Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

astaxanthin Related Abstracts

3 Astaxanthin Induces Cytotoxicity through Down-Regulating Rad51 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Jyh-Cheng Chen, Tai-Jing Wang, Yun-Wei Lin

Abstract:

Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with astaxanthin decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and astaxanthin further decreased the Rad51 expression in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of Rad51 enhanced astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating astaxanthin for the treatment of NSCLC.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, non-small cell lung cancer, astaxanthin, AKT, PI3K

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2 Role of Maternal Astaxanthin Supplementation on Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Spatial Learning Behavior in Wistar Rat Offspring’s

Authors: K. M. Damodara Gowda

Abstract:

Background: Maternal health and nutrition are considered as the predominant factors influencing brain functional development. If the mother is free of illness and genetic defects, maternal nutrition would be one of the most critical factors affecting the brain development. Calorie restrictions cause significant impairment in spatial learning ability and the levels of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in rats. But, the mechanism by which the prenatal under-nutrition leads to impairment in brain learning and memory function is still unclear. In the present study, prenatal Astaxanthin supplementation on BDNF level, spatial learning and memory performance in the offspring’s of normal, calorie restricted and Astaxanthin supplemented rats was investigated. Methodology: The rats were administered with 6mg and 12 mg of astaxanthin /kg bw for 21 days following which acquisition and retention of spatial memory was tested in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The BDNF level in different regions of the brain (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) was estimated by ELISA method. Results: Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin made significantly more correct choices (P < 0.05), and fewer reference memory errors (P < 0.05) on the tenth day of training compared to offsprings of calorie restricted animals. Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin also made significantly higher correct choices (P < 0.001) than untreated calorie restricted animals in a retention test 10 days after the training period. The mean BDNF level in cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and cerebellum in Calorie restricted animals treated with astaxanthin didnot show significant variation from that of control animals. Conclusion: Findings of the study indicated that memory and learning was impaired in the offspring’s of calorie restricted rats which was effectively modulated by astaxanthin at the dosage of 12 mg/kg body weight. In the same way the BDNF level at cerebral cortex, Hippocampus and Cerebellum was also declined in the offspring’s of calorie restricted animals, which was also found to be effectively normalized by astaxanthin.

Keywords: Learning, Memory, Hippocampus, cerebellum, astaxanthin, BDNF, calorie restiction, Cerebral cortex

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
1 Hydrothermal Liquefaction for Astaxanthin Extraction from Wet Algae

Authors: Spandana Ramisetty, Mandan Chidambaram, Ramesh Bhujade

Abstract:

Algal biomass is not only a potential source for biocrude but also for high value chemicals like carotenoids, fatty acids, proteins, polysaccharides, vitamins etc. Astaxanthin is one such high value vital carotenoid which has extensive applications in pharmaceutical, aquaculture, poultry and cosmetic industries and expanding as dietary supplement to humans. Green microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis is identified as the richest natural source of astaxanthin and is the key source of commercial astaxanthin. Several extraction processes from wet and dry Haematococcus pluvialis biomass have been explored by researchers. Extraction with supercritical CO₂ and various physical disruption techniques like mortar and pestle, homogenization, ultrasonication and ball mill from dried algae are widely used extraction methods. However, these processes require energy intensive drying of biomass that escalates overall costs notably. From the process economics perspective, it is vital to utilize wet processing technology in order to eliminate drying costs. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a thermo-chemical conversion process that converts wet biomass containing over 80% water to bio-products under high temperature and high pressure conditions. Astaxanthin is a lipid soluble pigment and is usually extracted along with lipid component. Mild HTL at 200°C and 60 bar has been demonstrated by researchers in a microfluidic platform achieving near complete extraction of astaxanthin from wet biomass. There is very limited work done in this field. An integrated approach of sequential HTL offers cost-effective option to extract astaxanthin/lipid from wet algal biomass without drying algae and also recovering water, minerals and nutrients. This paper reviews past work and evaluates the astaxanthin extraction processes with focus on hydrothermal extraction.

Keywords: Extraction, Hydrothermal Liquefaction, astaxanthin, high value chemicals

Procedia PDF Downloads 179