Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

athletes Related Abstracts

15 Body Composition Analyser Parameters and Their Comparison with Manual Measurements

Authors: I. Karagjozova, B. Dejanova, J. Pluncevic, S. Petrovska, V. Antevska, L. Todorovska

Abstract:

Introduction: Medical checking assessment is important in sports medicine. To follow the health condition in subjects who perform sports, body composition parameters, such as intracellular water, extracellular water, protein and mineral content, muscle and fat mass might be useful. The aim of the study was to show available parameters and to compare them to manual assessment. Material and methods: A number of 20 subjects (14 male and 6 female) at age of 20±2 years were determined in the study, 5 performed recreational sports, while others were professional ones. The mean height was 175±7 cm, the mean weight was 72±9 cm, and the body mass index (BMI) was 23±2 kg/m2. The measured compartments were as following: intracellular water (IW), extracellular water (EW), protein component (PC), mineral component (MC), skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and body fat mass (BFM). Lean balance were examined for right and left arm (LA), trunk (T), right leg (RL) and left leg (LL). The comparison was made between the calculation derived by manual made measurements, using Matejka formula and parameters obtained by body composition analyzer (BCA) - Inbody 720 BCA Biospace. Used parameters for the comparison were muscle mass (SMM), body fat mass (BFM). Results: BCA obtained values were for: IW - 22.6±5L, EW - 13.5±2 L, PC - 9.8±0.9 kg, MC - 3.5±0.3, SMM - 27±3 kg, BFM - 13.8±4 kg. Lean balance showed following values for: RA - 2.45±0.2 kg, LA - 2.37±0.4, T - 20.9±5 kg, RL - 7.43±1 kg, and LL - 7.49 ±1.5 kg. SMM showed statistical difference between manual obtained value, 51±01% to BCA parameter 45.5±3% (p<0.001). Manual obtained values for BFM was lower (17±2%) than BCA obtained one, 19.5±5.9% (p<0.02). Discussion: The obtained results showed appropriate values for the examined age, regarding to all examined parameters which contribute to overview the body compartments, important for sport performing. Due to comparison between the manual and BCA assessment, we may conclude that manual measurements may differ from the certain ones, which is confirmed by statistical significance.

Keywords: Sports Medicine, Body Composition, athletes, bio electrical impedance

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14 ACL Tear Prevention Program

Authors: Ervin Meqikukiqi

Abstract:

It is difficult to assess how athletes can best modify their movements to prevent non contact ACL injuries. Speaking with an athletic trainer, physical therapist, or sports medicine specialist is a good place to start. Recent research has allowed therapists and clinicians to easily identify and target weak muscle areas (e.g., weak hips, which leads to knock-kneed landing positions) and identify ways to improve strength and thus help prevent injury. In addition, other risk factors such as reduced hamstring strength and increased joint range of motion can be further assessed by a physical therapist or athletic trainer to improve performance-or rehabilitation efforts after an injury has occurred. Current studies also demonstrate that specific types of training, such as jump routines and learning to pivot properly, help athletes prevent ACL injuries. These types of exercises and training programs are more beneficial if athletes start when they are young. It may be optimal to integrate prevention programs during early adolescence, prior to when young athletes develop certain habits that increase the risk of an ACL injury. This is a 20 minute program designed to reduce the risk of tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. It should be started at least four and preferably six weeks prior to start of competition.Ideally it is done five times per week preseason and three times per week in season.The coach or trainer must constantly observe athletes during these exercises to correct and maintain proper technique. Once the athletes understand the principles, they can monitor and coach each other. Four phases: Warm-up, Strengthening, Plyometrics, Agility and Balance.

Keywords: Prevention, athletes, injuries, proprioception, ACL, plyoemtric, agillity

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13 Percentile Reference Values of Vertical Jumping Performances and Anthropometric Characteristics in Athletic Tunisian Children and Adolescents

Authors: Chirine Aouichaoui, Mohamed Tounsi, Ines Mrizak, Zouhair Tabka, Yassine Trabelsi

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics for athletic Tunisian children. One thousand and fifty-five athletic Tunisian children and adolescents (643 boys and 412 girls) aged 7-18 years were randomly selected to participate in our study. They were asked to perform squat jumps and countermovement jumps. For each measurement, a least square regression model with high order polynomials was fitted to predict mean and standard deviation of vertical jumping parameters and anthropometric variables. Smoothed percentile curves and percentile values for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles are presented for boys and girls. In conclusion, percentiles values of vertical jumping performances and anthropometric characteristics are provided. The new Tunisian reference charts obtained can be used as a screening tool to determine growth disorders and to estimate the proportion of adolescents with high or low muscular strength levels. This study may help in verifying the effectiveness of a specific training program and detecting highly talented athletes.

Keywords: Anthropometry, athletes, jump height, percentile values, leg muscle power

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12 Evaluation of Distance Education Needs of Athletes

Authors: Yunus Emre Karakaya, Sebahattin Devecioglu, Bilal Coban

Abstract:

Today, information technology’s presence is felt in every field of life. Fields of education and sports sciences have their own share too. Especially developments in informatics technologies changed the perspectives of these fields. The altered technological conditions made distance education argumentative in these fields. Due to advantages distance education provides to students, they can access the desired education without concerns about time and place. Education facilities are seen to head for distance education in this manner and expedite the process. Distance education applications, which was first started to be applied in the mid-1800s, have been implemented in Turkey since 1970s and still continues today. In this study, the historical development of distance education in the world and Turkey and the problems athletes face in education were discussed. Accordingly, suggestions were made evaluating the importance and requirements of distance education in sports education facilities at higher education level. Additionally, Questions of “Is distance education important in sports education in Turkey?”, “What are the problems of athletes in the education field in Turkey?” and similar questions were attempted to be answered. Finally, in Turkey, distance sports education applications in universities should be launched to ensure that athletes’ educations are not deficit and unfinished. Within this framework, legal regulations should be implemented by “Council of Higher Education” to develop the distance sports education in Turkey and utilize distance education efficiently in solving the sports education problems. By ensuring the advancement of athletes with this method, it is expected for athletes to contribute to sports in the country in both government and the private sector in the medium and long terms. Individuals who participated in the distance sports education will set an example in extending the country’s youth to national and international fields.

Keywords: Higher Education, Turkey, Distance Education, athletes, Sports Education

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11 Developing an Online Application for Mental Skills Training and Development

Authors: Arjun Goutham, Chaitanya Sridhar, Sunita Maheshwari, Robin Uthappa, Prasanna Gopinath

Abstract:

In alignment with the growth in the sporting industry, a number of people playing and competing in sports are growing exponentially across the globe. However, the number of sports psychology experts are not growing at a similar rate, especially in the Asian and more so, Indian context. Hence, the access to actionable mental training solutions specific to individual athletes is limited. Also, the time constraint an athlete faces due to their intense training schedule makes one-on-one sessions difficult. One of the means to bridge that gap is through technology. Technology makes individualization possible. It allows for easy access to specific-qualitative content/information and provides a medium to place individualized assessments, analysis, solutions directly into an athlete's hands. This enables mental training awareness, education, and real-time actionable solutions possible for athletes in-spite of the limitation of available sports psychology experts in their region. Furthermore, many athletes are hesitant to seek support due to the stigma of appearing weak. Such individuals would prefer a more discreet way. Athletes who have strong mental performance tend to produce better results. The mobile application helps to equip athletes with assessing and developing their mental strategies directed towards improving performance on an ongoing basis. When an athlete understands their strengths and limitations in their mental application, they can focus specifically on applying the strategies that work and improve on zones of limitation. With reports, coaches get to understand the unique inner workings of an athlete and can utilize the data & analysis to coach them with better precision and use coaching styles & communication that suits better. Systematically capturing data and supporting athletes(with individual-specific solutions) or teams with assessment, planning, instructional content, actionable tools & strategies, reviewing mental performance and the achievement of objectives & goals facilitate for a consistent mental skills development at all levels of sporting stages of an athlete's career. The mobile application will help athletes recognize and align with their stable attributes such as their personalities, learning & execution modalities, challenges & requirements of their sport, etc and help develop dynamic attributes like states, beliefs, motivation levels, focus etc. with practice and training. It will provide measurable analysis on a regular basis and help them stay aligned to their objectives & goals. The solutions are based on researched areas of influence on sporting performance individually or in teams.

Keywords: Mobile Application, Sports, Performance, athletes, mental training

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10 Psychopedagogical Service for the Promotion of Cognitive Abilities in Competitive Athletes

Authors: T. Esteves, S. Mesquita, A. Santos, A. Campina, C. Costa-Lobo

Abstract:

The theme regarding the differentiation of high-performance athletes has always aroused curiosity and fascination, becoming a target for study, especially in the social and human sciences. It was from the 60's and 70's that the concern for the study of the excellence of athletes that showed indices of high performance in sports began to arise. From the 1990s, it became possible to specify the mental competencies and psychological characteristics associated with Olympic athletes with high levels of success. Several studies considered that well-structured pre-competitive and competitive routines and plans were predictors of sports success. Likewise, the high levels of motivation, commitment and concentration; the high levels of self-confidence and optimism; the presence of effective coping strategies to deal with distractions and unexpected situations or events; adequate regulation of activation and anxiety; the establishment and formulation of objectives; and mental visualization and practice were determinants in the manifestation of excellence in these athletes. As such, the promotion of these cognitive abilities has been emphasized in the good performance of the athletes. With the objective of implementing cognitive stimulation programs to meet the specific needs of talented athletes, together with pedagogical activities to promote educational strategies and promote interpersonal relationships, this communication systematizes a proposal for a psychopedagogical service to promote cognitive abilities in competitive athletes, SPAC, to implement in a Portuguese soccer team. This service will be based on a holistic vision in order to promote talent.

Keywords: athletes, cognitive abilities, high competition, psycho-pedagogical service

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9 Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions

Authors: Abdulai Afolabi Ahmed

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The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.

Keywords: Nutrition, Equipment, Performance, athletes, influence, extramural

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8 Relations among Coping with Stress, Anxiety and the Achievement Motive of Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Dragana Tomic

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This research deals with relations among strategies and styles of coping with stress, social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of young athletes and non-athletes. The research was conducted on the sample of 402 examinees (197 female and 205 male participants) of the average age of 20.76, divided into three groups: athletes, recreationists, and non-athletes. The COPE-S questionnaire, the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) and the Achievement Motivation Questionnaire (MOP 2002) were used for conducting this research and they had satisfactory reliability. The results of the research indicate that athletes, recreationists and non-athletes are not different when it comes to strategies and styles of coping with stress. Non- athletes have more noticeable social interaction anxiety when compared to athletes (U=5281.5, p=.000) and also when compared to recreationists (U=7573, p=.000). There was a difference among these three groups in the achievement motive (χ2(2)=23,544, p=.000) and the three components of this motive (Competing with others, χ2(2)=31,718, p=.000, Perseverance, χ2(2)=9,415, p=.009 and Planning orientation, χ2(2)=8,171, p=.017). The research also indicates a significant difference in the relation between social interaction anxiety and the achievement motive of examinee subgroups, where the most significant difference is between athletes and non- athletes (q=-.45). Moreover, women more frequently use emotion-focused coping (U=16718, p=.003), while men more frequently use avoidance (U=14895.5, p=.000). Women have a lead when it comes to expressing social anxiety (U=17750.5, p=.036) and the achievement motive (U=17395.5, p=.020). The discussion of the results includes findings of similar previous research and theoretical concepts of the variables which were examined. Future research should be oriented towards examining the background of the differences which were (not) gained as well as towards the influence of personality dimensions on the variables which were examined in order to apply the results in practice in the best way.

Keywords: athletes, achievement motivation, coping with stress, non-athletes, recreationists, social interaction anxiety

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7 Athlete’s Preparation and Quality of Opponent as Determinants of Self-Efficacy among University Athletes in South-West Nigeria

Authors: Raimi Abiodun Moronfolu, Anthonia Olusola Moronfolu

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The purpose of this study was to assess athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent as determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in south-west Nigeria. The descriptive research method was employed in conducting the study. A total of 200 athletes, selected from 4 universities in South-West geopolitical zone of Nigeria through a stratified random sampling technique, were used in the study. The instrument used for data collection was a self-structured questionnaire named ‘Athletes Self-Efficacy Assessment Questionnaire (ASAQ)’. This was developed by the researchers and face validated by three experts in sports psychology. The test-retest method was used in establishing the reliability of the instrument (r=0.79). A total of 200 copies of the validated ASAQ were administered on selected respondents using the spot method. The data collected was used to develop a frequency distribution table for analysis. The descriptive statistics of percentage was used in presenting the data collected, while inferential statistics of linear regression was used in drawing inferences at a 0.05 level of significance. The findings indicated that athlete’s preparation and quality of opponent were significant determinants of self-efficacy among university athletes in South-West Nigeria.

Keywords: athletes, Self-efficacy, Preparation, opponent

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6 Preferred Leadership Behaviour of Coaches by Athletes in Individual and Team Sports in Nigeria

Authors: Ali Isa Danlami

Abstract:

This study examined the coaching leadership behaviours preferred by athletes in individual and team sports in Nigeria that may lead to increased satisfaction and performance. Six leadership behaviours were identified; these are democratic, training and instruction, situational consideration, autocratic, social support and positive feedback. The six leadership behaviours relate to the preference of coaches by athletes that leads to increased performance were the focus of this study. The population of this study is comprised of male and female athletes of states sports councils in Nigeria. An ex-post facto research design was employed for this study. Stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used to select the sampled states according to the six geo-political zones of the country. Two states (North Central (FCT, Nasarawa), North East (Bauchi, Gombe), North West (Kaduna, Sokoto), South East (Anambra, Imo), South west (Ogun, Ondo), South South (Delta, and Rivers) were selected from each stratum. A modified questionnaire was used to collect data for this study, and the data collected were subjected to a reliability test using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) to analyse the data. A two sample Z-test procedure was used to test the significant differences because of the large number of subjects involved in the different groups. All hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha value. The findings of the study concluded that: Athletes in team and individual sports generally preferred coaches who were more disposed towards training and instructions, social support, positive feedback, situational consideration and democratic behaviours. It was also found that athletes in team sports have higher preference for coaches with democratic behaviour. The result revealed that athletes in team and individual sports did not have a preference for coaches disposed towards autocratic behaviour. Based on this, the following recommendations were made: Democratic behaviour by coaches should be encouraged in team and individual sports. Coaches should not be engaged in autocratic behaviours when coaching. These behaviours should be adopted by coaches to increase athletes’ satisfaction and enhancement in performance.

Keywords: Individual, athletes, preference, team, leadership behaviour, coaches’

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5 Core Stability Training and the Young Para-Swimmers’ Results on 50 Meters and 100 Meters Freestyle

Authors: Ninomyslaw Jakubczyk, Anna Zwierzchowska, Adam Maszczyk

Abstract:

Background: Central stabilisation training aims to improve neuromuscular coordination. It is used in the form of injury prevention and completing the swimmers' process. The aim of the study was to access the impact of this training on the results by disabled swimmers at 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Material/Method: 20 competitors with similar dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system, randomly assigned to the experimental and control group, participated in the study. Each group consisted of 7 swimmers started in competitions from the standing starting position, and 3 started from the water. The study included a 4-week set of stabilization exercises, 4 times a week instead of pulling by legs. Exercises were held under specialist swimming conditions and involved controlled circuit muscle movements while maintaining a floating stable position in the water. Results: All groups improved their 'best times' besides swimmers started from standing position in the control group. There were no significant differences between intergroup and intra-group results, both at distance 50 and 100 meters’ freestyle. Conclusions: Better improvements in the experimental group were noted, but this effect cannot be attributed to 4-week stabilisation training. However, this investigation might suggest that this type of training could be beneficial for junior disabled swimmers.

Keywords: Youth, athletes, Swimming, trunk exercises

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4 The Socio-Emotional Vulnerability of Professional Rugby Union Athletes

Authors: Hannah Kuhar

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This paper delves into the attitudes of professional and semi-professional rugby union athletes in regard to socio-emotional vulnerability, or the willingness to express the full spectrum of human emotion in a social context. Like all humans, athletes of all sports regularly experience feelings of shame, powerlessness, and loneliness, and often feel unable to express such feelings due to factors including lack of situational support, absence of adequate expressive language and lack of resource. To this author’s knowledge, however, no previous research has considered the particular demographic of professional rugby union athletes, despite the sport’s immense popularity and economic contribution to global communities. Hence, this paper aims to extend previous research by exploring the experiences of professional rugby union athletes and their unwillingness and inability to express socio-emotional vulnerability. By having a better understanding of vulnerability in rugby and sports, this paper is able to contribute to the growing field of mental health and wellbeing research, particularly towards the emerging themes of resilience and belonging. Based on qualitative fieldwork conducted over a period of seven months across France and Australia, via the mechanisms of semi-structured interview and observation, this work uses the field theory framework of Pierre Bourdieu to construct an analysis of multidisciplinary thought. Approaching issues of gender, sexuality, physicality, education, and family, this paper shows that socio-emotional vulnerability is experienced by all players regardless of their background, in a variety of ways. Common themes and responses are drawn to show the universality of rugby’s pitfalls, which have previously been limited to specific demographics in isolation of their broader contexts. With the author themselves a semi-professional athlete, the provision of unique ‘insider’ access facilitates a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of first-hand athlete experiences, often unexplored within the context of the academic arena. The primary contention of this paper is to argue that by celebrating socio-emotional vulnerability, there becomes an opportunity to improve on-field team outcomes. Ultimately, players play better when they feel supported by their teammates, and this logic extends to the outcome of the team when socio-emotional team initiatives are widely embraced. The creation of such a culture requires deliberate and purposeful efforts, where player ownership and buy-in are high. Further study in this field may assist teams to better understand the elements which contribute to strong team culture and to strong results on the pitch.

Keywords: Vulnerability, athletes, Rugby, France, Bourdieu

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3 A Study on Pre and Post Competitive State Anxiety among the Athletes

Authors: Vinay Choudhary, Ibakordor Patlong

Abstract:

This study investigates and evaluates pre and post competitive anxiety, self-confidence, and performance of the athletes. The Cognitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 was administered to collect data from 73 athletes, both men, and women, before and after the competition, who participated in the Reliance Foundation Youth Sports (RFYS)-Athletics, held at Gachibowli Stadium, Hyderabad. A paired t-test was used to find the significant difference between the pre and post-competition. Results showed that the levels of cognitive state anxiety before the competition was low as compared after the competition and the levels of somatic state anxiety before the competition was high as compared after the competition whereas the levels of self-confidence before the competition was high as compared after the competition. This study concludes that the levels of cognitive state anxiety increases after the competition as athletes could not perform according to the performance expectations, on the contrary, the levels of somatic anxiety decrease as there was no pressure of performance on the athletes after the competition and the levels of self-confidence decreases after the competition as athletes could not reach their desired performance levels.

Keywords: Anxiety, Performance, athletes, self-confidence, pre and post, CSAI-2

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2 Rapid Weight Loss in Athletes: A Look at Suppressive Effects on Immune System

Authors: Nazari Maryam, Gorji Saman

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For most competitions, athletes usually engage in a process called rapid weight loss (RWL) and subsequent rapid weight gain (RWG) in the days preceding the event. Besides the perfection of performance, weight regulation mediates a self-image of being “a real athlete” which is mentally important as a part of the pre-competition preparation. This feeling enhances the focus and commitment of the athlete. There is a large body of evidence that weight loss, particularly in combat sports, results in several health benefits. However, intentional weight loss beyond normal levels might have unknown negative special effects on the immune system. As the results show, a high prevalence (50%) of RWL is happening among combat athletes. It seems that energy deprivation and intense exercise to reach RWL results in altered blood cell distribution through modification of body composition that, in turn, changes B and T-Lymphocyte and/or CD4 T-Helper response. Moreover, it may diminish IgG antibody levels and modulate IgG glycosylation after this course. On the other hand, some studies show suppression of signaling and regulation of IgE antibody and chemokine production are responsible for immunodeficiency following a period of low-energy availability. Some researchers hypothesize that severe glutamine depletion, which occurs during exercise and calorie restriction, is responsible for this immune system weakness. However, supplementation by this amino acid is not prescribed yet. Therefore, weight loss is achieved not only through chronic strategies (body fat losses) but also through acute manipulations prior to competition should be supervised by a sports nutritionist to minimize side effects on the immune system and other body systems.

Keywords: Immune System, athletes, rapid weight loss, weight loss strategies

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1 Pelvic Floor Training in Elite Athletes: Fact or Fiction

Authors: Maria Barbano Acevedo-Gomez, Elena Sonsoles Rodriguez-Lopez, Sofia Olivia Calvo-Moreno, Angel Basas-Garcia, Cristophe Ramirez

Abstract:

Introduction: Urinary incontinence (UI) is defined as the involuntary leakage of urine. In persons who practice sport, its prevalence is 36.1% (95% CI 26.5%-46.8%) and varies as it seems to depend on the intensity of exercise, movements, and impact on the ground. Such high impact sports are likely to generate higher intra-abdominal pressures and leading to pelvic floor muscle weakness. Even though the emphasis of this research is on female athletes, all women should perform pelvic floor muscle exercises as a part of their general physical exercise. Pelvic floor exercises are generally considered the first treatment against urinary incontinence. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to determine the knowledge of the pelvic floor and of the UI in elite athletes and know if they incorporate pelvic floor strengthening in their training. Methods: This was an observational study conducted on 754 elite athletes. After collecting questions about the pelvic floor, UI, and sport-related data, participants completed the questionnaire International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-UI Short-Form (ICIQ-SF). Results: 57.3% of the athletes reflect not having knowledge of their pelvic floor, 48.3% do not know what strengthening exercises are, and around 90% have never practiced them. 78.1% (n=589) of all elite athletes do not include pelvic floor exercises in their training. Of the elite athletes surveyed, 33% had UI according to ICIQ-SF (mean age 23.75 ± 7.74 years). In response to the question 'Do you think you have or have had UI?', Only 9% of the 754 elite athletes admitted they presently had UI, and 13.3% indicated they had had UI at some time. However, 22.7% (n=171) reported they had experienced urine leakage while training. Of the athletes who indicated they did not have UI in the ICIQ-SF, 25.7% stated they did experience urine leakage during training (χ² [1] = 265.56; p < 0.001). Further, 12.3% of the athletes who considered they did not have UI and 60% of those who admitted they had had UI on some occasion stated they had suffered some urine leakage in the past 3 months (χ² [1] = 287.59; p < 0.001). Conclusions: There is a lack of knowledge about UI in sport. Through the use of validated questionnaires, we observed a UI prevalence of 33%, and 22.7% reported they experienced urine leakage while training. These figures contrast with only 9% of athletes who reported they had or had in the past had UI. This discrepancy could reflect the great lack of knowledge about UI in sports and that sometimes an athlete may consider that urine leakage is normal and a consequence of the demands of training. These data support the idea that coaches, physiotherapists, and other professionals involved in maximizing the performance of athletes should include pelvic floor muscle exercises in their training programs. Measures such as this could help to prevent UI during training and could be a starting point for future studies designed to develop adequate prevention and treatment strategies for this embarrassing problem affecting young athletes, both male and female.

Keywords: Sport, training, Performance, athletes, Prevalence, urinary incontinence, pelvic floor

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