Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Atmosphere Related Abstracts

9 A Study on Effect of Almahdi Aluminium Factory of Bandar Abbas on Environment Status of the Region with an Emphasis on Measuring of Some Scarce Metals Existing in the Air (Atmosphere)

Authors: Maryam Ehsanpour, Maryam Malekpour, Rastin Afkhami


Today, industry is one of the indices of growth and development of countries and is a suitable applicable criterion to compare the countries. Bandar Abbas has a high industrial centralization in term of geographical redundancy of industries in comparison with other rural and urban places of Hormozgan province. Most important and major industries of the province are located in Bandar abbas eighth refinery, power plant, zinc melting company, Almahdi Aluminium, Hormozgan steel, south steel, which are the most important of these industries. So, it is necessary to study pollution from these industries and their destructive effects on environment of region. In respect of these things, general purpose of this research is codling and presenting managing solution of Almahdi Aluminium factory in them of measuring of air (atmosphere) parameters. For gaining this purpose it is necessary to determine measure of heavy metals suspension in the air (atmosphere) in the neighborhood of industries and also in residential regions close to them as partial purposes. So, for achieving the purposes above, operation of sampling from the air in two hot and cold seasons of the year (2010-2011) was performed, after field reviews to recognize the sources of effluence and to choose place of sampling stations. Sampling and preparation way to read was based on EPA and NIOSH. Also, decreasing process was included Fe>Al>Cd>Pb>Ni respectively, in term of results gaining from sampling of ingredients existing in the air (atmosphere). Also Ni and Fe elements in samples of air were higher than permissive measure in both of cold and hot season. Average of these two metals was 34% and 33% in cold season and 44% and 34% micrograms/m3 in hot season. Finally, suitable managing solutions to improve existing situation is presented in term for all results.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Bandar Abbas, Almahdi aluminium factory, scarce metals

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8 Rising Levels of Greenhouse Gases: Implication for Global Warming in Anambra State South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Chikwelu Edward Emenike, Ogbuagu Uchenna Fredrick


About 34% of the solar radiant energy reaching the earth is immediately reflected back to space as incoming radiation by clouds, chemicals, dust in the atmosphere and by the earth’s surface. Most of the remaining 66% warms the atmosphere and land. Most of the incoming solar radiation not reflect away is degraded into low-quality heat and flows into space. The rate at which this energy returns to space as low-quality heat is affected by the presence of molecules of greenhouse gases. Gaseous emission was measured with the aid of Growen gas Analyzer with a digital readout. Total measurements of eight parameters of twelve selected sample locations taken at two different seasons within two months were made. The ambient air quality investigation in Anambra State has shown the overall mean concentrations of gaseous emission at twelve (12) locations. The mean gaseous emissions showed (NO2=0.66ppm, SO2=0.30ppm, CO=43.93ppm, H2S=2.17ppm, CH4=1.27ppm, CFC=1.59ppb, CO2=316.33ppm, N2O=302.67ppb and O3=0.37ppm). These values do not conform to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) and thus contribute significantly to the global warming. Because some of these gaseous emissions (SO2, NO2) are oxidizing agents, they act as irritants that damage delicate tissues in the eyes and respiratory passages. These can impair lung function and trigger cardiovascular problems as the heart tries to compensate for lack of Oxygen by pumping faster and harder. The major sources of air pollution are transportation, industrial processes, stationary fuel combustion and solid waste disposal, thus much is yet to be done in a developing country like Nigeria. Air pollution control using pollution-control equipment to reduce the major conventional pollutants, relocating people who live very close to dumpsites, processing and treatment of gases to produce electricity, heat, fuel and various chemical components should be encouraged.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Greenhouse gases, ambient air, anambra state

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7 DIAL Measurements of Vertical Distribution of Ozone at the Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

Authors: Oleg A. Romanovskii, Vladimir D. Burlakov, Sergey I. Dolgii, Olga V. Kharchenko, Alexey A. Nevzorov, Alexey V. Nevzorov


The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution. The ozone lidar operate as part of the measurement complex at Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS, Tomsk (56.5ºN; 85.0ºE) and designed for study of the vertical ozone distribution in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere. Most suitable wavelengths for measurements of ozone profiles are selected. We present an algorithm for retrieval of vertical distribution of ozone with temperature and aerosol correction during DIAL lidar sounding of the atmosphere. The temperature correction of ozone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors. Results of lidar measurement at wavelengths of 299 and 341 nm agree with model estimates, which point to acceptable accuracy of ozone sounding in the 6–18 km altitude range.

Keywords: Atmosphere, Lidar, ozone distribution, DIAL

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6 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko


Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: Atmosphere, DOAS, DIAL, lidar sounding, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

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5 The Environmental Concerns in Coal Mining, and Utilization in Pakistan

Authors: S. R. H. Baqri, T. Shahina, M. T. Hasan


Pakistan is facing acute shortage of energy and looking for indigenous resources of the energy mix to meet the short fall. After the discovery of huge coal resources in Thar Desert of Sindh province, focus has shifted to coal power generation. The government of Pakistan has planned power generation of 20000 MW on coal by the year 2025. This target will be achieved by mining and power generation in Thar coal Field and on imported coal in different parts of Pakistan. Total indigenous coal production of around 3.0 million tons is being utilized in brick kilns, cement and sugar industry. Coal-based power generation is only limited to three units of 50 MW near Hyderabad from nearby Lakhra Coal field. The purpose of this presentation is to identify and redressal of issues of coal mining and utilization with reference to environmental hazards. Thar coal resource is estimated at 175 billion tons out of a total resource estimate of 184 billion tons in Pakistan. Coal of Pakistan is of Tertiary age (Palaeocene/Eocene) and classified from lignite to sub-bituminous category. Coal characterization has established three main pollutants such as Sulphur, Carbon dioxide and Methane besides some others associated with coal and rock types. The element Sulphur occurs in organic as well as inorganic forms associated with coals as free sulphur and as pyrite, gypsum, respectively. Carbon dioxide, methane and minerals are mostly associated with fractures, joints local faults, seatearth and roof rocks. The abandoned and working coal mines give kerosene odour due to escape of methane in the atmosphere. While the frozen methane/methane ices in organic matter rich sediments have also been reported from the Makran coastal and offshore areas. The Sulphur escapes into the atmosphere during mining and utilization of coal in industry. The natural erosional processes due to rivers, streams, lakes and coastal waves erode over lying sediments allowing pollutants to escape into air and water. Power plants emissions should be controlled through application of appropriate clean coal technology and need to be regularly monitored. Therefore, the systematic and scientific studies will be required to estimate the quantity of methane, carbon dioxide and sulphur at various sites such as abandoned and working coal mines, exploratory wells for coal, oil and gas. Pressure gauges on gas pipes connecting the coal-bearing horizons will be installed on surface to know the quantity of gas. The quality and quantity of gases will be examined according to the defined intervals of times. This will help to design and recommend the methods and procedures to stop the escape of gases into atmosphere. The element of Sulphur can be removed partially by gravity and chemical methods after grinding and before industrial utilization of coal.

Keywords: Energy, Atmosphere, Pollutants, coal production

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4 Real-Time Radiological Monitoring of the Atmosphere Using an Autonomous Aerosol Sampler

Authors: Miroslav Hyza, Petr Rulik, Vojtech Bednar, Jan Sury


An early and reliable detection of an increased radioactivity level in the atmosphere is one of the key aspects of atmospheric radiological monitoring. Although the standard laboratory procedures provide detection limits as low as few µBq/m³, their major drawback is the delayed result reporting: typically a few days. This issue is the main objective of the HAMRAD project, which gave rise to a prototype of an autonomous monitoring device. It is based on the idea of sequential aerosol sampling using a carrousel sample changer combined with a gamma-ray spectrometer. In our hardware configuration, the air is drawn through a filter positioned on the carrousel so that it could be rotated into the measuring position after a preset sampling interval. Filter analysis is performed via a 50% HPGe detector inside an 8.5cm lead shielding. The spectrometer output signal is then analyzed using DSP electronics and Gamwin software with preset nuclide libraries and other analysis parameters. After the counting, the filter is placed into a storage bin with a capacity of 250 filters so that the device can run autonomously for several months depending on the preset sampling frequency. The device is connected to a central server via GPRS/GSM where the user can view monitoring data including raw spectra and technological data describing the state of the device. All operating parameters can be remotely adjusted through a simple GUI. The flow rate is continuously adjustable up to 10 m³/h. The main challenge in spectrum analysis is the natural background subtraction. As detection limits are heavily influenced by the deposited activity of radon decay products and the measurement time is fixed, there must exist an optimal sample decay time (delayed spectrum acquisition). To solve this problem, we adopted a simple procedure based on sequential spectrum acquisition and optimal partial spectral sum with respect to the detection limits for a particular radionuclide. The prototyped device proved to be able to detect atmospheric contamination at the level of mBq/m³ per an 8h sampling.

Keywords: Aerosols, Atmosphere, atmospheric radioactivity monitoring, autonomous sampler

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3 Utilizing Waste Heat from Thermal Power Plants to Generate Power by Modelling an Atmospheric Vortex Engine

Authors: Mohammed Nabeel Khan, C. Perisamy


Convective vortices are normal highlights of air that ingest lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they dismiss higher-entropy-energy to space. By means of the thermodynamic proficiency, it has been anticipated that the force of convective vortices relies upon the profundity of the convective layer. The atmospheric vortex engine is proposed as a gadget for delivering mechanical energy by methods for artificially produced vortex. The task of the engine is in view of the certainties that the environment is warmed from the base and cooled from the top. By generation of the artificial vortex, it is planned to take out the physical solar updraft tower and decrease the capital of the solar chimney power plants. The study shows the essentials of the atmospheric vortex engine, furthermore, audits the cutting edge in subject. Moreover, the study talks about a thought on using the solar energy as heat source to work the framework. All in all, the framework is attainable and promising for electrical power production.

Keywords: Atmosphere, vortex, AVE, atmospheric vortex engine, updraft

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2 The Gravitational Impact of the Sun and the Moon on Heavy Mineral Deposits and Dust Particles in Low Gravity Regions of the Earth

Authors: T. B. Karu Jayasundara


The Earth’s gravity is not uniform. The satellite imageries of the Earth’s surface from NASA reveal a number of different gravity anomaly regions all over the globe. When the moon rotates around the earth, its gravity has a major physical influence on a number of regions on the earth. This physical change can be seen by the tides. The tides make sea levels high and low in coastal regions. During high tide, the gravitational force of the Moon pulls the Earth’s gravity so that the total gravitational intensity of Earth is reduced; it is further reduced in the low gravity regions of Earth. This reduction in gravity helps keep the suspended particles such as dust in the atmosphere, sand grains in the sea water for longer. Dramatic differences can be seen from the floating dust in the low gravity regions when compared with other regions. The above phenomena can be demonstrated from experiments. The experiments have to be done in high and low gravity regions of the earth during high and low tide, which will assist in comparing the final results. One of the experiments that can be done is by using a water filled cylinder about 80 cm tall, a few particles, which have the same density and same diameter (about 1 mm) and a stop watch. The selected particles were dropped from the surface of the water in the cylinder and the time taken for the particles to reach the bottom of the cylinder was measured using the stop watch. The times of high and low tide charts can be obtained from the regional government authorities. This concept is demonstrated by the particle drop times taken at high and low tides. The result of the experiment shows that the particle settlement time is less in low tide and high in high tide. The experiment for dust particles in air can be collected on filters, which are cellulose ester membranes and using a vacuum pump. The dust on filters can be used to make slides according to the NOHSC method. Counting the dust particles on the slides can be done using a phase contrast microscope. The results show that the concentration of dust is high at high tide and low in low tide. As a result of the high tides, a high concentration of heavy minerals deposit on placer deposits and dust particles retain in the atmosphere for longer in low gravity regions. These conditions are remarkably exhibited in the lowest low gravity region of the earth, mainly in the regions of India, Sri Lanka and in the middle part of the Indian Ocean. The biggest heavy mineral placer deposits are found in coastal regions of India and Sri Lanka and heavy dust particles are found in the atmosphere of India, particularly in the Delhi region.

Keywords: Minerals, Atmosphere, Gravity, Tides, Moon, costal

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1 A Methodological Approach to the Betterment of the Retail Store's Interior Design: The Example of Dereboyu Street, Nicosia

Authors: Nazanin Reza Nejad, Kamil Guley


Shopping is one of the most entertaining activities of daily life. In parallel to this, the successful settings of the stores impress the customers and made it more appealing for the users. The design of the atmosphere is the language of the interior space, and this design directly affects users’ emotions and perceptions. One of the goals of interior design is to increase the quality of the designed space. A well-designed venue satisfies the user and ensures happiness and safety. Thus, customers are turned into frequent users of the store. Spaces without the right designs negatively influence the user. The accurate interior design of the stores becomes crucial at this point. This study aims to act as a guideline for the betterment of the interior design of a newly designed or already existing clothing store located on the shopping streets of the cities. In light of the relevant literature review, the most important point in interior store design is the design and ambiance factors and how these factors are used in the interior space of the stores. Within the scope of this study, 27 clothing stores located on Dereboyu, the largest shopping street in Nicosia, the capital of North Cyprus, were examined. The examined stores were grouped as brand stores and non-brand stores which sell products from different production sites. The observation regarding the interiors of the selected stores was analyzed through qualitative and quantitative research methods. The arrangements of the sub-functions in the stores were analyzed through various reading methods over the plan schemes and recorded images. The sub-functions of all examined stores are compared against the ambiance and design factors in the literature, and results were interpreted accordingly. At the end of the study, the differences among stores that belong to a brand with an identity and stores which have not yet established an identity were identified and compared. The results of the comparisons were used to offer implications for the betterment of the interior design on a future or already existing store on the street. Thus, the study was concluded to be a guideline for people interested in interior store design.

Keywords: Identity, Atmosphere, Interior Design, ambiance factors, clothing store

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