work experience, whereas it was not critical for the given task or job. Based on the result of long-term monitoring, the researcher also had the courage to assert the negative and decelerating roles of immigrants’ communities, particularly religious communities, on processes of integration and assimilation. The findings suggest that governments should either change current immigration policies in the direction of their toughening or to take more proactive and responsible role in dealing with immigrant-related issues; for instance, increasing assistance and support to all immigrants and probably, paying more attention to and taking stake in managing and organizing lives of immigrants’ communities rather, simply leaving it all to chance.

Keywords: Integration, Immigration, Australia, perceptions

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16 Sports Racism in Australia: A Fifty Year Study of Bigotry and the Culture of Silence, from Mexico City to Melbourne

Authors: Tasneem Chopra

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The 1968 Summer Olympics will forever be remembered for the silent protest against racism exhibited by American athletes Tommy Smith and John Carlos. Also standing on the medal podium was Australian Peter Norman, whose silent solidarity as a white sportsman completes the powerful, evocative image of that night in Mexico City. In the 50 years since Norman’s stance of solidarity with his American counterparts, Australian sports has traveled a wide arc of racism narratives, with athletes still experiencing episodes of bigotry, both on the pitch and elsewhere. Aboriginal athletes, like tennis champion Yvonne Goolagong, have endured the plaudits of appreciation for their achievements on both the national and international stage, while simultaneously being subject to both prejudice and even questions as to their right to represent their country as full, acceptable citizens. Racism in Australia is directed toward Australian athletes of colour as well as foreign sportspeople who visit the country. The complex, mutating nature of racism in Australia is also informed by the culture of silence, where fellow athletes stand mute in light of their colleagues’ experience with bigotry. This paper analyses the phenomenon of sports racism in Australia over the past fifty years, culminating in the most recent showdown between Heretier Lumumba, former Collingwood football player, and his public allegations of racism experienced by team mates over his 10 year career. It shall examine the treatment and mistreatment of athletes because of their race and will further assess how such public perceptions both shape Australian culture or are themselves a manifestation of preexisting pathologies of bigotry. Further, it will examine the efficacy of anti-racism initiatives in responding to this hate. This paper will analyse the growing influence of corporate and media entities in crafting the economics of Australian sports and assess the role of such factors in creating the narrative of racism in the nation, both as a sociological reality as well as a marker of national identity. Finally, this paper will examine the political, social and economic forces that contribute to the culture of silence in Australian society in defying racism.

Keywords: Corporations, Australia, silence, aboriginal

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15 Australian Multiculturalism in Refugee Education

Authors: N. Coskun

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Australia has received over 840,000 refugees since its establishment as a federation. Despite the long history of refugee intake, Australia appears to have prolonged problems in refugee education such as academic and social isolations of refugee background students (RBS), the discriminations towards RBS and the high number of RBS drop-outs. This paper examines the place of RBS in educational policies, which can help to identify the problems and set a foundation for solutions. This paper investigates the educational provisions for RBS in three stages. First, the paper identifies the needs of RBS through a comprehensive literature review, using the framework of Bronfenbrenner’s bio-ecological model. Second, the study explores the place of these needs in Australian national and state educational policies which are informed by multiculturalism. The findings conclude that social, academic and psychological needs of RBS hardly find a place in multicultural educational policies. The students and their specific needs are mostly invisible and are placed under a general category of newly arrived immigrants who learn English as a second language. Third, the study explores the possible reasons for the overlook on RBS and their needs with examining the general socio-political context surrounding refugees in Australia. The overall findings suggest that Australian multiculturalism policy in education are inadequate to address RBS' social, academic and psychological needs due to the disadvantaging socio-political context where refugees are placed.

Keywords: Multiculturalism, Australia, bio-ecological model, refugee education

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14 Comparison of E-Waste Management in Switzerland and in Australia: A Qualitative Content Analysis

Authors: Md Tasbirul Islam, Pablo Dias, Nazmul Huda

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E-waste/Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams across the globe. This paper aims to compare the e-waste management system in Switzerland and Australia in terms of four features - legislative initiatives, disposal practice, collection and financial mechanisms. The qualitative content analysis is employed as a research method in the study. Data were collected from various published academic research papers, industry reports, and web sources. In addition, a questionnaire survey is conducted in Australia to understand the public awareness and opinions on the features. The results of the study provide valuable insights to policymakers in Australia developing better e-waste management system in conjunction with the public consensus, and the state-of-the-art operational strategies currently being practiced in Switzerland.

Keywords: Australia, awareness, E-Waste Management, pro-environmental behavior, Switzerland, WEEE

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13 Harrison’s Stolen: Addressing Aboriginal and Indigenous Islanders Human Rights

Authors: M. Shukry

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According to the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, every human being is entitled to rights in life that should be respected by others and protected by the state and community. Such rights are inherent regardless of colour, ethnicity, gender, religion or otherwise, and it is expected that all humans alike have the right to live without discrimination of any sort. However, that has not been the case with Aborigines in Australia. Over a long period of time, the governments of the State and the Territories and the Australian Commonwealth denied the Aboriginal and Indigenous inhabitants of the Torres Strait Islands such rights. Past Australian governments set policies and laws that enabled them to forcefully remove Indigenous children from their parents, which resulted in creating lost generations living the trauma of the loss of cultural identity, alienation and even their own selfhood. Intending to reduce that population of natives and their Aboriginal culture while, on the other hand, assimilate them into mainstream society, they gave themselves the right to remove them from their families with no hope of return. That practice has led to tragic consequences due to the trauma that has affected those children, an experience that is depicted by Jane Harrison in her play Stolen. The drama is the outcome of a six-year project on lost children and which was first performed in 1997 in Melbourne. Five actors only appear on the stage, playing the role of all the different characters, whether the main protagonists or the remaining cast, present or non-present ones as voices. The play outlines the life of five children who have been taken from their parents at an early age, entailing a disastrous negative impact that differs from one to the other. Unknown to each other, what connects between them is being put in a children’s home. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the play’s text in light of the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, using it as a lens that reflects the atrocities practiced against the Aborigines. It highlights how such practices formed an outrageous violation of those natives’ rights as human beings. Harrison’s dramatic technique in conveying the children’s experiences is through a non-linear structure, fluctuating between past and present that are linked together within each of the five characters, reflecting their suffering and pain to create an emotional link between them and the audience. Her dramatic handling of the issue by fusing tragedy with humour as well as symbolism is a successful technique in revealing the traumatic memory of those children and their present life. The play has made a difference in commencing to address the problem of the right of all children to be with their families, which renders the real meaning of having a home and an identity as people.

Keywords: Trauma, Human Rights, Culture, Identity, Children, Memory, Indigenous, drama, Australia, audience, stage, setting, aboriginal, home, Jane Harrison, scenic effects, stage directions, Stolen

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12 Deconstructing Reintegration Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Feminist Analysis of Australian and Thai Government and Non-Government Responses

Authors: Jessica J. Gillies

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Awareness of the tragedy that is human trafficking has increased exponentially over the past two decades. The four pillars widely recognised as global solutions to the problem are prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership between government and non-government organisations. While ‘sex-trafficking’ initially received major attention, this focus has shifted to other industries that conceal broader experiences of exploitation. However, within the regions of focus for this study, namely Australia and Thailand, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the commonly uncovered narrative of criminal justice investigations. In these regions anti-trafficking action is characterised by government-led prevention and prosecution efforts; whereas protection and reintegration practices have received criticism. Typically, non-government organisations straddle the critical chasm between policy and practice; therefore, they are perfectly positioned to contribute valuable experiential knowledge toward understanding how both sectors can support survivors in the post-trafficking experience. The aim of this research is to inform improved partnerships throughout government and non-government post-trafficking services by illuminating gaps in protection and reintegration initiatives. This research will explore government and non-government responses to human trafficking in Thailand and Australia, in order to understand how meaning is constructed in this context and how the construction of meaning effects survivors in the post-trafficking experience. A qualitative, three-stage methodology was adopted for this study. The initial stage of enquiry consisted of a discursive analysis, in order to deconstruct the broader discourses surrounding human trafficking. The data included empirical papers, grey literature such as publicly available government and non-government reports, and anti-trafficking policy documents. The second and third stages of enquiry will attempt to further explore the findings of the discourse analysis and will focus more specifically on protection and reintegration in Australia and Thailand. Stages two and three will incorporate process observations in government and non-government survivor support services, and semi-structured interviews with employees and volunteers within these settings. Two key findings emerged from the discursive analysis. The first exposed conflicting feminist arguments embedded throughout anti-trafficking discourse. Informed by conflicting feminist discourses on sex-work, a discursive relationship has been constructed between sex-industry policy and anti-trafficking policy. In response to this finding, data emerging from the process observations and semi-structured interviews will be interpreted using a feminist theoretical framework. The second finding progresses from the construction in the first. The discursive construction of sex-trafficking appears to have had influence over perceptions of the legitimacy of survivors, and therefore the support they receive in the post-trafficking experience. For example; women who willingly migrate for employment in the sex-industry, and on arrival are faced with exploitative conditions, are not perceived to be deserving of the same support as a woman who is not coerced, but rather physically forced, into such circumstances, yet both meet the criteria for a victim of human trafficking. The forthcoming study is intended to contribute toward building knowledge and understanding around the implications of the construction of legitimacy; and contextualise this in reference to government led protection and reintegration support services for survivors in the post-trafficking experience.

Keywords: Government, Human trafficking, Australia, Thailand, non-government, reintegration

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11 Government and Non-Government Policy Responses to Anti-Trafficking Initiatives: A Discursive Analysis of the Construction of the Problem of Human Trafficking in Australia and Thailand

Authors: Jessica J. Gillies

Abstract:

Human trafficking is a gross violation of human rights and thus invokes a strong response particularly throughout the global academic community. A longstanding tension throughout academic debate remains the question of a relationship between anti-trafficking policy and sex industry policy. In Australia, over the previous decade, many human trafficking investigations have related to the sexual exploitation of female victims, and convictions in Australia to date have often been for trafficking women from Thailand. Sex industry policy in Australia varies between states, providing a rich contextual landscape in which to explore this relationship. The purpose of this study was to deconstruct how meaning is constructed surrounding human trafficking throughout these supposedly related political discourses in Australia. In order to analyse the discursive construction of the problem of human trafficking in relation to sex industry policy, a discursive analysis was conducted. The methodology of the study was informed by a feminist theoretical framework, and included academic sources and grey literature such as organisational reports and policy statements regarding anti-trafficking initiatives. The scope of grey literature was restricted to Australian and Thai government and non-government organisation texts. The chosen methodology facilitated a qualitative exploration of the influence of feminist discourses over political discourse in this arena. The discursive analysis exposed clusters of active feminist debates interacting with sex industry policy within individual states throughout Australia. Additionally, strongly opposed sex industry perspectives were uncovered within these competing feminist frameworks. While the influence these groups may exert over policy differs, the debate constructs a discursive relationship between human trafficking and sex industry policy. This is problematic because anti-trafficking policy is drawn to some extent from this discursive construction, therefore affecting support services for survivors of human trafficking. The discursive analysis further revealed misalignment between government and non-government priorities, Australian government anti-trafficking policy appears to favour criminal justice priorities; whereas non-government settings preference human rights protections. Criminal justice priorities invoke questions of legitimacy, leading to strict eligibility policy for survivors seeking support following exploitation in the Australian sex industry, undermining women’s agency and human rights. In practice, these two main findings demonstrate a construction of policy that has serious outcomes on typical survivors in Australia following a lived experience of human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation. The discourses constructed by conflicting feminist arguments influence political discourses throughout Australia. The application of a feminist theoretical framework to the discursive analysis of the problem of human trafficking is unique to this study. The study has exposed a longstanding and unresolved feminist debate that has filtered throughout anti-trafficking political discourse. This study illuminates the problematic construction of anti-trafficking policy, and the implications in practice on survivor support services. Australia has received international criticism for the focus on criminal justice rather than human rights throughout anti-trafficking policy discourse. The outcome of this study has the potential to inform future language and constructive conversations contributing to knowledge around how policy effects survivors in the post trafficking experience.

Keywords: Government, Human trafficking, Australia, Thailand, discursive analysis, non-government

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10 A Qualitative Exploration into Australian Muslims Emerging into Adulthood

Authors: Nuray Okcum, Jenny Sharples

Abstract:

While the scrutinization towards marginalized groups throughout the globe has been existent for decades, prejudice towards Muslims in Western countries has been increasing dramatically. The vicious attacks across the globe by perpetrators who identify with Islam as well as popular political discourse by politicians in Western countries claiming and portraying Muslims as being dangerous, oppressed, or lacking the ability to assimilate into the community, adds to the exclusion and lack of belonging Muslims living in Western countries experience. The early stages of adulthood which have recently been conceptualized as emerging adulthood is a critical and socially ambiguous transition. For a young Muslim emerging into adulthood in a Western country, a variety of different challenges and demands that can exceed their coping abilities can arise. While in search for their identity and in a bid to structure themselves with their past childhood experiences together with their newly forming values, the emerging adult may attempt to direct or change the way in which they are viewed by others. This can be done to gain approval from others and to feel a sense of belonging. A change in the emerging adult’s interpersonal interactions and relationships, the way in which they view themselves and others, their sense of belonging, and their identity, also occurs during this developmental stage. To explore the manner in which Muslims emerging into adulthood carve their identity, their experiences, and representation of their Muslim identity, social identification, and their sense of belonging in Australia, an interpretative phenomenological methodology was utilized. This allowed participants to offer their own subjective experiences. A total of eight emerging adults took part in the study whilst four adults who work with emerging adults took part. Adult participants who work with emerging adults took part in the study to bring forth their insight and experiences. Common experiences were organized into themes. Themes included identifying as a Muslim, social identification, and belonging. Identification included visual identification and name, discrimination and resilience. Findings clearly indicated that Muslims emerging into adulthood in Australia do face various hurdles while they try to retain and represent their religious identity. Despite the unique challenges that they face, they still feel a sense of belonging and identity as being Australian.

Keywords: Islam, Australia, muslim, emerging adulthood

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9 An Exploratory Study Regarding the Effects of Auditor Switch, Auditee’s Industry, and Auditee’s Location on Audit Fees in Australia

Authors: Ashkan Mirzay Fashami

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of auditor switch, auditee’s industry, and auditee’s location on audit fees in Australia. It uses fee data of Australian Securities Exchange 500 companies, considering all industry classifications throughout the country from 2006 until 2016. Main findings show that auditor switch does not affect audit fees. However, auditee’s industry affects audit fees. This effect occurs in information technology, financials, energy, and materials sectors among the top 500 companies. Financials, energy, and materials sectors face a fee rise, whereas information technology has a fee cut. The extent of fee changes is different among various industries, wherein the financial sector has the highest increase. Further, auditee’s location affects audit fees. Top 500 companies in Hobart, Perth, and Brisbane face a fee reduction, wherein the highest cut is in Hobart. Further analysis suggests that the Australian audit market is being increasingly concentrated in the hands of the Big Four audit firms.

Keywords: Audit, Australia, auditor switch, fee, low-balling

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8 Combating Islamophobia in Australia: An Analysis of Six Legal and Holistic Strategies to Help Address Discrimination towards Muslims

Authors: F. Zamani Ashni, P. Gerber

Abstract:

In today's religious and political climate, Muslims find themselves the focus of much attention, often in the form of discrimination and vilification. There is a widely held belief that Islam and terrorism are inextricably intertwined. An anti-Muslim narrative has been shaping policy around the world for some time now. This study, which focuses on the experience of Muslims in Australia, provides guidance on legislative and other steps that can be taken by Australia to help address Islamophobia. This study provides a doctrinal analysis of the state, territory, and federal anti-discrimination laws in Australia. Using principles of statutory interpretation along aside an analysis of relevant jurisprudence, this study concludes that Australian anti-discrimination laws are ill-equipped to address modern-day Islamophobia. The study also finds that laws alone are insufficient to combat Islamophobia, and a more holistic approach is required. Six strategies are identified, which can, in combination, help to successfully respond to Islamophobia. In addition to legislative initiatives, combating Islamophobia requires Australia to promote inclusive human rights education, fair media coverage, strong leadership, integration of the Islamic community, and comprehensive documentation of anti-Muslim attacks.

Keywords: Islamophobia, Australia, Discrimination, muslim

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7 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum

Abstract:

Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Migration, Labour, Australia, wage

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6 People Experiencing Economic Disadvantages and Access to Justice System: The Case of Unemployed People in Australia

Authors: M. Shahadat Hossain

Abstract:

People experiencing economic disadvantages have limited access to justice system. Employment status is a key indicator of economic disadvantage. There is a link between employment status and vulnerability to legal problems. This paper addresses the obstacles unemployed people experience to secure justice in Australia. This paper further explores exiting services for economically disadvantaged people to secure justice where these unemployment people can get access. It reveals that unemployed people are vulnerable to multifaced crime and violence. Due to high cost of legal services, these unemployed people are unable to afford legal services to access justice. They are often found higher levels of nonactions in terms of access to justice also due to lack of their initiatives. This paper further reveals that legal aid commissions are state and territory statutory agencies in Australia which provide free legal information, advice, duty lawyers, and legal representation services. Community legal centres are independent, non-profit government organizations with a focus of early advice, problem solving, and working with other agencies to address connected, financial, and health problems. Moreover, the private profession helps people who cannot afford to pay for a lawyer in several ways. But there are problems of shortage of funding for these legal services and making available to economically disadvantaged people. However, this paper argues that people experiencing long-term unemployment face barriers to secure justice due to their economic disadvantages. It further argues that services available for them to access to justice is inadequate.

Keywords: Access to justice, Unemployment, Australia, economic disadvantages

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5 The Impact of Australia's Skilled Migrant Selection System: A Case Study of Japanese Skilled Migrants and Their Families

Authors: Iori Hamada

Abstract:

Australia's skilled migrant selection system is constantly changing its target skills and criteria according to the labour market demands. The government's intention to employ this highly selective market-driven selection system is to better target the skills needed in the economy, enable skilled migrants to be employed in industries that have the highest need, and consequently boost the economy and population. However, migration scholars have called this intention into question, arguing that the system is not making the best use of skilled migrants. This paper investigates the impact of recent reforms in Australian skilled migration system on skilled migrants' employment and related life conditions. Drawing on semi-structured qualitative interviews with Japanese skilled migrants in Australia, it argues that Australia’s skilled migrant selection system guarantees neither skilled migrants' employment nor successful transfer of their skills to the labour market. The findings show that Japanese skilled migrants are often unemployed or under-employed, although they intend to achieve upward occupational mobility. The interview data also reveal that male unemployment or under-employment status prompts some Japanese men to leave Australia and find a job that better matches their skills and qualifications in a new destination. Further, it finds that Japanese male skilled migrants who experience downward occupational mobility tend to continue to take a primary breadwinner role, which affects the distribution of paid and unpaid work within their families. There is a growing body of research investigating skilled migrants’ downward career mobility. However, little has been written on skilled Japanese migrants. Further, the work-family intersection is a 'hot public policy topic' in Australia and elsewhere. Yet, the existing studies focus almost exclusively on non-migrant families. This calls attention to the urgency of assessing the work-family lives of skilled migrants. This study fills these gaps, presenting additional insight into Japanese skilled migrants’ work and family in and beyond Australia.

Keywords: Employment, Family, Australia, Japanese skilled migrants

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4 A Critique of The English And Nigerian Marine Insurance Laws on Insurable Interest

Authors: Omotolani Victoria Somoye

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The paper examines modern approaches to the insurable interest, which is a fundamental principle of insurance law that affects the enforceability of insurance contracts. The study starts by examining the competing definitions of the nature of the insurable interest doctrine. It finds that while legal interest theory is seen to be sufficient as the test of insurable interest, the paper argues on how this approach deprives the insured of a full indemnity of losses suffered. The problem with the Nigerian and English current legislative framework is that it defines insurable interest as a legally recognized interest of the insured in the subject matter of insurance. However, other countries like Australia, the United States, South Africa, and more recently, Canada, have rejected the English test and trodden their own path along the factual expectancy line. The study justifies the rationale behind the departure of similar common law jurisdictions and argues that the English and Nigerian position, which appears to be too rigid, harsh on the insured, and no longer fit for purpose in the 21st century, should be revised. The paper concludes that the common law doctrine does not represent better interests of certainty, justice, and fairness, as well as not meeting the policy behind the requirement of insurable interest. This paper adopts a doctrinal comparative research methodology to examine complex areas of insurable interest in selected countries and work out some suggestions for reforming the Nigerian and English laws by referring to the approaches of other jurisdictions.

Keywords: Insurance, Common Law, Australia, Nigeria, Insurable Interest, English law

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3 The New Far-Right: The Social Construction of Hatred against the Contemporary Islamic Community in Multicultural Australia

Authors: Angel Adams

Abstract:

In Australia, the contemporary social construction of hatred against the Islamic community was facilitated through the mainstream media. Australian public figures who have depicted Muslims and Islam not only as potential terrorists but also as incompatible with the country’s values and identities have helped to increase the level of fear against the Islamic community, leading sympathetic far-right movements to shift discussions towards anti-Islamic and anti-Muslim rhetoric. Political opportunities combined with a socially constructed narrative of fear of the ‘other’, introduced during the White Australia Policy of 1901, has allowed extreme and radical far-right movements to justify hate against the contemporary Australian Islamic community. This study aims to answer the following question: How does Australia’s founding provide a fertile environment to the spread of hatred against the contemporary Islamic community? The paper demonstrates that a forged social construct of grievances concerning the Islamic community in Australia has led to a surge in supply of far-right activism to combat what has become a perceived ‘national threat’. In essence, Australia’s history of a fear of the ‘other’ brings challenges to a multicultural society, and can potentially lead to a more unstable socio-political environment where abuse and violence are normalized and more likely to develop. Furthermore, the paper aims to bring a more nuanced understanding of what is considered ‘new far-right’ discourses with shared anti-Islam and anti-Muslim agendas in Australia. The political opportunity structures theory was the mechanism used to determine how new forms of far-right groups have become more mainstream in Australia. Previous studies on far-right groups in Australia have relied on qualitative data, but further empirical research in this area is sorely needed. Above all, this paper clarifies how hatred against minorities can have a negative impact on wider communities and allow a global narrative of ‘us’ versus ‘them’ to erupt from the fringes of society in Australia.

Keywords: Islamophobia, Political Violence, Australia, Nationalism, Social Construction, far-right, political opportunity structures

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2 Tick Induced Facial Nerve Paresis: A Narrative Review

Authors: Jemma Porrett

Abstract:

Background: We present a literature review examining the research surrounding tick paralysis resulting in facial nerve palsy. A case of an intra-aural paralysis tick bite resulting in unilateral facial nerve palsy is also discussed. Methods: A novel case of otoacariasis with associated ipsilateral facial nerve involvement is presented. Additionally, we conducted a review of the literature, and we searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for relevant literature published between 1915 and 2020. Utilising the following keywords; 'Ixodes', 'Facial paralysis', 'Tick bite', and 'Australia', 18 articles were deemed relevant to this study. Results: Eighteen articles included in the review comprised a total of 48 patients. Patients' ages ranged from one year to 84 years of age. Ten studies estimated the possible duration between a tick bite and facial nerve palsy, averaging 8.9 days. Forty-one patients presented with a single tick within the external auditory canal, three had a single tick located on the temple or forehead region, three had post-auricular ticks, and one patient had a remarkable 44 ticks removed from the face, scalp, neck, back, and limbs. A complete ipsilateral facial nerve palsy was present in 45 patients, notably, in 16 patients, this occurred following tick removal. House-Brackmann classification was utilised in 7 patients; four patients with grade 4, one patient with grade three, and two patients with grade 2 facial nerve palsy. Thirty-eight patients had complete recovery of facial palsy. Thirteen studies were analysed for time to recovery, with an average time of 19 days. Six patients had partial recovery at the time of follow-up. One article reported improvement in facial nerve palsy at 24 hours, but no further follow-up was reported. One patient was lost to follow up, and one article failed to mention any resolution of facial nerve palsy. One patient died from respiratory arrest following generalized paralysis. Conclusions: Tick paralysis is a severe but preventable disease. Careful examination of the face, scalp, and external auditory canal should be conducted in patients presenting with otalgia and facial nerve palsy, particularly in tropical areas, to exclude the possibility of tick infestation.

Keywords: Australia, facial nerve palsy, tick bite, intra-aural

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1 The Impact of Bilateral Investment Treaties on Health-Related Intellectual Property Rights in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Australia

Authors: Abdulrahman Fahim M. Alsulami

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This paper is dedicated to a detailed investigation of the interaction between the agreement on trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS) and bilateral investment treaties (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Australia and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The chosen research object is complex and requires a thorough examination of a set of factors influencing the problem under investigation. At the moment, to the author’s best knowledge’ there is no academic research that would conceptualize and critically compare the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in these two countries. While there is a substantial amount of information in the literature on certain aspects of the problem, the existing knowledge about certain aspects of the health-related regulatory frameworks in Australia and Saudi Arabia barely explains in detail the specifics of the ways in which the TRIPS agreement interacts with (BITs) in the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights. Therefore, this paper will address an evident research gap by studying an intriguing yet under-researched problem. The paper comprises five subsections. The first subsection provides an overview of the investment climate in Saudi Arabia and Australia with an emphasis on the health care industry. It will cover political, economic, and social factors influencing the investment climate in these countries, the systems of intellectual property rights protection, recent patterns relevant to the investment climate’s development, and key characteristics of the investment climate in the health care industry. The second subsection analyses BITs in Saudi Arabia and Australia in light of the countries’ responsibilities under the TRIPS Agreement. The third subsection provides a critical examination of the interaction between the TRIPS Agreement and BITs in Saudi Arabia on the basis of data collected and analyzed in previous subsections. It will investigate key discrepancies concerning the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia from the position of BITs’ interaction with the TRIPS Agreement and explore the existing procedures for clarifying priorities between them in regulating health-related intellectual property rights. The fourth subsection of the paper provides recommendations concerning the transformation of BITS into a TRIPS+ dimension in regulating health-related intellectual property rights in Saudi Arabia and Australia. The final subsection provides a summary of differences between the Australian and Saudi BITs from the perspective of the regulation of health-related intellectual property rights under the TRIPS agreement and bilateral investment treaties.

Keywords: Australia, Saudi Arabia, bilateral investment treaties, IP law, public health sector

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